The Battle of Poitiers 732 of the Year, or How Karl Martell Fought Illegal Migration to Europe

In the VIII century, the Arab Caliphate of the Umayyad dynasty reached the peak of its power and size of the territory. Possessions of the rulers of Damascus stretched from present-day Pakistan in the east to the Iberian Peninsula in the west, the southern limits reached the Indian Ocean, and the mountains in the Caucasus and the Pyrenees served as the border in the north.


The Battle of Poitiers 732 of the Year, or How Karl Martell Fought Illegal Migration to Europe

Umayyad Caliphate during the period of maximum territorial expansion


It was a time called the Dark Ages. Three hundred years ago, unable to withstand the mighty blows of the barbarians despised to date, the weakened and already toothless Western Roman Empire sank by worms, cowardice and treason. Like a huge ship, she sunk into the abyss storiesleaving on the surface only fragments in the form of wild and unsteady barbarian kingdoms. Long since boasting of its enlightenment, Europe at that time was a conglomerate of early feudal formations with frequent remnants of a more tribal system. The monasteries were the accumulators of those bits of knowledge about the bygone ancient era, which were destined to survive and survive the centuries of barbarism and the fires of the Inquisition. The new European nobility, yesterday danced briskly in pagan temples, now sedately went to church and tried to speak in mutated, barbarized Latin. The elite built their own castles, where there were vast halls for feasts, but there were no toilets. Neighbors often went to visit each other, for reliability, taking with them rams and stone throwers.


From left to right: Umayyad Guard infantrymen, Umayyad Guard rider, Umayyad foot archer, mid-VIII century (drawing from D. Nikolle and A. McBride’s book “The Muslim East Army of the 7th-9th centuries”)


Against the backdrop of all this decadent picturesqueness in the East, a crescent of Islam lit up with a blinding flash. The tribes of nomads and camel drivers by the will of the Prophet Mohammed and the caliphs performing his will in a matter of decades turn into a world force. Sasanid Iran was captured and conquered, the weakening Byzantine Empire was cast aside. Made victorious trips to Syria and Egypt. Like card houses, flimsy states and former Byzantine provinces of North Africa fly from the path of the Arab armies. 19 July 711, at the battle of Guadalete, was broken the back of the Visigoth kingdom in Spain. In less than 5 years, almost the entire Iberian Peninsula (except for the northern regions) came under the control of the Arabs. Less than a hundred years after the death of the Prophet Mohammed, Islam was already standing in front of the gates to Central Europe.

Preparing for the invasion of Gaul
By the time of the events described, the Umayyad Caliphate was obviously the most powerful military force in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions. The heavily armed horsemen, plus the very numerous and well-trained equestrian archers, were the basis of the technology of the Arab Blitzkrieg of the 7th-8th centuries. The military resources of this superpower were so great that the caliphs could afford to simultaneously fight in distant Sindh (now Pakistan) and organize a campaign deep into Europe. At the beginning of the VIII century, during the reign of Caliph Walid I, a new round of expansion began. Subjugating North Africa, the Arabs forced the Strait of Gibraltar and invaded the territory of the Iberian Peninsula.

By 720, the Arabs managed to finally gain a foothold in Spain and, after looking around, they turned their eyes to the north. Behind the Pyrenean Mountains in the territory of the former Roman province of Gaul lay the state of the Franks - a fairly loose early feudal state formation consisting of semi-independent duchies. The ruling Meroving dynasty here in the 7th century lost its significance and power, becoming the crowned puppets in the hands of the Frankish nobility. Karl Martell, like his father Pepin Heristalsky, was the Majord of the Austrazian Franks, the most militant of the Frankish tribes. He was actually the head of state, concentrating in his hands the full military and administrative power. Constantly participating in various military enterprises - whether it was curing the next vassal from the virus of excessive "separatism" or repelling the raids of warlike tribes of Frisians because of the Rhine - Karl Martell not only gained vast military experience, but was able to forge a trained army of diverse tribal armies professionals. Most of the Frankish troops were well-armed infantry, accustomed to act not by a screaming crowd, but in tight formation. The Franks willingly used tactical methods of the era of "Roman totalitarianism", and although they were far from being coherent and precise in the imperial legions, yesterday’s barbarians were able to fight.

Meanwhile, a thunderstorm was approaching. In 720, the Arab army under the command of the viceroy Al-Samha ibn Malik invaded the duchy of Aquitaine (modern Southern France). The ruler of Aquitaine, Duke Evdon of Aquitaine, managed to defeat the Arabs of Toulouse, which they besieged, to kill the enemy commander and force the aggressors to temporarily retreat. Arab expansion does not stop it. In 725, aliens from the Pyrenees are conducting raids into Burgundy. The ruler of Aquitaine found itself in a difficult situation: on the one hand, from the south, the Arabs were pressing more and more, on the other hand, Evdon was strongly opposed to independence “from the center” - he was a vassal of the Frankish king. Like many frontier kings, he wanted to sit quietly on the shore of the pond and watch the battle of predatory geopolitical crocodiles from the side - well, pick up something that will beat the shore. In 729, the governor in Al-Andalusia (the capital of Cordoba) becomes the talented and energetic Abd al-Rahman, a commander who gained fame in the North African campaigns. He puts things in order in Arab Spain, fights against abuse, corruption, and fosters the economic life of the new provinces. For Evdon Aquitaine, this was a very uncomfortable neighbor.

The duke plays a good combination. In 730, he entered into an alliance with the Berber emir Usman ibn Nissa, the governor of the lands subsequently known as Catalonia. To be faithful to the emir, they married the daughter of a duke. Arab raids on Aquitaine stopped. But the idyll bought by actual treachery did not last very long - already in 731, the Arabs had a regional conflict. The son-in-law of the duke, dissatisfied with the “struggle against the domination of local oligarchs,” rebelled against the new governor, Abd al-Rahman, and, as expected, suffered a crushing defeat. Having settled with the rebellion, the winner focused all his attention on the lands north of the Pyrenees. Having deployed enormous forces of heavy cavalry on the border with the Christian lands, receiving large reinforcements from North Africa as part of large contingents of Berber horse archers, Abd al-Rahman is preparing for a decisive march to the north. The number of Arab invasion army in various sources varies from 50 thousand to fantastic 400 thousand people. Such a difference in the assessment of Arab forces was largely due to political reasons: Catholic chroniclers sought to exaggerate the significance of the threat, while the Arab ones, on the contrary, mitigate the unsuccessful outcome of the operation. It should also not be forgotten that the Eastern armies were always accompanied by a huge train of porters and drovers, which was often included in the total number. But both sides admit that the army of Abd al-Rahman was numerous, well prepared and had extensive combat experience. The most reasonable, given the problems of logistics, the number of the Arab army can be defined in 50-60 thousands of people.

Invasion. Francs events
In 732, the Arabs invade Aquitaine. According to eyewitnesses, the invasion army everywhere sowed death and destruction. Duke Evdon Aquitaine hastily gathers his army and gives battle by the Garonne River in the Bordeaux area. The battle soon turned into a battle - the Arab cavalry routed and dispersed the Aquitans. The unlucky political combinator fled from the battlefield. He gets scared to go nowhere and in despair, he goes to the most impartial step for himself. Having exhausted all possibilities for self-resistance, Evdon appealed for help to Paris, to Karl Martell. He agrees to help: the Arabs are a common threat, but in exchange for a categorical recognition of the supremacy of the Franks. Reluctantly, a fighter for "independent" Aquitaine agrees. Franks are preparing for the campaign.

Meanwhile, the Arabs with might and main are devastating Southern Gaul, taking rich trophies and prisoners. Inspired by the initial success, the troops loaded with loot Abd al-Rahman moved around the country. The battle formations were stretched, the vanguard broke away from the less mobile main forces. The farther north, the greater the supply problems. The climate was cool enough for people accustomed to the heat from the south. Obviously, contrary to the opinion of chroniclers describing the campaign that, they say, the Arabs wanted to exterminate and subdue everyone, this campaign was rather a massive sabotage raid rather than a full-fledged conquest, and resembled later Tatar raids from the Crimea.

After the victory of Bordeaux, the threat from the Franks seemed to the Arab commanders insignificant - they critically evaluated the ability of the Franks to deploy a large army. And, as it turned out, it is in vain.

Plentifully plundering Aquitaine, in the autumn of 732, Abd al-Rahman moves north to the city of Tours, where, as you know, there was a rich St. Martin's Basilica, the most revered shrine of Western Europe at that time. Along the way, the Arabs besieged a small town called Poitiers (almost through 600 years one of the greatest battles of the Hundred Years War will take place), devastate its environs, but decide not to waste forces, but concentrate all the efforts on seizing the much more attractive Tour .

Upon learning of the advancement of the enemy, Karl Martell forced marches, widely using the "material traces of the Roman occupation" - beautiful roads, moving toward. A powerful general threat makes various conflicts “on interethnic grounds” between Frankish tribes calm down. The army of Karl Martel, in which the infantry prevails, is determined to give battle.

Abd al-Rahman soon received information about the approaching army of Christians. He was in the vicinity of the Tour at a disadvantageous position, in his opinion. Therefore, the Arab commander decides to retreat to Poitiers. Burdened by a huge booty, the Arab army is retreating slowly, but for some reason Abd al-Rahman does not give the order to leave so many carts and move light. Obviously, this was done in order not to undermine the morale of the warriors. One way or another, the predominantly cavalry army could not shake the forces of Karl Martel from their backs.

Realizing that the retreat becomes more dangerous than the battle, and seeing that the battle can not be avoided, Abd al-Rahman stops on the fields of Poitiers between the rivers Vienne and Clan. Karl Martell skillfully maneuvers his army, taking a more advantageous position on the hill (this played a big role later). The Arabs did not have an accurate idea of ​​the number of enemy troops - using the woodland, the Franks camouflaged their movement and created the illusion that there were more of them than they actually were. This turned out to be another miscalculation by Abd al-Rahman. Thus, the initiative before the battle completely belonged to Karl Martell. He imposed a battle on the enemy, he took a superior position, he also managed to mislead the enemy. Burdened by a huge wagon train, the Arab army could only respond to the actions of Christians, but could not intercept the situation.

Historians and chroniclers estimate the strength of Karl Martel in this battle from 20 to 30 thousand people. He well studied the Arab tactics of combat, the role of numerous and well-prepared cavalry. The Frankish commander makes his main bet on well-prepared infantry, trained to fight in close formation.

Bits
For a week the opponents camped against each other, limiting themselves with threats, intelligence, and skirmishes of advanced secrets. Abd al-Rahman is in no hurry to attack, considering, as before, that there are more francs. Meanwhile, reinforcements are approaching Martell — warriors and militias, various backward detachments. European autumn is in full swing (October), it is getting cold. Believing that there is no way to wait any longer, and wanting to reward his warriors by plundering Tura, the Arab commander decided to give battle. This emphasizes the purely predatory, rather than the aggressive nature of the campaign. The plan of the Arabs was simple enough: to lure the Franks to an open place and crush their powerful cavalry.

On the morning of October 10, 732 of the year from the Arab side beat the drums, giving the signal to attack. Riders lined up in the attacking order, Abd al-Rahman himself led a wave of heavy cavalry. According to the testimony of Arab sources, the Franks, lined up in a large quadrangle, kept a disciplined discipline. Time after time the avalanche of horsemen rolled on them and left. Berber archers showered Karl Martel warriors with a shower of arrows, but they were covered with strong shields. Several times the Arabs even managed to penetrate deep into the enemy's line, but each time these breakthroughs were neutralized in time. The Arabs tried to get to Karl Martel himself and kill him, who was in the center of his army, but the loyal vassals surrounded their leader and did not let his enemies to him.


Battle Scheme


All attempts to lure francs to an open area ended in failure, neither feigned retreat, nor psychological influence in the form of ridicule and threats helped.

Martell gave very clear instructions to his commanders: to keep the line at all costs. And Abd al-Rahman failed what William the Conqueror could do almost four centuries later in the battle of Hastings.

In an effort to reduce the pressure on their battle formations, the Frankish commander sends light cavalry in reserve, along with militiamen bypassing the Arab troops in order to sabotage the enemy camp. In the midst of a battle among the warriors Abd al-Rahman, a rumor spread that the infidels were robbing a camp. And in the camp was stored mining and other trophies, which the Arabs out of greed did not want to throw. Soon, much of the cavalry, spitting on elementary discipline, rushed to the rear to defend their own, acquired with a simple military deed, good. The Arab army has come to utter chaos. Abd al-Rahman tried to stop the rapid movement to the rear of his subordinates. Seeing the growing confusion in the ranks of the enemy, the fresh Frankish cavalry, withdrawn from the reserve, struck a counterstrike. Once surrounded, the Arab commander was killed. The news of his death further upset the ranks of the troops of the raiders. The Arabs who fled without any order suffered heavy losses.


Fighting Frankish and Arab cavalry


In the camp, where the sabotage detachment that brought the confusion, operated, the felling also began. The militiamen, having completed their task, retreated, leaving infuriated and depressed by the loss of the owners of broken pots, torn tents and runaway slaves to curse the infidels and count losses on the way.


Fight in camp


The Frankish army, once again lined up and reestablished the formation, spent the night on vacation - the warriors dressed in wolf and bear skins, the warriors were not afraid of cool nights. They did not use the famous Arabs tents. The next day, the army of Karl Martel was ready to resume the battle. But the field before it was deserted. It was not without reason that the Franks suspected that the enemy had prepared an ambush for them and was finally trying to lure them into open areas and destroy them with cavalry.

As an experienced commander, not neglecting intelligence, unlike his opponents, Martell sent spies to the Arab camp. They soon reported that the enemy’s bivouac was completely empty. Under the cover of night, leaving most of the booty, tents, and many pack animals, the Arabs retreated.

It was a victory. The Franks did not pursue the adversary admitting defeat: Martel had few cavalry, and the volume of captured trophies incredibly invigorated the spirit. The non-pursued Arab army, suffering from food shortages (retreating through looted Aquitaine) and the cold weather that had begun, returned at the end of the autumn to the Pyrenees.

Results and meaning
The battle that went down in history in some sources as the “Battle of Tours”, and in others - the “Battle of Poitiers” (so far the exact place has not been fully established) was significant. It marked the end of the Arab expansion north of the Pyrenees - never again did the Arab armies penetrate so far into Europe. Karl Martell was recognized as a defender of Christianity and the sole ruler of Gaul. The era of rapid alien raids from the south was forever a thing of the past, although the Franks had to make several military campaigns in order to completely discourage the Arabs from dying to the north. Soon the colossal Umayyad Caliphate fell apart into separate Islamic states. The Arab states on the Iberian Peninsula suffered the same “diseases” as the Christian ones: intrigues, feuds, civil wars for rich cities. Soon the amazing Reconquista epoch, peculiar only to Spain, the struggle of the Spanish kingdoms against the Arab presence, which lasted 781 year.

The battle of Poitiers gave great food for thought to lovers and connoisseurs of alternative history. Would Paris be the Arab city of El Paris? Wouldn't Reconquista start from the banks of the Rhine? It seems that the Arab rulers did not have clear plans to seize territories north of the Pyrenees - they were too far from the epicenters of the power of the Umayyad power. These were pronounced predatory, perhaps even preventive campaigns. The Romans had been doing this long before, with their military expeditions to the north of Britain or deep into Germany.

In 1492, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, Granada, fell. The era of Arab rule and presence in Spain is over. The siege was attended by the still unknown Genoese mercenary Cristobal Colon, who will soon change history.
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  1. Turkir 9 October 2015 07: 07 New
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    Interesting article, thanks. Refreshed in the memory of the date.
    The title of the article also liked. wink
    1. War and Peace 9 October 2015 11: 22 New
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      the traditional history of TI says that until 9-10th century the riders did not have a stirrup, and now looking at these reconstruction pictures, imagine how a rider who is armed with a spear, is protected by a shield, and do not give boh with a sword or chain mail, how can he jump on a horse? High bounce? This is not possible, but the "historians" are beating in blood - "there was no stirrups and a point" ...
      1. nnz226 9 October 2015 11: 42 New
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        For the first time, stirrups were used by the Parthian horsemen when they defeated the legions of Crassus (the winner of Spartacus). After the victory in the capital of the Parthian kingdom, there were celebrations and theatrical performances where the king of the Parthians was present, and where, in the course of the play, the hero had to throw the head of the main villain onto the stage. Flung - it was Crassus' head ...
        1. Rusich is not from Kiev 9 October 2015 11: 57 New
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          Quote: nnz226
          For the first time, stirrups were used by the Parthian horsemen when they defeated the legions of Crassus (the winner of Spartacus). After the victory in the capital of the Parthian kingdom, there were celebrations and theatrical performances where the king of the Parthians was present, and where, in the course of the play, the hero was supposed to throw the head of the main villain onto the stage. Flung - it was Crassus' head.

          Where does this information come from? It’s just interesting how many sources write about it and how many real manuscripts of that era have been preserved?
        2. War and Peace 9 October 2015 11: 58 New
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          Quote: nnz226
          For the first time, stirrups were used by the Parthian horsemen when they defeated the legions of Crassus (the winner of Spartacus).


          Seriously? but how did it happen that the Parthians are in Turkey or Iran, i.e. something close to the Arabs, and the Arabs did not adopt such a useful thing as the STEP on a horse? Ignored? and continued to jump on a horse with all his iron? Is it possible to believe this?
  2. Enot-poloskun 9 October 2015 07: 12 New
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    In modern Europe there is no new Karl Martell. And it won’t ...

    As if Russia did not have to see the Caliphate on the western borders ....
  3. parusnik 9 October 2015 07: 27 New
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    A good title for the article, and the article itself..Thanks to the author .. By the way, why not the author swipe at the article about..the mercenary Kristobal Kolona, ​​who will soon change the story. wink
  4. Free wind 9 October 2015 08: 54 New
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    This was the first attempt by one religion to build a world-caliphate, but Christians gave it their teeth, then the Crusades began, which for a long time discouraged some individuals from Caliphate inclinations.
  5. unknown 9 October 2015 08: 59 New
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    The "Arabs" themselves call their letter Turkish. It was assimilated by them only after their conquest by the Turks. More precisely, after the conquest by the Turks of the territory on which the "Arabs" supposedly lived. The first, real, references to the so-called “Arabs” date back to the XNUMXth century.
    Therefore, there was no "Arab", or rather, a SLAVIC Caliphate. It was only a phantom reflection of the Ottoman Empire, which was placed in the past by supporters of the Scaligerian version.
    Speaking of Cristobal Colon. It is not even a matter of the name that translates as CHRISTIAN (or rather, Christian) - COLONIST. And in the country from which he allegedly sailed.
    Everything seems to be clear: PORTUGAL. But Portugal, this is Porto- PORTA and Galia- BRILLIANT. But THE BRILLIANT PORT IS THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE.
    1. Mairos 9 October 2015 12: 29 New
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      In fact, the Arab conquests date back to the period when the Turks did not smell of Turks in Asia Minor, there was not even such a thing. )))
    2. War and Peace 9 October 2015 12: 45 New
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      Quote: ignoto
      The "Arabs" themselves call their letter Turkish. It was assimilated by them only after their conquest by the Turks. More precisely, after the conquest by the Turks of the territory on which the "Arabs" supposedly lived. The first, real, references to the so-called “Arabs” date back to the XNUMXth century.


      and given that Turkey, before the Janissary suppression in 1826, was, as it were, not even Turkey, but Otomania -Atamania i.e. the country of Cossacks - atamans, which is actually confirmed by TI. The basis of the power of the Ports-Atamania was the YANICHAR-SLAVIC corps and it was the Janissaries who set and overthrew the Sultans i.e. the basis of the medieval state of Port -ORDA was precisely the Slavs who spoke Turkic and professed early Islam. It must be remembered that there is a version that KORAN was written by Ivan the Terrible, and if you read the other way around, KORAN is the “ADDITION” —the gripe the law is a charter-prescription, as we see the word Russian.
      Historians, of course, do not borrow written language from Turkey to Arabs, but vice versa from Arabs to Turks. Decimal numbers are also Arabic, the names of CONSTELLATIONS and stars are almost all Arabic. And given that in the 15th and 16th centuries, Russians used Arabic, for example, on a patriarchal miter, a ruby ​​gem on which the ARAB ELIGUE has an inscription. How can it be that there would be Arabic inscriptions on the Orthodox robe? It is impossible, but it is. A professor at the Institute of Translators Vashkevich, an Arabian, has long noticed the connection between Russian and Arabic, so most likely the ARAB ELM -Arabesque was a sacred language for worship. And it was the Scythians-Cossacks-Atamans who brought it to the east after the conquest of Kostantinople.

      Quote: ignoto
      Therefore, there was no "Arab", or rather, a SLAVIC Caliphate. It was only a phantom reflection of the Ottoman Empire, which was placed in the past by supporters of the Scaligerian version.


      viewers categorically should not say so, of course there was some kind of "antiquity" and this same "caliphate", but not in the form that TI draws for us, the concepts were replaced by those old buildings in Baalbek, the JUPITER Temple, the pyramid, the unfortunate antiquity Palmyra and even the antiquities of Northern Palmyra, all this was built by someone, but naturally not in the interpretation of TI.
      I was always surprised by the fact that such a powerful maritime state as the Porta Horde had no access to the ocean? or almost, as soon as the fleets of the Dutch were born, the British all at once sailed the oceans and colonization began, and Porta didn’t sit on the Adriatic Sea and were nearby and didn’t especially rock for Gibraltar, the same thing the Venetians, Genoeses, there’s something wrong with this history.
      1. Basil50 9 October 2015 21: 39 New
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        The Great Porta had ports in the Atlantic Ocean and floated freely around Africa. Muslims of that time were more sane and lived in harmony with many Europeans of different faiths. The history of England in the light of becoming a sea power is very interesting. Muslim satrapies actively collaborated with the British on mutually beneficial conditions, which the Spaniards, as ardent Christians, could not forgive. In the same way, Portugal had many * specialists * without European roots until the plague of Christianization spread across the peninsula.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Max_Bauder 9 October 2015 12: 46 New
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      Turks descended from Seljuk Turks, and those from the Oghuz, prototurkmen tribe.
      1. Atigay 10 October 2015 18: 54 New
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        Turkic, Turkmens are also Oguzes.
  6. Vais 9 October 2015 09: 09 New
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    In fairness, it’s still worth noting that the then Arab conquest would have benefited the wild barbarian western Europe, since it brought with it the enlightenment and civilization of the Mediterranean culture of the caliphate. Now, the expansion of Islam into Europe carries nothing but savagery and decline.
    1. mishastich 9 October 2015 09: 23 New
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      Very unlikely.

      1) Campaigns bore precisely a predatory function. Those. no Islamization would occur.
      2) People in the Barbarian kingdoms of Western Europe have not forgotten how to take a sword. Consequently, in the case of the occupation by the Omeyads, we would see the reconquista on a larger scale.
      3) Byzantium successfully carried the Mediterranean culture to Europe.

      Sincerely.
      1. Vais 9 October 2015 09: 39 New
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        That's it:
        1) Islamization is not civilization. I do not put an equal sign between these concepts. But objectively looking at things, it should be noted that those regions of Europe that were temporarily under Muslim rule (Sicily, southern Italy, Andalusia, Spain) were noticeably culturally ahead of the rest of Europe. The renaissance there began much earlier.
        2) And here I agree. I don’t think that Islam would last long there, but cultural influence remained.
        3) In those years, Byzantium did not lie was able to bring the light of ancient civilization to Western Europe. She was barely enough to protect her own borders. And the enlightenment of nearby peoples (Slavs, peoples of the Caucasus, steppes of the Black Sea region).
        Sincerely.
        1. mishastich 9 October 2015 10: 27 New
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          1) I may be wrong, but still put an equal sign between Islamization and civilization, yet Islam culturally and economically, in the early Middle Ages, experienced its heyday. The regions you listed (Sicily, South Italy, Andalusia, Spain) least subjected to barbarization during the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.

          About the Renaissance - it is necessary to write a separate and large article, otherwise we will become bogged down in a discussion of Italian city-states.
          2) Too much influence of local cultures, almost zero level of education. Cultural influence could be preserved only at the household level and only in those territories from which expansion into Europe could begin.
          3) In the 8th century, Byzantium lost its Middle East and North African possessions, retained Asia Minor, the Balkans, the South Caucasus and many islands of the Mediterranean Sea. It had a strong fleet and a regular army. Byzantium was the main bastion of Christianity. So even if we take as a basis that all these factors are not used, economic expansion still remains behind Second Rome.
        2. Severomor 9 October 2015 11: 39 New
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          Quote: Vais
          She was barely enough to protect her own borders. And the enlightenment of nearby peoples (Slavs, peoples of the Caucasus, steppes of the Black Sea region).

          As I understand it, my ancestors - the Slavs have just begun to descend from the trees and dig dugouts? The peoples of the Caucasus descended from the mountains, and the "wild" Scythians climbed off the horse at the desk))))
          1. Basil50 9 October 2015 21: 23 New
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            Severomor. You're right. The most important * authority * of the church brethren said so bluntly.
      2. Vais 9 October 2015 09: 48 New
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        As for the predatory function of the campaigns, it was always and everywhere where it came to Muslim expansion. First, light predatory raids and the limited participation of Muslim military contingents in local political squabbles, then, if all this goes well, full-scale occupation should follow. So did the Moors on the Iberian Peninsula, and the Turks in the Balkans.
      3. Mairos 9 October 2015 12: 31 New
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        In the 7-10 centuries, during the expansion of the caliphate, Islamization was a mandatory factor, where they then went through - everywhere there was almost total Islamization.
  7. Plombirator 9 October 2015 09: 27 New
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    Quote: parusnik
    By the way, why should the author not wipe the article on the .. mercenary Christobal Colon, who will soon change the story.

    Thank you, colleague! The plans have an article about the bold Genoese and more about many things))
    1. kalibr 9 October 2015 14: 40 New
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      Denis, for the future - David Nicole - that’s the way to write. Nicolle is from our home-grown translators!
  8. unknown 9 October 2015 09: 43 New
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    Byzantium in those days was the only state. ONLY.
    Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece have not yet been created and cast into the past.
  9. Orang 9 October 2015 10: 17 New
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    Isaac Asimov in his book on Byzantium considered the importance of this battle for the fate of Europe to be somewhat overestimated. The main force blocking the way for the Arabs to the West, he saw Byzantium.
  10. Sargaras 9 October 2015 11: 35 New
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    Quote: Vais
    As for the predatory function of the campaigns, it was always and everywhere where it came to Muslim expansion. First, light predatory raids and the limited participation of Muslim military contingents in local political squabbles, then, if all this goes well, full-scale occupation should follow. So did the Moors on the Iberian Peninsula, and the Turks in the Balkans.

    The predatory campaigns were carried out not only by Muslims. In the Middle Ages it was generally in order to rob a weak but rich neighbor. Although in our time the situation has not changed much, unfortunately.
  11. Jääkorppi 9 October 2015 12: 02 New
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    There were stirrups, but they were not used !! The spears were mostly thrown, and the real rider had to jump onto the horse. And the shield and sword were simply attached to the saddle. The use of stirrups was caused both by the use of heavy chain hauberks and the breeding of the corresponding horse breeds and the transition to ramming with a spear in the 12th century! Under Hastings, the Normans were without stirrups and threw spears, as was the case with Poitiers! And this battle was basically a simple raid of Arabs on the monasteries of France! But the battle of Toulouse was truly decisive !!
    1. kalibr 9 October 2015 14: 34 New
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      When Hastings were without stirrups? Where did you get this from? Look at the embroidery from Baye, before you write this!
    2. 27091965 10 October 2015 16: 15 New
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      Quote: JääKorppi
      The use of stirrups was caused both by the use of heavy chain hauberks and the breeding of the corresponding horse breeds and the transition to ramming with a spear in the 12th century!


      “The effectiveness of cavalry was facilitated by the spread of stirrups brought to Europe by Avars. Now the heavily armed horseman has received a much-needed fulcrum, the absence of which, for so many centuries, has reduced its combat effectiveness. ” "Riders of War" Book One. 2005
  12. Seneca 9 October 2015 12: 17 New
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    Thank you..good article. I consider the battle of Poitiers one of the most significant in the history of civilization and the subsequent progress that came almost a thousand years ago. How do you know lose the Franks in that battle .. maybe we ended the evening not in front of the monitor but at a hole)
  13. Bashibuzuk 9 October 2015 12: 24 New
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    Interesting.
    The one-on-one battle scheme is the battle of Macedon and Darius at the battle of Gaugamela and Arbil ..
    Where Darius got his, and thoroughly.
    So, we change Karl Martell to Alexander of Macedon, Ar-Rahman to Darius - and ... the second series.
    .
    I was interested that such a formidable, powerful, invincible-undaunted mobile horse army of heavy Arabs of archers (funny, somehow) stood and stood at Poitiers. Thinking that there are more francs - what did they expect when there will be even more francs? Or will they scatter?
    It turns out that the operational thinking of the talented commander of the Arabs did not spread beyond the robber raid? Rob and flush?
    And then I couldn’t even get away.
    Yearning.
    ....
    Yes, I never trusted the ancient descriptions of battles.
    After such material I’ll even less trust.
    One sold his daughter, for a year's respite ... or in the long term that this son-in-law asil Abd-ar-Rahman.
    Another .... waited by the sea for the weather.
    The third - created a mighty phalanx in swamps, floodplains of rivers and forest thickets, which do not care for "chubby horse archers".
    Grace, fantasize how much will fit.
    I’ll tell you more, Martell accidentally lurked “Serpent Gorynych”, which they bubbled from the right flank.
    Kayuk to the conquerors.
  14. Basil50 9 October 2015 12: 45 New
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    Fantasy on the theme of heroic Europe, defeated .... Just the Arabs plundered and returned to families to share the swag. And the valiant, etc., etc. Europeans described their victory according to the models of more ancient chronicles. Hence the inconsistencies and absurdities. Perhaps the Europeans and grabbed something from the convoy and trumpeted .... There are many examples of boasting and outright lies, it is impossible to believe in the honesty of those whose culture directly provides for the lies and blackening of everything at the state level, and not just nonsense.
    1. Orang 9 October 2015 12: 53 New
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      Quote: Vasily50
      Just the Arabs robbed and returned to families to share the swag

      The hunt so far to "go for swag", however, repelled, do not you find?
      1. Basil50 9 October 2015 14: 03 New
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        And Europe of those times was a hole and a hole was not particularly valuable, well, only slaves, and you don’t * run away * with them. Europe was made the center of the universe much later, when they began to rob everyone they could reach. And then storytellers about * greatness * and other husks appeared. Entire literary trends with claims to the greatness of all that is European. Read about the formation of the term * chauvinist *. Get a lot of * pleasure *. Sometimes it’s embarrassing to hear the enthusiasm voiced by homegrown * democrats * and * tiligents * about Europe.
        1. Orang 9 October 2015 15: 40 New
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          Quote: Vasily50
          And Europe of those times was a hole, a hole

          Why did they conquer Spain? And the raids, if there is nothing to take, to France, and then the Vikings? Compared to Byzantium and the center of the caliphate, Europe was a hole, and the North African famine found it worthy of prey from their point of view. This later Muslim Spain became the center of civilization.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  15. Seneca 9 October 2015 13: 03 New
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    The infantry still steers .. like in those days it is still now. Of the significant battles, those that relied on cavalry were blown back. Even if we take for example the Battle of Kulikovo .. where the cavalry decided the outcome of the battle .. But the main battle was borne by the Russian infantry .. and the cavalry only completed what it had begun. The truth is reminiscent of the Battle of Cannes ...
    1. traveler 10 October 2015 12: 22 New
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      Quote: Seneca
      Infantry still steers

      yeah, only all seljuks there but the Mongols did not know about it
  16. Seneca 9 October 2015 13: 10 New
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    Quote: Orang
    Quote: Vasily50
    Just the Arabs robbed and returned to families to share the swag

    The hunt so far to "go for swag", however, repelled, do not you find?

    He already found his smile - "There are many examples of boasting and outright lies, it is impossible to believe in the honesty of those whose culture directly provides for the lies and denigration of everything at the state level, and not just the nonsense of a loner."
  17. Free wind 9 October 2015 17: 00 New
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    This is a religion of evil, and it must be destroyed !!!! "I read and reread this book, many many times, but there is only hatred of Gentiles and women ....
  18. ALEA IACTA EST 9 October 2015 18: 03 New
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    A disciplined and united army always triumphs over a scattered crowd.
    PS The name is killer. I think that in the near future, battles will rattle again in Europe ...
    1. traveler 10 October 2015 12: 20 New
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      and where was the fragmented crowd here?
      in fact, in the 7-8 century, the Arab army was one of the best, look at the map at the beginning of the article.
  19. Weyland 10 October 2015 23: 00 New
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    - Karl Martell was a robber, he was the worst of infidels !! - ... - He burns in hell! He was a dirty scoundrel!

    “He was your ancestor, you fool!” - Jeanne did not give the interlocutor a crack at all not for reasons of decency. (...)

    - It does not matter! It doesn’t matter who the person is from, it’s important that he professes the true faith.

    - That's just all of you heels licked Arabs, which does not matter.

    “Well, they are all the same descendants of the Prophet, in the sense among the Arabs there are his descendants,” Iman objected tentatively.

    - And we are the descendants of the one who beat these descendants of the "Prophet" in mortal combat, - Jeanne sighed. - Yes, the ancestors would all have gone to monks all together, when they knew that they could give birth to people like you. ("Notre Dame Mosque")
  20. Reptiloid 11 October 2015 10: 50 New
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    Thank you for the article. I liked it very much.
    By this historical time, I had questions about the life of Europe.
    It is interesting that the Prophet Muhammad SAM led his troops into battle, the conquests and the rapid spread of a new religion immediately began. The speed with which events occurred was surprising. As L.N. Gumilyov wrote, this happened for 80 years. It is possible, as part of chemistry and medicine the Arabs knew the secret of distillation of ALCOHOL !!!
  21. RUSS 11 October 2015 13: 26 New
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    One of the best articles in the last month! Five points to the author1
    1. Plombirator 11 October 2015 22: 30 New
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      Thanks for the support!)
  22. RUSS 11 October 2015 13: 28 New
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    The still unknown Genoese mercenary Cristóbal Colón took part in the siege, which will soon change history.
    Christopher Columbus (Italian: Cristoforo Colombo, Spanish Cristóbal Colón, Latin Christophorus Columbus; between August 26 and October 31, 1451, Genoa - May 20, 1506, Valladolid, Castile and Leon) - a Spanish navigator of Italian origin, who discovered America for Europeans in 1492 , thanks to the equipment of expeditions by the Catholic kings.
  23. Alex uhu 11 October 2015 17: 24 New
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    Interesting article. I would like to read an article about the fight against the caliphate in other "sectors of the front" - Byzantium and the Caucasus.
  24. Plombirator 11 October 2015 22: 30 New
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    Quote: Alex Uhu
    Interesting article. I would like to read an article about the fight against the caliphate in other "front areas" - Byzantium and the Caucasus

    Thank! plans a lot of ideas on this topic too)