“The Tale of the Mamai Massacre” is a famous monument of ancient Russian literature, telling about the courage, suffering and military valor of the Russian people and its commander Dmitry Donskoy. It rightfully bears the name of one of the unique works of ancient Russian literature. He tells about the event of that time - the Kulikov battle. But is this a reliable source? The “Legend” opens with a story about celestial signs that predicted the victory of the Russian people. There are many of them ... and not too much? Further, the author cites many interesting facts and gradually describes events related to this battle: the campaign of the Russian troops from Moscow to Kulikovo Field, the visit of Dmitry Donskoy to the Trinity Monastery, a meeting with Sergius of Radonezh and receiving a blessing for the protection of the Russian land, sending "watchmen", the appointment of governor , the beginning of the battle - the fight of the hero Peresvet with the "pagan" warrior, the actions of the Ambush regiment.
The time of writing the stories of the Kulikovo cycle has not been determined to date, and there is no consensus about the time of writing the cycle of stories. It was established only that the closest in creation date to the memorable 1380 year was “3adonschina” - a work that sang the insight and courage of Dmitry Donskoy and the princes betrayed to him, the courage of the Russian army. Researchers of the literary monument mark the copying of the “Tale” to the “Word about Igor's Regiment”, composed 200 years earlier, from which whole phrases were taken, as well as passages and some expressions “Words ...”, and all this attracted the story of the victory of the prince's squad over the Tatars for Don. Later, in the XIV century, the Chronicle Tale of the Battle on the Don was written, which got its name from the fact that it consisted of several chronicles. This "Story" can be attributed to the genre of military narratives. Researchers divide the lists of the "Tale ..." into two editions: "Extensive", written in 1390-ies, containing a more detailed description of the battle on the Kulikovo Field, and "Short", relating to the first half of the fifteenth century.
The most detailed literary document, reflecting the events that took place in the fall of 1380, is considered to be the “Tale of the Mamai Massacre”. Dmitry Ivanovich, prince of the land of Moscow and his brother, prince Vladimir Serpukhovskoy are depicted here as smart and fearless commanders. Glorified by their courage and military prowess. The main idea of "Tales ..." - in the union of Russian princes against the enemy. Only in unity is their strength, only then can they give a fitting rebuff to the enemy. Severely condemned in the "Tale ..." the betrayal of the Ryazan Prince Oleg and the cunning of the Lithuanian Prince Olgert, who wished to be allies of Mamai. Like most works of that period, "The Legend ..." has a cult coloring. For example, monologues, prayers, emphasizing the piety of Dmitry. Of course, the impact of the “3 fad” on “The Legend ...”: it was noticeable in some phrases, additions, colorful images of the regiments and nature.
So, on the eve of the battle, on the night before the feast of the Nativity of the Virgin, Prince Dmitry Donskoy and the voivode Volynets go to the place of the future battle, in the field between the Russian and Tatar parties. And they hear from the side of the enemy a loud knock and screams, and a scream, and the mountains seem to stagger - a terrible thunder, as if "the trees and grass are nickel down." Such a phenomenon of nature explicitly foreshadowed the death of "rotten." And where there are Russian squads - "great quietness" and flashes of light. And Volynets saw a "good omen" in how "from a multitude of fire, shoot the dawn."
About one hundred lists of this work are known to date. Literary scholars divide them into four versions (although there are differences in them): Basic, Common, Annals and Cyprian. All of them belong to the old, not surviving to our time text, which arose immediately after the Kulikov battle. The earliest, emerged in the second half of the XV century, is considered the main edition, which formed the basis of the other three. As mentioned above, the main characters of the events of 1380 were Prince Dmitry Ivanovich, as well as his brother, Vladimir Andreevich, who reigned in Serpukhov. Of the clergy, Metropolitan Cyprian stands apart, who after the Battle of Kulikovo moved from Kiev to Moscow, received a high rank, and in addition, took an active part in the affairs of the principality of Moscow. Cyprian especially became close with the son of Dmitry Donskoy, Vasily Dmitrievich, who after the death of his father took the reins of government + in the principality into his own hands. In addition, the main edition of "Tales ..." represents the ally of Mamai of the Lithuanian prince Olgerd, although it is known that in the 1377 year, three years before the events on the Kulikovo field, the prince had already died and Lithuania was ruled by Yagailo, his son.
Mamai, taking advantage of the fact that Russia and Lithuania had very difficult relations at that time, concluded an agreement with Yagailo and Prince of Ryazan Oleg, who feared strengthening the principality of Moscow. Mamai hoped to crush the Moscow principality with their help.
A lot of mystical and mysterious things happen on the night before the battle. In “The Tale” a certain husband, Thomas Katsibey, a robber, was put by Dmitry Donskoy on the Churov River on patrol from the Mamay troops. And Thomas had a wonderful vision. Standing on a hillock, he saw a cloud marching from the east, of enormous size, as if it were not a cloud, but an enemy army moving to the west. And from the direction of the south two young men are supposedly walking, bright faces, in bright crimsons, in each hand with a sharp sword, and asking enemy warlords: “Who told you to destroy our fatherland, which the Lord has given us?” And they began to beat them and everyone exterminated, and no one was saved. And Thomas has since become a deeply religious, rare spiritual purity, man. About the mysterious vision he told in the morning, alone, to Prince Dmitry Ivanovich. And the prince answered him: “Do not say that, friend, to anyone”, - and, holding up his hands to the sky, sobbed, saying: “Lord, Lord God of mankind! Prayers for the sake of the holy martyrs Boris and Gleb help me, like Moses on Amalekites, and how old Yaroslav on Svyatopolk, and great-grandfather my grand duke Alexander on the boastful Roman king, who wished to ruin his fatherland. Give me not your sins, not by my sins, but pour your mercy on us, spread your mercy on us, do not let us ridicule our enemies so that our enemies do not mock us, do not tell the country of the infidels: "Where is the god for whom so hoped. ” But God help the Christians, because your holy name is famous for them! ”
Such texts are very characteristic of the Russian literature of those years, which was largely based on the Bible and it was from it that she took her plots. Comparisons and frank borrowing from it, the robbers who believed and became "clean" - all this is not историяand edification, and it must be well understood.
And then came the “seventh hour” of the day when the “southern spirit” pulled (meaning not the south wind direction, but God's help to the Russian army). This is a happy hour. Volynets cried, raising his hands to the sky: "Prince Vladimir, our time has come, and the hour has come conveniently!" - and added: "My brothers, friends, braver: the power of the holy spirit helps us!"
“Osma” this hour is a funny thing. Famous Soviet and modern historian A.N. Kirpichnikov, for example, believed that Bobrok was waiting for the sun to stop shining in the eyes of Russian soldiers. Others asserted that he was waiting for the wind to carry the dust in the eyes of the "Tatar to the cursed." In fact, the “southern spirit” referred to in the “Tale ...” could in no way be in passing for our warriors, since it carried dust in their faces! After all, the Russian regiments were in the north, and the regiments of Mamaia - in the south! But maybe the creator of "Tales ..." messed up? No, he knew everything for sure and wrote that Mamai was moving to Russia from the east, the Danube River was in the west, etc. And the same robber, Foma Katsibeev, what does he say? "God revealed ... from the east ... go to the west." “From the midday country” (ie, from the south), “two young men came” - they mean saints Boris and Gleb, who helped the Russian regiments to win. Of course, now it seems that we all believed in God, but is it worth it to rely in the historical science on the help of canonized two young men, even innocent victims? Moreover, the “southern spirit” is a direct borrowing from the Bible, indicating the charity of the Russian cause and nothing more. Therefore, it is also possible not to refer to the "southern spirit" as a trustworthy fact: the Bible has also written something wrong.
But the battle ended in victory for the Russian troops. And Prince Dmitry said: “Glory to you, the supreme Creator, king of heaven, the merciful Savior, that he pardoned us, sinners, did not give into the hands of our enemies, the filthy syroyades. And you, brothers, princes, and boyars, and voivods, and the youngest team, Russian sons, are destined to place between Don and Nepryadva, on the Kulikovo field, on the Nepryadva river. You have laid your heads for the Russian land, for the Christian faith. Forgive me, brothers, and bless in this life and in the future! ”Prince Dmitry Ivanovich and the commanders bitterly mourned the slain dead, circling the field after the bloody battle. At the behest of Dmitry Donskoy, the dead were buried with honors on the bank of Nepryadva. And the winners were honored by the whole of Moscow, meeting them with a bell ringing. Olgerd, however, Lithuanian, having learned that Dmitry Donskoy defeated Mamai, went to Lithuania "with great shame." Prince Oleg of Ryazan, having learned that Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy had decided to go to war against him, was frightened and fled from his principality together with his wife and the boyars close to him; Ryazan then beat the Grand Duke with his brow, asking Dmitry Ivanovich to plant his governors in Ryazan.
But Mamai, hiding his real name, was forced to shamefully flee to Cafu (now Theodosius), there he was identified by a local merchant, captured and killed by fryagami. So ingloriously ended the life of Mamai.
The fame of the Russian warriors who won the great battle with the army of Mamai quickly spread throughout the world. And foreign merchants helped the guests, the guests - Surozh, who were on a glorious march along with Dmitry Donskoy. “Shibla glory to the Iron Gate, to Rome and to Kafa by sea, and to Tornava, and then to Tsarugrad, to the praise: Great victory over Mamaia on the Kulikovo field” ...
That is, we can definitely say approximately the same thing: as with the Battle of the Ice, there was a battle, the Russians won, some accompanying political events took place, and the main culprit - Mamai fled to Cafu (Feodosia) and was killed there! And ... everything! Value? Yes, it was, and very significant! And all the other “details” from “The Tale ...” are… church literature and a retelling of biblical texts, demonstrating the “bookishness” of its author. And this will have to be satisfied for a long time, if not forever!