From the "night watch" to the Carabinieri Corps
History Chile's paramilitary units, designed to ensure public order, dates back to the colonial era, when the territory of modern Chile was part of the Spanish colony - the general captaincy of Chile. Back in 1758, the night guard units were created - “Queen's Dragoons”, which were renamed “Chilean Dragoons” in 1812. Dragoons performed law enforcement functions in rural areas. In 1818, as a result of a long war against the metropolis, Chile proclaimed its independence. The young country also needed an effective law enforcement system. In 1881, Rural Police was established to protect public order and combat crime and insurgency in the countryside. In 1896, the Financial Police was created to carry out law enforcement in the cities of Chile. However, the main problem of these structures remained a large dependence on local authorities, which created a fertile ground for corruption, abuse of authority and the possibility for local authorities to use police units in their own interests. In addition, the rural and financial police were distinguished by low combat capability, and at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. in Chile, there was a growing need for a paramilitary unit capable of suppressing Indian performances in the troubled province of Araucania. Therefore, it was decided to create a Carabinieri Corps under the command of Captain Pedro Hernan Trizano. In 1903, the Carabinieri Corps, which served as a gendarmerie in rural areas, was merged with the established police regiment. In 1908, the Carabinieri School was established to train the private and non-commissioned officers of the police units.
The decision to create the Carabinieri Corps of Chile in its modern form was taken on 27 on April 1927 by the Vice-President of Chile, Colonel Carlos Ibáñez del Campo. The former Minister of the Interior of Chile before the coup, Colonel del Campo was well aware of the need to create paramilitary police formations. Having decided to create a Carabinieri Corps, he united the units of rural police, financial police and gendarmerie in one structure. The administration of the Chilean Carabinieri Corps was centralized, and military discipline was established in all units. In operational terms, the Carabinieri Corps was subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior of Chile. The decision to create the Carabinieri Corps also had a political background - Colonel del Campo was afraid of a possible military coup, therefore he wanted to have “at hand” paramilitary forces independent of the army, capable, if necessary, to protect the president from the rebels. Throughout the modern history of Chile, the Carabinieri Corps performed numerous tasks to maintain law and protect the existing political order in the country. In July, the 1931 carabinieri participated in the suppression of popular protests against the policies of Ibáñez del Campo. The economic crisis in the country caused by the Great Depression led to sharp discontent with the policies of the Chilean government. As a result of the crackdown of one of the demonstrations, the Carabinieri killed the general practitioner Jaime Pinto Riesco, and after visiting the funeral of Pinto, Professor Alberto Campino was killed. Political assassinations only exacerbated dissatisfaction with the policies of Ibáñez del Campo and contributed to the loss of confidence in the Carabineros, whom they began to see only as "servants of the regime." After 26 July 1931. Ibanes government fell, and the president himself fled to Spain, the revolutionary authorities temporarily suspended the activities of the Carabinieri Corps. Responsibilities for the protection of public order and the maintenance of legality were assigned to the country's armed forces and the Civil Guard - a volunteer formation, which included volunteers from among citizens who are not associated with the military and police services.
In early June 1932, a group of revolutionary militaries led by Colonel Marmaduke Grove seized power in Chile and proclaimed the country the Socialist Republic of Chile. Marmaduke Grove, one of the fathers of the Chilean military aviation, adhered to left-wing political convictions and for them more than once fell into disgrace. However, in 1931, Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, who, incidentally, was Grove’s classmate at the military school, reinstated the disgraced officer in the Chilean Air Force and appointed him commander of the air base in El Bosque. Taking advantage of his position and enlisting the support of Air Force officers and part of the capital’s garrison, Marmaduk Grove made a military coup, which was essentially revolutionary in nature. Colonel Grove set the task of freeing the Chilean economy from the dominance of foreign, especially American and British companies, intended to introduce, in addition to private, also state and collective property, to amnesty political prisoners, confiscate empty land and distribute them among landless peasants. On the ground, Soviets of workers 'and peasants' deputies began to be created, seizures of landlord lands and enterprises began. At the National University of Chile, students formed the Council of Student Deputies. Under these conditions, the United States and Great Britain, frightened by the socialist coup, refused to recognize the government of Marmaduke Grove and provided financial and organizational opportunities for its opponents to carry out a new coup. With American and English money, Carlos Davila made a new military coup and overthrew Marmaduke Grove, who was exiled to Easter Island. In the suppression of the socialist republic, police units also played an active role, which remained a reliable support for the right-wing conservative military and political elite of Chile.
At the end of December 1932, President Arturo Alessandri decided to separate the functions of the Carabineros and the criminal police. Since that time, the carabineers have ceased to carry out investigative and operational actions, and the police began to exist separately from the Corps. In June-July, 1934 police suppressed a peasant uprising by the communists, and in 1938 the police killed 59 prisoners, after which the police general director Umberto Valdivieso Arriagada was forced to resign. In the meantime, the internal organization of the Chilean police was improving. In 1939, the Higher Police Institute was established, and in 1945, a police hospital. In 1960, an air police brigade was created, currently known as the Prefecture of Air Carabinieri and performing aviation security functions. In 1962, women were allowed to enter the service of the Carabinieri Corps. In 1966, the Carabiniere Corps station was opened on the famous Easter Island belonging to the Republic of Chile.
General Cesar Mendoza. Carabinieri and Pinochet Mode
The carabineer corps took an active part in the military coup of 1973 and the overthrow of the country's legitimate president Augusto Pinochet. At this time, the Corps was commanded by General Cesar Mendoza Durand, who took the side of the junta and joined the Military Government as a representative of the Carabinieri Corps. Cesar Mendoza (1918-1996) is an outstanding figure in the history of the Chilean Carabineros. The son of a teacher and pianist, in 1938, he was drafted into the army, and in 1940, he entered the Carabinieri School and after graduating from 1942, he began serving in the Carabinieri Corps in officer positions. In parallel, Cesar Mendoza was actively involved in equestrian sports and represented Chile at the Pan-American Games in 1951. Then the 33-year-old officer won the gold medal, and the next 1952 received the silver medal at the Olympic Games in the team competition. Despite his age for sport, Mendoza received a bronze medal in dressage and a gold medal in team dressage at the next Pan American Games in 1959, in 41 year. In 1970, the 52-year-old César Mendoza was given the rank of General of the Carabinieri Corps, and in 1972 he became the Inspector General of the Carabinieri Corps. Before preparing a military coup aimed at overthrowing the government of El Salvador Allende, Inspector General Mendoza held the second most important position in the Carabinieri Corps. Corps Commander General Director Jose Maria Sepulveda was on the side of Allende, so Pinochet asked Mendoza to represent the Carabinieri Corps and to ensure his participation in the coup. Indeed, without the support of the Carabineers, whose numbers and combat readiness were comparable to the “combat” component of the country's land forces, the military coup risked failure. Cesar Mendoza, who adhered to right-wing convictions, agreed with Pinochet's proposal, especially since it opened up to him obvious career prospects - to become the first person in the Carabinieri Corps. Mendoza was appointed acting director of the Carabinieri Corps, removing General Sepúlveda from his post. By the way, Salvador Allende mentioned General César Mendoza personally in the last radio performance before his death, accusing him of high treason and complicity in insurrection. In 1985, after the scandal caused by the abduction and murder of three activists of the Communist Party of Chile, General Mendoza was forced to resign. He engaged in social activities, founded a private university and a charitable organization to help children. For their crimes during the years of Pinochet's rule, the head of the Carabineros was never brought to justice. He safely lived to old age and died at the age of 78 in the Carabinieri Corps hospital. In 1974, the Carabinieri Corps was reassigned to the Ministry of National Defense of Chile. So Pinochet sought to strengthen his influence on the Carabinieri, and at the same time improve their social and financial status, since the financing of the Ministry of National Defense was carried out at a high level. Under the Ministry of Defense, the Chile Carabinieri Corps remained until 2011.
Like other divisions, the Carabineers took part in massacres of Chilean leftist activists and sympathizers. So, José Muñoz Herman Salazar, who served in the rank of sub-officer, was involved in the disappearance of five people, apparently killed during extrajudicial killings. The surviving participants and eyewitnesses to the events of 1973 talk about the active participation of the Carabinieres in the mass repressions against the left opposition and, in general, all Chileans who might be suspected of supporting the Allende regime. In 1970 - 1980 - s. The carabineer corps was the main force involved in the fight against partisan movements operating in mountainous terrain. Groups of militants from the Left Revolutionary Movement (MIR) penetrated into Chile from the territory of Argentina, making regular attacks on police stations, army barracks, carabinieri posts, prisons, administrative institutions. In 1983, the Patriotic Front of Manuel Rodriguez (PFMR) was created, in which the Communists played a leading role. Since 1987, attacks on Carabinieri patrols have become systematic. The leading role in the partisan war against the Pinochet regime was played by three radical leftist movements - the Patriotic Front. Manuel Rodriguez (PFMR), the Left Revolutionary Movement (MIR) and the Youth Movement “Lautaro”. Despite the measures taken and the constant tightening of the police regime, the Carabinerians could not suppress the armed resistance of the partisans, who enjoyed the support of the local population. In 1988, guerrilla units began to attack objects of American companies in Chile, as a result of which they suffered heavy financial losses. In response, Pinochet demanded more and more active help from the USA to fight the partisans. Ultimately, since the practical need for a military dictatorship gradually faded away (the Soviet Union finally embarked on perestroika by 1989, respectively, and the influence of the communist ideology in Latin America decreased significantly, especially in practical terms), the American leadership recommended Augusto Pinochet hold a plebiscite on the question of the further expediency of maintaining the military regime. Pinochet this plebiscite lost.
After the resignation of General Mendoza in 1985, the Carabinieri Corps was led by General Rodolfo Stanhe Olkers (born 1925), one of the oldest living Chilean government and military figures. A descendant of German immigrants, Rodolfo Stanhe in 1945-1947. he served in one of the elite units of the Chilean army, and then, in 1947-1949. studied at the Carabinieri School and was released from there with the rank of lieutenant. For his long service, Stanhe visited many cities in the country and even trained in Germany. In 1972-1978 he headed the Chilean Academy of Police Sciences, and in 1978, having received the rank of general, he was appointed curator of the police education system in the country. In 1983, General Stanhe was appointed deputy commander of the Carabinieri Corps for operational work. Stanhe fully supported the dictatorial regime of Pinochet and advocated maintaining a tough police order in the country. In 1985-1995 he led the Chile Carabinieri Corps, carrying out active measures to modernize the service and increase the effectiveness of the Carabineros' activities. Despite active participation in Pinochet's junta, even after the establishment of a democratic regime, Stanhe did not bear responsibility and did not stop his political career. In 1997, he was elected to the Senate of Chile. In 2007, the elderly general tried to bring to criminal responsibility in the case of the murder of two left-wing activists, but the case did not come to court. In 2012, Stanhe was awarded the Big Star Honor and Tradition. The ninety-year-old general still has great influence in the Carabinieri Corps and acts as an expert and consultant, and the current serving generals and senior officers of the Carabineer Corps listen to his opinion.
For the Carabinieri Corps, the years of the reign of Pinochet and his military junta became a heyday. Almost immediately after coming to power, Pinochet made a peculiar shift in priorities in financing the Chilean armed forces. If before the coup, the main financial flows were directed to equipping the naval fleet and the Air Force, already in 1974, after the accession of the Carabinieri Corps to the Ministry of National Defense of Chile, the main attention was paid to financing and organizational modernization of the carabinieri. Pinochet was much more worried about maintaining internal order and the fight against the opposition than equipping the armed forces oriented to confront an external enemy. Therefore, the carabinieri turned into a privileged type of armed forces. As part of the Carabinieri Corps, the Information Department, the Telecommunications Department and the Intelligence Department were created, which served as special services. Also, great attention was paid to equipping the carabinieri with the latest weapons and equipment, advanced training of officers and non-commissioned officers. The number of ground forces and the Carabinieri Corps during the years of Pinochet’s reign was almost twice the number of the Chilean naval and air forces. The same amount of money was spent on financing the Carabinieri Corps as on financing the ground forces and naval forces combined, because Pinochet, who was afraid of revolutionary unrest and guerrilla warfare, considered that in this situation special services, the police and paramilitary forces responsible for maintaining the public security. To more effectively suppress possible popular uprisings and fight against partisan formations that fought with the Pinochet regime, the Carabinieri Corps was armed with light tanks and artillery. It is noteworthy that even after the first post-Pinochet democratic government of Chile came to power, the activities of the Carabinieri Corps were not subjected to total reform. Almost all the senior officers of the Corps remained in their places, and the number of carabinieri was not reduced - there were also 30 thousand of them. It was even planned to increase the number of personnel of the Corps by another 4 thousand troops - to increase the effectiveness of the fight against terrorism, radical groups and crime. It should be noted that the carabinieri are still actively participating in punitive measures against the Chilean opposition, especially against street demonstrations organized by local left and radical left movements. During the reign of Pinochet, the Carabinieri actively collaborated with similar units and special services of many other Latin American states that were under the influence of the United States. The United States provided substantial support to Chile in organizing the training of carabinieri; some Corps officers went to study and internships in US military schools.
Modern structure and functions of the Carabinieri Corps
Currently, since August 2015, the general director of the Carabinieri Corps is General Bruno Villalobos Arnoldo Krumm. He was born in 1959, in 1979, entered and graduated from 1981 School of Carabineros with the rank of lieutenant, after which he was assigned to the special forces group, served in the Palace Guard of Chile. In 2006, he headed the Security Department of the President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, then in 2008, he headed the intelligence department of the Carabinieri Corps, in 2012, he was appointed Head of the State Border Guard and Special Services Department. In 2014, he was promoted to the rank of Inspector-General, and also appointed responsible for the activities of the newly established Department for Intelligence and Criminal Investigations. 11 August 2015 G. General Bruno Krumm was appointed to the position of general director of the Carabinieri Corps of Chile.
According to Chilean legislation, the purpose of the Carabinieri Corps is to ensure and maintain public order and public safety throughout the country. The Chilean Carabinieri Corps government sets the following tasks: 1) crime prevention and provision of conditions for the peaceful development of society, 2) ensuring public order and compliance with judicial decisions, 3) informing the population about the laws and the need for their execution, threats and risks situations, 4) rescue work, assistance to emergency services, especially in hard-to-reach places, 5) social security of victims of natural disasters and crimes, 6) protection of the state boundaries and maintenance of government functions in remote areas and localities, 7) environmental protection. The Chilean Carabinierus Corps is managed by the Directorate General, which is responsible for prefectures, departments and schools. Employees of the Carabinieri Corps do not have the right to belong to trade unions and political parties, as well as to any associations and organizations whose activities are contrary to the Constitution of the Republic of Chile and the police legislation. Since the Carabinieri Corps is a militarized structure, it has established military discipline and military ranks. At present, the system of military ranks in the Carabinieri Corps is as follows: private, sergeant and noncommissioned officers - 1) carabiner cadet 2) carabineer 3) second corporal 4) first corporal 5) second sergeant 6) first sergeant XNHyXNXXHXXHXXHNXXHXNXXXXNXXXXNXXMXNXXXXXYXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXY a senior sub-officer; officer staff - 7) graduate student officer 8) junior lieutenant 1) lieutenant 2) captain 3) major 4) lieutenant colonel 5) colonel 6) general 7) inspector general 8) general director. Corresponding to the titles, the insignia of the Carabinieri Corps is also installed.
The training of the personnel of the Chile Carabinieri Corps is carried out in the Carabinieri School named after General Ibáñez del Campo. Here, the cadets receive the necessary skills of military training, hand-to-hand combat, the basics of legal knowledge. The non-commissioned officers of the Carabinieri Corps are trained in the School of Sub-Officers of the Carabinieri Corps of Chile. This is an analogue of the Russian school of ensigns - those who claim the title of sub-officer of the Carabinieri Corps (warrant officer) study here and should acquire the appropriate skills to serve in positions that provide for the possibility of conferring the title of subofee. In the School of subofiters, the best carabineers are selected who have shown themselves on the positive side when serving. After completing the course of training, graduates of the school receive the qualifications of a “senior specialist in the field of prevention and criminal investigation”, and also acquire specialization - police intelligence, administrative practice, the fight against drug trafficking. As for the officer staff of the Carabinieri Corps, he is being trained at the Academy of Police Sciences, the completion of which gives the right to exercise command of units and count in perspective, according to his years of service and official correspondence, to receive the rank of colonel of carabineers. The Chilean Police Academy is considered one of the best in Latin America. At various times, officers from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, Haiti, Guatemala, Honduras, Dominican Republic, Spain, Italy, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, El Salvador, France, Ecuador, South Korea studied there. In 1987, the academy was renamed the Higher Police Institute, educational buildings were reorganized, new laboratories were created. In 1998, the Higher Police Institute was renamed again to the Academy of Police Sciences of the Carabinieri Corps. At the end of the academy, the qualification of “quartermaster-controller” and the degree of “bachelor of police senior management” and “bachelor of senior public finance management” are awarded. In addition, the Academy has its own educational programs to improve the skills of police specialists.
The Chilean Carabinieri Corps includes a number of specialized units, which we will discuss below. The prefecture of special purpose is designed to disperse demonstrations and street protests, has a high degree of mobility and is prepared to perform its functions anywhere in the world. In addition to the suppression of riots, the competence of the prefecture includes maintaining public order during natural disasters and emergencies, ensuring public order in the area of the presidential palace of La Moneda, guarding the highest state bodies. The prefecture of peacekeeping operations is responsible for ensuring the activities of the Carabinieri Corps within the framework of the relevant United Nations structures. The central communications of the Carabinieri Corps are responsible for providing information to the activities of the department and for promptly responding to the appeals of citizens and organizations for assistance in emergency situations, performing the functions of the Carabinieri Corps duty service. A group of special police carabinieri operations is designed to act in high-risk conditions. It faces the tasks of detecting and neutralizing explosives, conducting raids against criminal groups, and freeing hostages. The group was created by 7 June 1979 for power support of police activities and rapid response to emergencies, first of all for the actions of radical left-wing armed organizations that stepped up the fight against the Pinochet regime in 1980. The group selected the most professional and trained Carabinieri who passed the special preparation. Along with the group, there are special patrols that cover and protect citizens during force counterterrorism operations. The fighters of the group are training on the disposal of explosives, rescue in the mountains and on the water, parachuting, scuba diving, medical training, hand-to-hand fighting, shooting of all kinds weapons, tactics of action in urban environments. The Accident Investigation Division and the Movement Investigation Division are designed to regulate traffic and investigate the causes of aviation and car accidents. The research department fulfills the instructions of the judicial authorities to ensure their activities. The prefecture of the air police specializes in evacuating victims from hard-to-reach places, in adverse weather conditions, providing security on air transport, and air patrols. The crime lab is a forensic science unit that collects evidence and evidence, analyzes and presents it in court.
Palace Guard - Chilean "Presidential Regiment"
One of the most elite, interesting and well-known units that make up the Chile Carabinieri Corps is Chile's Palace Guard. This is a kind of “calling card” not only of the Carabinieri, but of Chile as a state, since the union performs the ceremonial functions of the guard of honor, and also serves to protect the palace of La Moneda, the residence of the president, as well as the building of the National Congress and the object is guarded by the Palace Guard only while the head of state is on its territory). In addition, the Palace Guard ensures the personal security of the President of Chile, the former Presidents of Chile, the heads of foreign states arriving in the country on an official visit.
The history of the Palace Guard began in 1851, when the then President of Chile, Manuel Bulnes Prieto, ordered the formation of a special paramilitary unit to guard the presidential palace of La Moneda. This unit was called the Santiago Guard. For some time, the cadets of the Carabinieri school and the cavalry school, the army school of the communications troops, also served the guard service of the palace. Before 1927, the Government Palace guard was part of the Chilean army, and then was reassigned to the Carabinieri Corps. In 1932, a police machine-gun unit was formed as part of the Chilean police force, which included a captain, four lieutenants and 200 police officers who served to guard the presidential palace. Currently, women - carabineers were able to serve in the Palace Guard, in connection with which appropriate changes were made in the uniform of the Guard - there appeared "female" versions of the front and daily uniforms of the Palace Guard of Chile. In addition to guarding the presidential palace of La Moneda, the Palace Guard also ensures the security of the Chilean National Congress in Valparaiso. Naturally, the most well-trained and worthy Carabinieri, non-commissioned officers and officers are selected as part of the Palace Guard.
The story of Chile's paramilitary police units will not be complete, if not mention the Chilean gendarmerie. In addition to the Carabinieri Corps, there is another military police structure in Chile - Chile Gendarmerie. However, since most of the functions assigned to gendarmes in other countries in Chile are performed by the Carabinieri Corps, the tasks assigned to the Chilean Gendarmerie are to fulfill the duties of escorting prisoners, protecting Chilean prisons and carrying out court orders. In fact, this is something between a system of the Federal Penitentiary Service (Federal Penitentiary Service) in modern Russia and the Soviet convoy forces of the MVD Ministry of Internal Affairs. The history of the Chilean gendarmerie began in 1843, when General Manuel Bulnes created the first modern prison in Santiago, equipped according to the best principles for the penitentiary institutions of the time. In 1871, the gendarmerie was separated into a separate army unit that served under the statute, but was solely responsible for the protection of prisoners. In 1892, the function of a special unit responsible for external security and internal order in the prison was also included in the execution of death sentences and convoy escort in courts. In November 1921, the prison gendarmerie corps was established and legally executed. However, in April 1020, by decision of Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, the prison gendarmerie was merged with the Carabinieri Corps. But a year after the merger of the two departments, the management realized the ineffectiveness of this step, so 17 June 1930 was created the Directorate General of Prisons, and the gendarmerie was again allocated in a separate structure. In 1933-1975 The prison guard was renamed the gendarmerie to the prison service.
In 1975, General Pinochet signed a decree establishing the Chile Gendarmerie. The motto of the Chilean gendarmes - "God, the country, the law." In the modern world, the Chilean gendarmerie is the only gendarmerie in charge of prisons. At present, while remaining a militarized structure that respects military discipline, the Chandarmerie of Chile is subordinate to the Ministry of Justice of Chile. At the same time, the gendarmerie is unique in that it is the only Chilean paramilitary structure, whose servicemen are allowed to strike and join their own trade union organizations. In Chile Gendarmerie, the following military ranks were introduced: private, sergeant and noncommissioning officers. 1) First Sergeant 2) Sub-Officer 3) Senior Sub-Officer; officers - 2) graduate student officer 4) junior lieutenant 1) second lieutenant 5) first lieutenant 6) captain 7) major 8) lieutenant colonel 9) colonel 10) operational subdirectory 11) national director. The staff of the Chilean gendarmerie is being trained at the General Manuel Bulnes Prieto School of Chile Gendarmerie of Chile, founded in 1 by order of Ibáñez del Campo. In 2, the Higher Academy of Prison Studies was founded, in which professional specialization and professional development of the Chilean prison gendarme staff is carried out.
The Chile Gendarmerie comprises a number of departments responsible for various activities. The armaments department, the oldest in the gendarmerie, is responsible for the control of arms, ammunition, explosives and special means. The department of protection is responsible for the cynological support of the gendarme service, the training of service dogs and the employees working with them. The tactical operations section was created in 1996 and is responsible for acting in emergency conditions, primarily for curbing riots in Chilean prisons, releasing hostages, and participating in anti-terrorism measures. The unit serves the entire 21 person under the command of the officer. This “prison special forces” can also be used to ensure the security of high ranking gendarmerie officers and the Ministry of Justice of Chile. The Department of Judicial Defense, as the name suggests, is responsible for ensuring the security of the judiciary and court hearings, primarily the Supreme Court of Chile, the civil courts of the Ministry of Justice and the Electoral Court of Chile. This unit is also called the "Palace Guard of the Chilean Gendarmerie," because it is the guard of the Chilean Palace of Justice. A special fire protection brigade, also part of the gendarmerie, performs the functions of a fire brigade and rescuers, but in relation to places of deprivation of liberty.
Thus, we see that Chile has a fairly powerful and effective system for the protection of public safety and order. The rich experience and traditions of the Chilean carabinieri and gendarmerie contribute to the fact that students and officers from similar units from many countries of the world come to Chile for internships and training. In turn, Chilean specialists are constantly being trained abroad. So, Chilean carabineers from border security units adopted experience in Russia - in Kaliningrad.