ILLEGAL, SON OF ILLEGAL
The pledge of Anatoly Vasilyevich’s popularity among cultural figures was his very last name, in which both the “moon” and “charms” are heard, and in general something mysterious in the spirit of the symbolists. But the riddle was explained simply: for a long time, Russian noblemen gave their last name to illegitimate children with transposed letters.
So did the Poltava landowner of the Polish blood Fyodor Charnolussky, whose son from the housekeeper became Lunacharsky.
Later he inherited the estate of his father and married the young beauty Alexandra Rostovtseva, who lived a full-blooded life and converged with the official Antonov. From him in November 1875, Alexandra Yakovlevna, and gave birth to a son, Anatoly, whom Lunacharsky dutifully recognized as his own. He was probably trying to hush up the scandal in order to avoid the ridicule of the landowners' neighbors.
Anatoly adored his father and wept bitterly when he died in 1885 after an unsuccessful operation.
However, he cried all his life often and for any reason.
The mother, on the other hand, did not like it - for an incomprehensible whim she had forbidden him to wear glasses up to 13 years, and classmates laughed at the short-sighted boy. The dislike of classmates aggravated by the fact that he studied excellently and spoke fluently in four languages.
After the death of his father, the family moved to Kiev, where someone slipped Marxist pamphlets to an ardent young man. Hardly having comprehended new truths, Anatoly went to preach them to the worker together with his comrades — the future philosophers Berdyaev and Bulgakov. As a result, the police took note of him, he finished the gymnasium with a quartet of behavior, which closed his way to the universities in the capital.
However, the good-natured Lunacharsky regularly supplied the illegal son with money, which allowed him to go to study in Zurich. There he quickly gained confidence in the Russian Marxists — Plekhanov himself valued his oratorical talent, although he doubted other abilities: “A talker, and nothing more.”
Offended Anatole, as he called himself in a foreign land, decided to prove the opposite and in 1898, he returned to Russia to raise people for a revolution. However, the landlady quickly turned in a revolutionary to the police, and after a brief stay in the Taganskaya prison he was sent to Kaluga. Here he became friends with Alexander Bogdanov - the theorist of Marxism and part-time doctor, enthusiast of eugenics - forced improvement of the human breed.
The result of friendship was the marriage of Lunacharsky to Anna Bogdanov’s sister, a slim, ugly girl who, like her brother, was fond of biology and wrote fantastic novels.
1918 year. Rally on Red Square. On the podium Lunacharsky. Photo: RIA News ria.ru
AUTHOR OF THE "ROYAL CHALLENGE"
At the end of the exile, the newlyweds left for Paris, where Lunacharsky met Lenin - "an Alfresco colossal figure, who has no equal in moral terms." (Alfresco - painting on wet, fresh plaster; in this case, Anatoly Vasilyevich emphasized the pictorial monumentality of the figure of Lenin the Leader. - Ed.). The term Italian art terminology was in love with a leader endowed with strong will and determination, which Anatoly himself was deprived of. From now on, he unconditionally recognized the primacy of Lenin, and he immediately appreciated its usefulness and took to Geneva to fight against the Mensheviks.
Prior to this, the latter were easily overpowered by the tongue-tied Bolshevik orators, but they were folded before Lunacharsky. He could easily and naturally spend hours on any topic, suppressing his interlocutors with erudition and literally drowning them in a stream of eloquence. Comrades in the party to the dispute tried to come up with an object about which he could not make a long speech - in vain. True, attempts later to recall what he was talking about did not lead to anything. Like the attempts of Lunacharsky himself to write something coherent: on paper he was much more helpless than on the podium.
Having understood this, he began to slander the texts to the secretaries - so dozens of books were born, of which today hardly anyone remembers at least one.
In the revolutionary 1905, Lunacharsky returned to St. Petersburg and was soon arrested by the police at a party on the occasion of the New Year at the height of another fervent speech. Once on the bunks at Kresty, he immediately began writing the play The Royal Barber, which had little to do with the revolutionary movement. The plot: King Dagobert wants to rape his own daughter, the beautiful Blanca. The reaction magnates ardently support the idea of a pervert, but the brave barber Aristide "with a quick movement cuts the king's throat. The king's head falls off." The barber "sits on his chest, waving a razor with a bloody razor," and expresses an intention to cut off the nose and the ears of the king. And here is how the heroine of the play Blanca:
You Beelzebub (laughs).
And you did not think, stupid,
What will I recognize you?
But I called You by your name.
On, eat (tears the dress on the chest).
Eat your body, bite your chest, chew, drink blood! (Laughs.)
No, do not get to the soul forever,
Mom's soul, there is no soul here ... (Laughs and falls on the bench.)
Probably, this terrible text reflected the awe of the timid grafoman before the harsh punishment. But the royal court was merciful: the prisoner was soon released, and he safely departed abroad, where Lenin gave him the nickname "destroyer" Frivolous. "
1920 year. Moscow. Lenin and Lunacharsky bypass the guard of honor, heading towards the site of the monument. Photo: RIA Novosti ria.ru
PASSENGER "SEALED CAR"
In the year 1917, after the first “sealed wagon” that took Lenin to Russia, the second went: Lunacharsky rode in it with his wife and son. Thrifty Germans fed the passengers balanda, from which spoiled revolutionaries turned up their noses. Lunacharsky was the first to take a spoon, tried it and said thoughtfully: “You know, it’s nutritious!”
Soon this non-disgust was useful in politics.
In the masses agitated by the revolution, the one who spoke more beautifully and promised more was more popular. The pearls of Lunacharsky were incomprehensible, but they fascinated the intelligentsia: “Or maybe these Bolsheviks are not so bad?” In the days of the July insurrection, he again landed in the “Crosses” and was again quickly released due to obvious harmlessness. And the next day after the capture of the Winter he was appointed Commissar of Education.
But he wrote gloomily to his wife: “One thing is clear - with the power we don’t get anything ... It’s worthy to die for our program. But it’s terrible to be considered the culprit of ugliness and violence.” Hearing that the Kremlin was destroyed during the fighting in Moscow (which turned out to be an exaggeration), he immediately resigned. "The struggle is hardening to bestial anger ... I cannot bear this," he wrote to Lenin, for which he gave him a dragging out. As a result, the People's Commissar persuaded to remain in office: no one except him knew how to lead education.
But he did not know either. The culture, science and education of a vast empire, millions of educated people, suddenly declared “redundant”, unnecessary to the victorious proletariat, were in charge of the “eruptive and balamut”. When Lunacharsky first appeared at the Academy of Sciences, pundits defiantly turned their backs on him. Not flustered, Anatoly Vasilyevich began to speak in French, he naturally switched to German, then to Italian.
When more than half turned to him, he remarked to the others: "Gentlemen, it is common for cultured people to sit facing the interlocutor." The ice was broken. And finally in 1919, when the People's Commissar arranged a meeting with the intelligentsia in a Moscow restaurant on the Petrovsky lines — vinaigrette, jam jam, and carrot tea. The rulers of doom who had forgotten about such luxury were fascinated.
No wonder that Lunacharsky also got a taste. Korney Chukovsky recalled: “He is shining with complacency. Serving someone, doing a favor is nothing more pleasant for him! He imagines himself as some kind of omnipotent blissful creature, exuding grace on everyone. Terribly loves his signature, and stretches to paper, however sign ... The audience rushing to him at the door, to the dismay of his grumpy maid, who loudly rages on every new call.His also run, his son Totosh, a spoiled pretty screamer, and a mini-simple Madame Lunacharskaya - all this is chaotic, good-natured, naive ka in vaudeville. "
Of course, the Commissar did a lot of useful things. Despite ideological differences, he beat out rations for writers and professors. Opened publishers and institutions. Spas Bunin, who were going to arrest the Odessa security officers. But Gumilyov could not save - he called Lenin in the middle of the night, but he replied: "We cannot kiss the hand raised against us."
After the execution of the poet, he cried again, threatened to resign, but continued faithfully and unabasily to serve the authorities.
Meeting with Romain Rolland. Photo: RIA Novosti ria.ru
In the reception of the People's Commissar forever begged petitioners. The young philologist Igor Sats came to Lunacharsky right from the front of the Civil War. He turned out to be indispensable in clerical work, vesting the stream of consciousness of his superior in strict literary forms. Soon, Sats introduced the people's commissar with his sister, actress Natalia Rosenel, whose husband had perished at the same Civic. A beautiful woman with a magnificent figure, an elegant profile and a shock of red dyed hair was 25 years younger than Lunacharsky, and he could not resist.
The new family moved from the cramped Kremlin apartment to the apartments in Denezhny Lane. The house turned into a salon, hospitably open to actors, artists and other bohemians. The guests sang the praises of the host - someone even called him "Pericles of Soviet Athens" - not forgetting to sing the beauty of the hostess. Rosenel vigilantly watched her husband at home and at work, not forgetting his burden to the actresses. But did you follow ...
There is a version that Bulgakov - who didn’t like Lunacharsky very much - was the one who brought him in his novel under the name of the chairman of the Acoustic Commission Sempleyarov, whose amorous adventures were exposed by Koroviev in the Variety Theater.
The wife of the People's Commissar sported in velvet dresses and went shopping in a service car. They lived in a big way: the weekend was spent in the estate of Ostafyevo (its former owner, Count Sheremetev, left there as a caretaker), every year they went abroad for holidays. Dissatisfied with this "proletarian poet" Demian Poor after the premiere of Lunacharsky's play "Velvet and Rags" composed an epigram published in Pravda:
Valuing the art of the ruble,
Our Commissar sees the goal:
Tatters gives the public
A velvet - Rosenel.
Stung Narkom answered, too, in rhyme:
Everyone says you're Beranger.
But I, a people's commissar, do not hypocrite:
You're just b, you're just w,
And the fact that Beranger - I do not believe.
He did not allow anyone to offend his wife until the party intervened. This happened when Rosenel was late for the Red Arrow, and Lunacharsky, who was waiting for her in the compartment, delayed the departure of the train for an hour. A reprimand on the party line forced him to rein in his presumptuous spouse ...
Natalia Alexandrovna will write about the memory of the heart about her husband. She died in the 1962 year, surviving the first wife of the People's Commissar Anna for three years.
Their son Anatoly, the very spoiled Totosha, died heroically in the defense of Novorossiysk.
Anatoly Lunacharsky and Maxim Gorky. 1928 year. Photo: TASS
Lunacharsky turned out to be the most durable of the first Soviet people's commissars, and by the end of the 1920s, it was in bad harmony with the changed Soviet life. Not yet old, he was often sick, which is not surprising at a crazy pace of life. Every day, spinning like a squirrel in a wheel, attending a dozen meetings, rallies, performances. Driving around the province, I could read up to eight reports per day on various topics. He slept on 3-4 hours a day, managing to find time for writing and dictation.
However, the development of the system of the People's Commissariat of Education - without subsidies and meaningful strategy - contributed little. The department of Lunacharsky was leading a miserable existence at the time when the People's Commissar was plotting new and new reforms. As a result, the confused teachers taught the children how to hit and what they got. Fantastic school communes were born, experimental techniques were developed, pedology flourished, later declared false science ...
And the reason for his resignation was a miserable, at first glance, reason - the dispute over the transfer of several technical schools to the industrial department. This was the beginning of the system of vocational schools, bringing up "appendages to machines", and the end of Utopia Lunacharsky about the "harmonious education" of the new man.
In September 1929, he voluntarily-forcibly resigned. He was conducted with honors, appointing the head of the Scientific Committee, coordinating the activities of the Academy of Sciences. But the real rights of Lunacharsky became less and less. No one reacted to his protests when people from “alien stratum” were fired from universities, and their nominees took their place. His heart ached constantly - from his youth he suffered from tachycardia. And in 1932, he had surgery in Germany to remove his eyes that had stopped seeing.
At the same time, Natalia Rosenel noticed under the articles of her husband the unfamiliar signature "AD Tour." "What does it mean?" - Asked her husband. It turned out, translated from the French "avant dernier tour" means the penultimate period, "before the end of life."
Sensing the onset of the worst times, Lunacharsky was asked to be ambassador to a European country. He was sent to Spain. On the way he lingered in the French resort of Menton. Here at night, under the new 1934 year, Lunacharsky woke his wife: "Be ready. Take yourself in hand. You have to endure great sorrow." Hastily called the doctor suggested a spoonful of champagne to relieve the pain, but the patient strictly replied: "I used to drink champagne only in a glass. And I don’t see any reason to change my habits." After drinking, he managed to say: "I did not know that dying so painfully."
With wife Natalia Rosenel. Germany. December 1930 city Photo:
Shortly before his death, he wrote in his diary: "I created very little for my fierce time. Suppose I didn’t do anything hard. But you can’t hide from myself that in the end I’ll answer for everything."
These words obviously belong not to the narcissistic eloquent man as Lunacharsky was considered by his contemporaries, but to an intelligent man, subtle, who know their place in the play. stories and the time when you need time to go backstage.