Military Review

Brezhnev Constitution Day

16
October 7th is the red day of the calendar. Is there a typo here? Many have forgotten about this holiday, although for more than ten years it was a non-working day.



Leonid Brezhnev with members of the USSR Council of Ministers. 1970's

Constitution Day developed socialism. On the web, you can watch the releases of the 1977 Time program. Discussion of the Constitution, solemn gossip about it, finally, a triumphant vote in the Supreme Soviet of the USSR ... Short remarks of deputies. Mostly - workers and collective farmers, foremost. More - engineers, shepherds, officers. It seems to be accustomed to the reports and awards, but they say confused, confused, reciting. However, sincere smiles - with bare teeth exposed. Odezhka from people's choices is also quite ordinary, available to any production worker. Well, the deputies then brought relatively small privileges and travel allowances. And elected the real representatives of the majority. Of course, they (in many respects, like the present Duma members) did not have real power, only demonstrated decent scenery.

Among the elected representatives of the people we recognize representatives of the artistic intelligentsia. They are few, but they are striking. Happiness in the eyes of Donatas Banionis. Really sincere? Or masterfully plays the role? And here is Brezhnev! He is already ill, hardly keeps the correct intonation.

What a holiday without a song? The composers became generous, the singers did not disappoint. In these words - the official truth of the time, its showcase:
We got happiness not with the world on a string,

It is from Kuzbass, it is from Magnitka ...

Или:

We became stronger than we were yesterday.
The homeland of freedom is generous and kind.
In filial love we are tender and firm.
To love is to keep out of trouble.

Such was the spirit of the then good officialdom - “generous and kind.” We haven't had a better time since.

What is it: continuous window dressing or was there a reason for joy? Judge for yourself. Orthodox critics criticized the new Constitution for rejecting revolutionary ideas. It was a constitution of reconciliation. No dictatorship of the proletariat, henceforth, we have any social origin respected. But how else, if we are talking about the "scientific and technological revolution"? Soviet people received new rights: for example, the right to housing. For any society, this is an achievement. A previously uncharacteristic desire for Soviet civilization was recorded to preserve the cultural heritage, historical monuments.


“Bread of the new harvest - in the bins of the Motherland!” - 1970's popular slogan

However, here are the key postulates, article 45.

“Citizens of the USSR have the right to education. This right is ensured by the free education of all types of education, the implementation of universal compulsory secondary education for young people, the wide development of vocational, secondary special and higher education on the basis of the connection of education with life, with production; development of correspondence and evening education; state scholarships and benefits for students and students, free issuance of school textbooks; opportunity to study at school in their native language; creating conditions for self-education ".

It was. And free books are also a reality. We have already lost the habit of such an order of things. I will note that here we are talking not just about the “universal average” - compulsory and indispensable, but also about free higher education. For such rights it makes sense to fight.

It will take another ten years, and hardly anyone will be able to appreciate the importance of educational guarantees. Because we are losing the basics of enlightenment, the basics ...
And we will recruit highly qualified specialists, as in the 77th century. Will you point me to the oases of enlightenment in our Babylon? There are, of course, all kinds of living corners today. Only in the twenty-first century there is a severe regularity: what does not exist in the mass dimension does not exist at all. The times of the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum are over. We are attacking an armored personnel carrier with d'Artagnan's sword ... Only a first-class general education is of value in the struggle for the future. And the authors of the Constitution-25 thought much more soberly and far-sighted than the rulers of the last 45 years. Now statesmen, as something customary and legal, talk about the capital that every family needs to educate a child. And every year the study becomes more and more paid. The system for selecting talented students has shrunk. Barbarism takes the bastions of civilization. We would, admit, demanded the return of the XNUMXth article of that long-forgotten Constitution. You cannot give up such bastions.

Many of the then Soviet developments are now perceived as belonging to the Western world. First of all, these are the two whales of our time - tolerance and political correctness. They did not know such words in the USSR, but the principles were worked out precisely here, on the Old Square and in the Kremlin, of course, taking into account our realities. The current post-Soviet independent states have retired from the Brezhnev Constitution much further than the modern United States, Sweden or France. We (not only in Russia - in all the former republics of the USSR without exception!) Are taken to flaunt political politeness, to demonstrate the intellectual equipment of the nostalgic Middle Ages.

The most controversial knot of the Constitution-77 is the 6 article, which was fiercely argued in 1989 – 1990, at the suicidal stage of “perestroika”.

“The leading and guiding force of the Soviet society, the core of its political system, state and public organizations is the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU exists for the people and serves the people. ”

It seems to be a dictatorship. Even in the Stalinist Constitution, the power of the party - the only one in the whole country - was not proclaimed so categorically. Under the conditions of a one-party CPSU system, the party has become a kind of open class. Perhaps the emperor Peter dreamed of something like this, creating a Table of Ranks. The party vertical remains the most successful - effective and disciplined - control system in our space. In the spring of 1990, Gorbachev agreed to abolish the 6 article, and in fact took power from the party organs back in 1989. And in two years, crime has sharply increased in the country, bloody interethnic feuds unfold, and the national debt has increased several times. Curious.

Brezhnev Constitution Day

Leonid Brezhnev among the builders of the Baikal-Amur Railway. 1978 year

The Basic Law dealt with faith.

“Citizens of the USSR are guaranteed freedom of conscience, that is, the right to profess any religion or not to profess any religion, to send religious worship or to conduct atheistic propaganda. The incitement of hostility and hatred in connection with religious beliefs is prohibited. The church in the USSR is separated from the state and the school is separated from the church. ”

What is remarkable here? First of all, the very recognition that in 60 years after the October Revolution in the USSR there are believers. And their rights are reserved. The peaceful transition to universal atheism did not take place. Violent all the more. The anti-religious fervor to the 1977 was pougas, although, of course, the state machine worked to educate atheists.


Leonid Ilyich liked to welcome guests and did it with all the breadth of the Russian soul

The constitution of 1977 is not perfect, but in many respects optimal. And, most importantly, it has the potential for peaceful development with the gradual improvement of social and economic life. In all former republics of the USSR, legislation has changed dramatically since 1991. At first glance, and new laws look decent. Although, if you look, the values ​​have changed, and it is not by chance that we all live in an atmosphere of endless strife.
The era of peaceful labor did not last long. Only two years later, the USSR entered the Afghan war. They had to fight with forces that seemed to be far from the ideals of the Western democracies, and our politicians clearly underestimated the US reaction to the events in Afghanistan. American diplomacy worked vigorously, and business supported the Carter administration in the fight against the "Soviet threat." The last peak of the “cold war” began, which can be crossed only by one of the two superpowers of the 20th century. It was a fatal mistake: detente ended, developed socialism dissipated. Ideologists began a dangerous game of raising rates, which always means the triumph of radicalism over common sense. But the Constitution of 1977 remained as a monument to vegetarian times, about which, as was sung in those times, it is impossible to "think down". We have something to learn from that Basic Law.
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  1. fa2998
    fa2998 11 October 2015 07: 28 New
    +7
    Maybe someone will correct me, yes, now it is not written in the Constitution about the "leading and guiding" -but in fact, the dictatorship of one party - "United Russia" and its assistants like the "Popular Front". Poor fellows, probably have already opened a department, who monitors the news and "suspends" or expels his "members" - practically all governors, their deputies, regional governments, deputies, etc. - all "United Russia". Everyone monitors the cleanliness of the uniform! negative hi
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 11 October 2015 08: 14 New
      -4
      Quote: fa2998
      Maybe someone will correct me ... "United Russia" and its assistants such as the "Popular Front"

      "United Russia", the leader of the party Medvedev - represent the interests of the bourgeoisie.
      The Popular Front, the leader of the movement, Putin, represents the interests of the majority of the people.

      Nobody has canceled the antagonism of classes - in principle, they cannot be the same.

      ps
      The process of "circumcision" of the "elite" continues: http://79.120.77.163/klin/page.php?id=310
      1. moskowit
        moskowit 11 October 2015 09: 17 New
        +2
        "Medvedev and Putin are twin brothers,
        who is more valuable than Mother History? ... "

        May V.V. Mayakovsky forgive me for the freedom shown with his poems ...
        1. Boris55
          Boris55 11 October 2015 13: 28 New
          -6
          Quote: moskowit
          "Medvedev and Putin are twin brothers,
          who is more valuable than Mother History? ... "

          Are you so naive that you think anyone can become president?

          I repeat again. Medvedev represents the interests of the bourgeoisie. Putin is the majority of the working people.
          Not when there will be no agreement between one and the other.
    2. Andrey Skokovsky
      Andrey Skokovsky 11 October 2015 09: 05 New
      +2
      Quote: fa2998
      Maybe someone will correct me, yes, now it is not written in the Constitution about the "leading and guiding" -but in fact, the dictatorship of one party - "United Russia" and its assistants like the "Popular Front" ...

      do not write nonsense, the Communists won the elections on Lake Baikal.

      in today's constitution, if you put together everything that is said about ideology in the Russian Federation, then the full impression is that the 6 article is saved
      only instead of the CPSU, in fact, by default the liberal idea is spelled out,
      it is the liberals on 100% who meet the requirements of the Yeltsin constitution
  2. moskowit
    moskowit 11 October 2015 08: 37 New
    +8
    Everything is correct. The 1977 constitution was the most democratic in the world. In the full sense of the word. Education was universal and free, and the quality is completely incomparable with the current one. A little bit interested in his fate, a young man could get a higher education of any profile. The only university where it was difficult for a "mere mortal" to enter was MGIMO. And then they did it with a certain persistence.
    The government, in those days, counted every working day. The constitution was adopted on Friday and, therefore, the day off fell only in the fourth year. At the same time, which is natural, the day of December 5th was declared a working day. And now, "raspberry-raspberry", there are so many festive events that people do not know how and what to do with them.
    The destroyed Higher School and vocational secondary education led to a huge, catastrophic shortage of personnel in industry. The production of capital goods does not work. The country is completely dependent on commodity exports, depriving future generations of development prospects.
    It turned out that when capital was exported to 16 of billions of dollars a year, they decided to fix the matter at the expense of the most disadvantaged part of the population, pensioners. This category is forced to work not because there is enough strength and health, but because it is not possible to live on a pension. Estimate yourself. 4% is promised inflationary compensation next year. With 10000 rubles of pension, and not everyone has that, many 8-10 thousand, this is 400 and less than rubles- 16 loaves of white bread ...
    One more thing. Dear Prime Minister, I understand that it is not possible to know everything. So drive your team of referents to the "damn mother". In Soviet times, working pensioners were paid pensions, only the total earnings were limited to 300 rubles. The maximum pension was 120 rubles. Labor veteran 132r. And what was 300 rubles in those days, ask the President, he is older than you, and at the end of the 70s he was an elder or already a captain, therefore he received 210-230 rubles, maybe a little more, since he served in a "secret" department .. ...
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 11 October 2015 13: 33 New
      +1
      Quote: moskowit
      ... The 1977 Constitution of the year was the most democratic in the world. In the full sense of the word. Education was universal and free, and the quality is completely incomparable with the current ...

      Have you read the Stalinist constitution from 1936?

      "Article 121. Citizens of the USSR have the right to education.
      This right is ensured by compulsory primary education, free education, including higher education, a system of state scholarships for the vast majority of students in higher education, education in schools in their native language, the organization in factories, state farms, machine-tractor stations and collective farms of free industrial, technical and agronomic training of workers. . "
  3. Gardamir
    Gardamir 11 October 2015 08: 51 New
    +6
    Unfortunately, many did not notice that we live under a different constitution. The "servants of the people" are still remembered. And someone is sincerely mistaken in thinking that the bowels belong to the people.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 11 October 2015 09: 29 New
    +4
    Many forgot about this holiday..Why, why .. I remember .. For two years, before its adoption, there was a nationwide discussion of the articles of the Constitution, reports on this were shown on the telly .. If you compare, the last USSR Constitution and the Russian .. Somehow there are more advantages in the first ..
  5. castle
    castle 11 October 2015 09: 59 New
    -1
    And even earlier there were labor successes and preparations for the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the birth of Lenin (Ulyanov). The whole socialist camp got bored with the preparation for the "Great Event" This preparation spawned a large number of new dissidents and a bunch of new anecdotes, such as "Furniture factory in the village Path to Communism, made a three-bed bed and called this type of bed" Lenin is always with us "", or " Factory Krasny Oktyabr has created a new perfume - "The Smell of Ilyich"
    Good luck guys!
  6. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 11 October 2015 10: 09 New
    0
    From Ilyich to Ilyich ...
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet 11 October 2015 18: 28 New
      +1
      Quote: Robert Nevsky
      From Ilyich to Ilyich ...

      ... without a heart attack and paralysis. Is this about Mikoyan? smile
  7. ALEA IACTA EST
    ALEA IACTA EST 11 October 2015 11: 31 New
    +2
    The constitution is not bad, but the dictatorship ten years after the party that buried the Union is the very fly in the ointment.
  8. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 11 October 2015 12: 56 New
    +3
    The constitution was good in the text ... there were enough controversial articles BUT who was going to interpret them and how (liberalists fermented at the end of 80 and 90 then even had no idea ... the kitchen with blah blah blah doesn't count)
    We were ruined by something else ... the deceit and double-dealing of those in power (the Gorbachevites and Co.) their disbelief (because they were absent in them) in the ideals of social development of society for the common good ... It was they who betrayed the ideas of socialism for the sake of a "new" perspective. .. which turned out to be a dummy ...
    1. Jmbg
      Jmbg 11 October 2015 19: 17 New
      -2
      Imagine that Obama will act tomorrow as a traitor to America. Will the United States break into separate states? Or will he be replaced quickly? If your system is such that everything depends on one thing, then you don’t have to dump everything on it. The system is wrong, not human.
  9. victor
    victor 11 October 2015 14: 55 New
    0
    And I celebrated it with my friends ... And the Day of Population GDP - even the weather changes according to HIS instructions in Ukraine ... Schaub, we paid more for heating than we earn - ... It seems the time has come to dig the Great Black Sea-Baltic Sea. ..And jobs will be ...
  10. fa2998
    fa2998 11 October 2015 18: 59 New
    0
    Quote: Andrey Skokovsky
    Quote: fa2998
    Maybe someone will correct me, yes, now it is not written in the Constitution about the "leading and guiding" -but in fact, the dictatorship of one party - "United Russia" and its assistants like the "Popular Front" ...
    do not write nonsense, the Communists won the elections on Lake Baikal.

    You dear Andrei, do not write nonsense! The exception confirms the rule. In 99,9% of all elections, from governors, regional, city councils, city leaders, REPRESENTATIVES OF ONE PARTY-EP. hi And the most interesting thing is that I have been polling people for a month now, how did they vote? The categorical answer is “YES WOULD GO WITH YOUR CHOICE !!!” I wonder WHO voted in the elections, where our governor, a United Russia member, won convincingly (80%). recourse request
  11. Gormenghast
    Gormenghast 11 October 2015 20: 13 New
    +1
    The important thing is that this was not a declaration; real filling and execution is important.

    Correctly, the author writes that education was really free, including higher education. And the textbooks were free; I personally received them for free.

    And the right to housing was real. How many citizens of the country received housing for free?
    No one can prove to me that it’s better to take a loan for 50 years and buy an apartment NOW than to wait in line and get an apartment for free THEN. Moreover, there was a choice. Farsighted citizens went to work in the DSK and received apartments quickly. The far-sighted embryos of the bourgeois went to work in the North and bought the cooperative even faster; since the cooperative cost as northern salary for half a year or a year. And these were not bankers and other Abramovichs, but the people of Labor.

    What was the rent in those years, and how much electricity cost - the older generation remembers perfectly. The trick is that the employee, having received the payment and paying for the apartment, did not notice this at all.

    And, in general, recently I was on a train and heard such a real conversation (this is not an anecdote): "We lived under communism in the 70s, but we did not know about it."

    As for freedom of religion, there were some problems, although they did not openly harass anyone. Not in the 70s.

    And there were also free (conditionally paid) sanatoriums and kindergartens.

    There were free sports clubs and other "public consumption funds".

    And - attention - in factory canteens, bread was free (not always; in some historical periods). In some places in the country, public transport was free of charge.

    The constitution of 77 must be remembered, and the day of October 7 must not be forgotten.