Military Review

Electoral memory in Lithuania

Electoral memory in Lithuania

70 years ago 16 August 1945 was signed the Treaty on the Polish-Soviet State Border in Moscow. Representatives of Great Britain and the United States, the military allies of the USSR, participated in the preparation of this treaty. Poland’s new eastern border followed the so-called Curzon Line. Under the agreement, Warsaw has officially officially ceded Moscow a significant territory with the cities of Vilna (Vilnius), Grodno, Brest, Lviv ... In exchange, she received in the west and on the Baltic coast no less extensive lands of defeated Germany. Winston Churchill will say that "instead of Polesye swamps, the Poles received industrial Silesia with its coal and iron ore."

After the collapse of the USSR, the eastern border of Poland will remain the same, but it will become the border with the new independent states: Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, as well as the Russian Kaliningrad region.


Lithuanian authorities deliberately ignored the 2009 70 anniversary of the reunification of Vilnius (Vilna) with Lithuania in XNUMX. It was as if there was no long-awaited liberation of this city and the Vilna region for the Lithuanians, albeit by Soviet troops. But this city will become the new capital of Lithuania.

In Lithuania, at the official level, the Kremlin’s transfer in 1946 of the Lithuanian SSR of the former German port city of Memel (now Klaipeda) is also not remembered. This ice-free port of 670 years, from 1252 to 1922 year, was part of the German lands (East Prussia, and then Kaiser Germany). Then was re-joined, but to Nazi Germany. He, like Königsberg, was handed over to the USSR in 1945. And then Moscow "presented" this city and the whole region of the Lithuanian SSR.

Most likely, the anniversary date of the signing of the Moscow Treaty on the Polish-Soviet border will also remain unnoticed in Lithuania. In this country, in Ukraine and in some other post-Soviet states, clear nationalists and open Russophobes are in power today. For them, any Russia: Tsarist, Soviet, and modern is an enemy country!

The treaty was recognized by the great powers. Therefore, it will not become a likely object for slanderous hysteria of foreign Russophobes. Another thing is the same Molotov – Ribbentrop Pact. He appeared, as they say, on the initiative of Hitler and Stalin. A post-war treaty on the border between Poland and the USSR appeared on the initiative not only of Stalin, but also of Roosevelt and Churchill. And this is something else!

By the way, about the Molotov – Ribbentrop Pact. Read Churchill's review of this pact. “In favor of the Soviets, it must be said that it was vitally necessary for the Soviet Union to push back the original positions of the German troops as far west as possible. If their policies were coldly calculating, then they were also ... highly realistic. ” He will also note that it was precisely pre-war British policy that forced Stalin to take this step: “The Soviet proposals were in fact ignored ... The events went on as if Soviet Russia did not exist.”

What dissatisfaction can there be with this treaty from Lithuania if it received new lands from the USSR? At the same time, not a single Lithuanian soldier participated in the battles with the Poles and did not die for the newly acquired territories. And the Red Army fighters fought for Vilna not only with Polish infantry units, but also with fanatical militia from among the Polish youth of the city. Let us recall these events and the “victorious show” that the Lithuanian authorities staged in the city of Vilna that was liberated not by them.


As the Red Army units approached the city, the Poles covertly mounted artillery pieces on the Three Crosses Hill in Vilna. They suddenly began to shell the advancing Soviet Tanks and infantry. Polish militias in the narrow streets of old Vilna used Molotov cocktails against Soviet troops. The fighting went beyond the central bridge, the freight station, the town hall, the university of King Stephen Batory ... The Red Army suffered losses.

The city of Vilna liberated by the Red Army a month later entered the Lithuanian army. And before that, the Lithuanian servicemen had a funny show.

In October 1939, units of the Lithuanian army began a phased occupation of the Vilnius region, which was already cleared of Polish troops by Soviet troops. At their first occupied settlement, the Lithuanians are making a ritual burning of the Polish border sign “separating the people”. At the command of “March to Vilnius”, motorcycle infantry, arrows and cyclists moved. The Lithuanian Air Force was patrolling in the air. And these troops enter Vilna. In one museum photo we see Lithuanian soldiers in heavy helmets, each with two grenades with long handles fixed on the belt in front. What a formidable and warlike look they have! It seems that they are going to a new battle, and they are torn ...

But with whom did they fight? Almost all Polish troops have already surrendered to Soviet troops. Then a military parade was held in Vilna with the solemn hoisting of the Lithuanian flag on the ancient tower of Gediminas. Lithuanian leaders and war veterans from the Poles for the liberation of Vilnius (1919 – 1920) arrived from the capital of Lithuania, Kaunas. That war was unsuccessful for Lithuania.

The other photo shows girls from the Union of Riflemen of Lithuania (militarized organization). They are recognizable by the caps of this union. The girls welcome, by raising their right hand, the hoisting of the Lithuanian flag on the Gedimin tower. Meanwhile, this greeting was the official greeting of the German Nazis.

One more photo. Joyous Lithuanian tankers on several light tanks. They have flowers from the enthusiastic Lithuanian population of Vilna. Funny fact. Tankers still suffered losses. It happened just before the parade in Vilna. Some of them carelessly poured burning kerosene oil. In the hangar and around it the earth was saturated with fuel. Fire flared everywhere. He destroyed eight tanks and damaged about ten. Huge losses for small Lithuanian tank forces! The funny thing is that this military equipment was destroyed by the Lithuanians themselves, and not Polish shells or grenades of Polish militia students. And before that, these light tanks, as winners, defiantly appeared on the streets of this mostly Polish-speaking city!


Some of these Lithuanian fighters will then become servicemen of the Red Army. This will happen after the formation of the Lithuanian SSR. The 29 Lithuanian Rifle Corps is being formed on the territory of the North-Western Military District. The personnel will wear the old military uniform of pre-Soviet Lithuania, but with Soviet buttonholes and red stars on their caps. But many Lithuanian officers, and the soldiers could not be loyal to the Soviet government. One thing is not clear: why did the Soviet command send this corps to the strategically important section of the Minsk fortified area before 22 in June 1941? The whole division of this corps was on the left flank of the defense, on the most important sector of the front. The result was tragic and sad. In this area, the tanks of Field Marshal Goth and the mobile motorized infantry of the Germans did not meet with stubborn resistance. Lithuanian servicemen for the most part changed the oath. They killed commanders, politrukov and left the position, thereby leaving the Germans almost unprotected corridor more than 100 km wide for a breakthrough. All this contributed to the rapid defeat of the Soviet front. The enemy captured Minsk on the seventh day of the war.

Vyacheslav Molotov, Chairman of the USSR Council of People's Commissars and People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, speaking at the 5 session of the USSR Supreme Soviet, noted: “The Lithuanian state with its population of 2,5 million people significantly expands its territory and its population by 550 thousand. It receives the city of Vilna, the number of inhabitants of which is almost 2 times the population of the present capital of the Republic of Lithuania. The Soviet Union went to meet the transfer of the city of Vilna, not because it is dominated by the Lithuanian population. No, in Vilna the majority is non-Lithuanian population ... It was stated in the foreign press that in the world stories it was not yet the case that a large state of its own accord would give such a big city to a small state ”(Izvestia, 01.10.1939).

A group of Belarusian party and public figures appealed to the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) with a request to transfer the city of Vilna to the Belarusian SSR. Almost all the signatories were arrested, but later released. And the appeal was subjected to public and sharp criticism. The Kremlin recognized that Lithuanians in Vilna were inferior in number to Belarusians. But, "given the historical past of this city, it was the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the city should be Lithuanian." The argument is not entirely convincing. In the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL), the Belarusians constituted the overwhelming majority of the population. Among the hetmans, the governor and nobles were many Belarusians. One of the official languages ​​of the GDL for a long time was Old Belarusian. Many documents of the principality are written in this language.

In 1940, the Lithuanian SSR will transfer from the Byelorussian SSR new territories, including the well-known resort place Druskiniki (now Druskininkai). And there were less Lithuanians than Belarusians. However, in this city lived the pride of Lithuania, the famous artist and musician Čiurlionis ...


There are other interesting facts that some people stubbornly don’t want to recall. Until January 1941, the government of the Lithuanian SSR still remained at its workplaces in Kaunas, the former capital of the country. In Vilnius, the Polish armed underground has not yet been completely eliminated. And the general consuls of European countries did not move to a new capital. Many countries did not recognize the rejection of this land from Poland. By the way about Kaunas. In the photo we see a huge demonstration of the inhabitants of this city in terms of the number of participants. They welcomed the transfer to Lithuania of the long-awaited Vilna region. In another photo, many demonstrators have portraits of Lenin, Stalin, Molotov, Voroshilov, and Dimitrov (head of the Executive Committee of the Comintern). It must be assumed that with such a large number of participants in these meetings and demonstrations, it was not only the Communists and their allies who took part in them.

Lithuanian politicians, especially in the pre-war years, really understood and even said that "without external intervention, Vilna is unlikely to become part of Lithuania." The intervention came from the Soviet Union. And today this city is the capital of Lithuania.

After Lithuania joined the European Union, the situation changed and Vilnius again raised the issue of financial compensation for the “Soviet occupation of Lithuania”. But, as a rule, the occupiers exported material values ​​from the occupied country, and, on the contrary, imported these values ​​into Lithuania. Let's remember then Vilna, remember Memel ...
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  1. Born in USSR
    Born in USSR 11 October 2015 08: 26
    All very good. Express concern over the occupation of the ancestral lands by the Bundesam by the Pshek Etc. Then watch how they will have fun. They think that everything is possible for them and we cannot. So look at this mess will be interesting.
    1. KUOLEMA
      KUOLEMA 11 October 2015 11: 12
      Quote: lao_tsy
      The CPSU Central Committee had a very simple national policy. It consisted in the fact that any nationality (except for the Russians, of course) cannot be insulted, and in every possible way to support and bestow them. Just like that, a part of the Stavropol Territory on the left side of the Terek turned out to be in the Chechen-Ingush ASSR, Novorossia and the Crimea in the Ukrainian SSR, the city and the regions of Uralsk, Kostanay, Pavlodar, Ust-Kamenogorsk, etc. in the Kazakh SSR, Privislinsky Krai in Poland, the Lithuanian SSR, the BSSR, and the Ukrainian SSR.
      Russia is a generous soul!

      she hasn’t changed a bit now
      1. Rezident007
        Rezident007 14 October 2015 17: 48
        Nothing ... History will restore justice. Crimea has already returned to their historical homeland, I think the turn will reach the Baltic states too ..
  2. Denis DV
    Denis DV 11 October 2015 08: 56
    Gee, on the historical line between the Principality of Lithuania and the USSR, the Russian Empire did not exist? And they were not redeemed from the Swedes, and they were not granted free?
  3. lao_tsy
    lao_tsy 11 October 2015 09: 00
    The CPSU Central Committee had a very simple national policy. It consisted in the fact that any nationality (except for the Russians, of course) cannot be insulted, and in every possible way to support and bestow them. Just like that, a part of the Stavropol Territory on the left side of the Terek turned out to be in the Chechen-Ingush ASSR, Novorossia and the Crimea in the Ukrainian SSR, the city and the regions of Uralsk, Kostanay, Pavlodar, Ust-Kamenogorsk, etc. in the Kazakh SSR, Privislinsky Krai in Poland, the Lithuanian SSR, the BSSR, and the Ukrainian SSR.
    Russia is a generous soul!
  4. moskowit
    moskowit 11 October 2015 09: 12
    With regard to the transfer of territories to future Soviet Lithuania, providence clearly refused the Leader. But even in a terrible dream, he could not imagine the collapse of his brainchild, the Soviet Empire.
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 11 October 2015 11: 16
      Stalin strengthened Lithuania in order to have a counterweight against Poland in the future.
      East Prussia was also divided with Poland - in order to have an ally against Germany
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 11 October 2015 09: 15
    Vilnius again raises the issue of material compensation for the "Soviet occupation of Lithuania."..This Moscow needs to raise the same question about the compensation of funds invested in Lithuania .. Moreover, Russia is recognized as the assignee of the USSR ..
  6. avt
    avt 11 October 2015 09: 38
    good But that would have been written and already a plus! ---- ,, 70 years ago, on August 16, 1945, the Treaty on the Polish-Soviet state border was signed in Moscow. Representatives of Great Britain and the United States, military allies of the USSR, took part in the preparation of this treaty. The new eastern border of Poland passed along the so-called Curzon Line. "------ Practically NOBODY publicly speaks from the" historians "that the eastern borders of the USSR, fixed in the notorious Moltov-Ribbentrop pact, are practically Curzon "DRAWN BY THE WINNERS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR, and not by a conspiracy of bloody tyrants!" , to devilsonize "in pendostaniya.
  7. whiteeagle
    whiteeagle 11 October 2015 11: 16
    `` Memel (now it is Klaipeda). This ice-free port for 670 years, from 1252 to 1922, was part of the German lands (East Prussia, and then Kaiser Germany) ``
    from 1466 to 1657 This city belonged to Poland. In 1475 the city received royal privileges. This law was much more favorable for residents. That is why in 1454 the Prussian cities organized an uprising against the power of the Teutonic Order and they asked the Polish king to include these lands in Poland. Interestingly, the Polish king did not have money, the Polish Sejm refused to give him money. Ho Prussian cities decided to finance the army of the Polish king in order to free themselves from the power of the Teutonic Order.
  8. Basil50
    Basil50 11 October 2015 11: 45
    So you plunge into the HISTORY, and there it opens. Some eyes forget to open, but they will express their opinion, uncomfortable facts * will not notice *, and even they will deceive. It is a pity that the peoples living nearby do not see the whole picture, foreign sponsors draw mirages and appoint lured leaders, believing the peoples as a herd, * bashfully * referred to as * flock *.
  9. xomaNN
    xomaNN 11 October 2015 17: 39
    This is where the roots of anti-Russian hatred nest in history that the Lithuanian President Dalia Grib now every time demonstrates .... negative
  10. Tankomaster
    Tankomaster 11 October 2015 20: 31
    Well, the Lithuanians, in general, should give Vilnius to Belarus, and Memel should be returned to Russia .. Crimea’s example ... so they will have to squeeze again ... And the Poles must return Silesia to Germany ...
  11. Rubon
    Rubon 12 October 2015 00: 39
    And what kind of beast is this "Old Belarusian language"?