The birth of missile carriers

Of stories first experiences of underwater starts


55 years ago - September 10 of the year 1960 from the submarine of the 611VP project from the depth of 30 meters was the world's first launch of a ballistic missile with a liquid-propelled jet engine. And on November 12, the first Soviet nuclear submarine, the famous K-1960, went into operation with the launch of three missiles at once. The author was lucky to be a direct participant in those memorable events.

The first experience of the underwater launch was fully used in the development of the Miassky design bureau of machine building under the guidance of the general designer Viktor Makeev of the P-27 rocket for the underwater launch. Her tests began on February 24, 1962, with a launch from the submarine of the 629 project near the island of Kildin in the Barents Sea. As one of the testers, I took part in this and subsequent launches. This was the beginning of a series of submarines with missiles launched from a submerged position.

Tasks of the starting team

The rocket was an upgraded version of the P-11FM, which was in service with diesel boats. In September of this year, the first launch of such a rocket from the B-67 submarine turned 60 years. The modified and reinforced version passed the stages of bench tests, then began to launch from the submarine. Two attempts were unsuccessful, and in the course of the first there was a unique situation. After all the necessary operations on the boat, a launch was made, the launch team decided that everything was in order and the commander reported to the leadership of the support ship Aeronaut that the rocket had gone. From there they reported that the flight was not seen. To understand what happened, the boat moored to the "Aeronaut". They opened the mine hatch and were amazed to see that the rocket was still in it. About an hour later, while deciding what to do, her engine suddenly turned on and a start occurred. On the cabin of the boat and in the water it was unimaginable. By luck, no one was seriously hurt, because due to the small inclination of the rocket, the engine torch only slightly burned people. 10 September 1960, all preparatory operations and the launch of the rocket passed without comment.

Difficult debut


The first atomic bomber K-19 was prepared in the workshop at Sevmash enterprise for a relatively long time. The launch team was daily in the workshop and on the boat in the 4 missile compartment, preparing and checking the equipment. Nothing new - everything is familiar from diesel boats. But, of course, the atmosphere was unusual. In addition to the regular team, developers were also present, so the boat was quite crowded. Our mindless, if not worse, attitude to the rules of radiation safety was remembered: at the entrance to the workshops and at the exit there were racks of control of the dialed doses, which required some time to stand for measurements. We have always famously stepped over them. Subsequently, several people from V.P. Makeev were urgently sent from Severodvinsk because of higher doses. For many of us, this all affected later.

“While deciding what to do, suddenly the rocket engine turned on and a start occurred. It was unimaginable on the cabin of the boat and in the water. ”
During the sea trials of the K-19, including diving to the utmost depth, due to an alarm, I accidentally put on a technical test supervisor's jacket and found an encryption draft on the shore in my pocket, which read: “The 2 circuit appeared, continue testing”. I keep it still.

The launches of three missiles from the K-19 nuclear submarine were conducted by the launch team in the first half of November 1960, first with one P-13 missile, then with two volley. Everything went well, so the missilemen didn’t remember anything special, except that it was our first nuclear-powered rover. I considered this boat to be my own, followed its fate and was very worried about the tragedies taking place on it.

But today we need to remember not only about them, but also about the pace of construction, testing and commissioning of boats that is absolutely unthinkable for the present time. From November to December 1960 of the year, the first three nuclear-powered rocket ships were commissioned. And that's not counting diesel boats. There was no such thing in the world either in those years or later. At the same time, the state flight tests of ballistic and cruise missile complexes and test launches from serial batches took place in parallel at the test site.

Everyone experienced enormous overloads, but we were young and full of energy, loved our profession, living and working in the midst of special people and feeling in this connection a tremendous spiritual upsurge, realizing that we were the first to be at the forefront of the most important scientific and technical achievements.

NPS on the conveyor


The starting team at that time consisted of four people: the commander, the officer providing the work of the integrated training scheme and the entire sequence of recruiting commands and the set of readiness for launch, the officer responsible for the operation of the system of refueling the missile with components of the fuel from the boat tanks pointing the rocket at the set target that was entrusted to me.

The birth of missile carriers


My task, in particular, was to put the rocket on the base as precisely as possible in a horizontal plane. To do this, my team brought me from the mine (necessarily at night to hide what was happening from prying eyes), then I climbed the ladder to the hatch under the head, unscrewed the bolts, removed the hatch and attached a special theodolite to the onboard equipment. After that, he gave commands down to the turns of the launching pad with a rocket until the deviation from the plane became minimal. It was not easy to do all this in extreme cold, when it was still necessary to record all instrument readings in the dark with petrified hands.

During launches, it was necessary to be in the fourth (missile) compartment of the submarine at its equipment, to monitor the current values ​​of its coordinates, to be corrected manually in the event of their deviations during prolonged operation and overheating from those determined for the starting point.

The submarines at the Sevmash enterprise were lowered one by one; in the process of sea trials, we conducted control missile launches. On boats before and after start-ups usually had to be for a long time. The launch team was removed from the board very quickly only in cases of emergency launches, primarily at the request of counterintelligence officers to find out whether there were no deliberate actions. And only then did they analyze the technical causes of the accidents.

Unattainable ideal of tradition


In those years, a wonderful atmosphere developed at the training ground. Perhaps this is one of the main and brightest periods in my life. Most senior officers were participants in the war, while respecting us, the “green” lieutenants. They turned exclusively to "you", by name and patronymic. Only after a closer acquaintance did the senior bosses allow themselves to call us by name, but not call out by name. Then it seemed a natural continuation of Russian traditions fleet. Now this seems an unattainable ideal.

We also had to have individual conversations with the head of the testing range of Hero of the Soviet Union Ilya Alekseevich Khvorostyanov, his deputy for testing, Fedor Petrovich Sorokin, as well as with the heads of departments Yevgeny Yefremovich Shurmelev, Vasily Ivanovich Lyamychev. Everyone was talking calmly, without any shouts and poking.

My first boss is the captain of the 2 rank, Yevgeny Matveyevich Kashintsev, a war veteran, a naval officer, an intellectual of the highest standard, taught me a lot, above all the processing and analysis of telemetry data, the preparation of flight missions for missile launches. He talked about so unusual episodes that occurred during the war during the reception of ships under Lend-Lease from the Americans that one should write a separate article about this.

The composition of the starting team was sometimes changed, most often I had to work with the captain of the 3 rank Eugene Pankov. Captain-Lieutenant Alexey Sharov was sitting at the control panel of the complex scheme, Captain-Lieutenant Vitaly Peregudov was in charge of the refueling system. There were other officers, excellent specialists.

The members of the starting team were not only tied up with hard work, during which extreme situations arose, but also true friendship. In the intervals between trials, we went hunting, fishing, for mushrooms, and cranberries.

Pankov captured the war, served in the marines, a decisive, honest officer. Tragically died in the 1962 year after the launch of the P-27 rocket from neutral waters from a submerged position in radio silence mode in calm. A boat floated to inspect the mine and several people went upstairs. At that moment, an American amphibian exited the boat from the Sun’s side and had to dive urgently. Only some time later, they discovered that Zhenya Pankova was not on the boat. Floated, returned to the launch area - in vain. They asked the Americans, whose plane could quickly sit down and pick up a person. Through diplomatic channels, we were told that no one was picked up.

Alexey Sharov perfectly knew the onboard equipment of the missiles and all the systems of the 4 th missile compartment of the boat. We watched with admiration as he remembered, strictly in the calculated seconds of the recruitment, brings the stopwatch to many dozens of burning banners of the complex scheme. Now Alexey continues to work in St. Petersburg.

Vitaly Peregudov - ac refueling systems, exceptionally modest, hardworking, resilient and benevolent person. Repeatedly dealt with the leakage of toxic fuel components, which was noticeable by the color of his face and eyes. After the dismissal, he stayed in Severodvinsk, and we just recently re-established the connection.

When analyzing the causes of accidents, we had to talk with many well-known developers: Nikolai Nikitich Isanin, who called us “arrows from Khvorostyanov”, Viktor Petrovich Makeyev, Iosif Mendeleevich Igdalov and other famous and interesting people of that time who can be remembered and told endlessly. Many of them have already passed away. Light memory to them.
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  1. aszzz888 11 October 2015 06: 19 New
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    Thanks to the author for the article.

    Time flies, and in place with it more and more new missiles.
    So Caliber flew away with success! May God grant health to all involved in this type of weapon.
  2. Scharnhorst 11 October 2015 06: 42 New
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    All this is very touching. But where does the site "Military Review"? I do not evaluate the article, but minus the author.
    1. Alexander Romanov 11 October 2015 07: 32 New
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      Quote: Scharnhorst
      All this is very touching. But where does the site "Military Review"?

      And indeed what laughing
    2. Sakh 11 October 2015 08: 42 New
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      And the article is not on a military topic or what?
      So don’t drive.
    3. bulvas 11 October 2015 09: 15 New
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      Quote: Scharnhorst
      All this is very touching. But where does the site "Military Review"? I do not evaluate the article, but minus the author.


      It is difficult to overestimate the significance of such articles.

      Then the bill went on for years and months, if these people could not do what they did, where would we be now?

      Now the time is similar, the article is on time, thanks to the author


      1. bulvas 11 October 2015 11: 42 New
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        Quote: Scharnhorst
        All this is very touching. But where does the site "Military Review"? I do not evaluate the article, but minus the author.


        Ever heard people poisoning with heptyl?

        At one time, we had one of the rules on the test - the pants of the protective suit should be released on the boots.

        Not everyone complied, after the product was launched (by the way, for those about which the article was only later) one unscrewed the connection, a certain amount flowed out from there and on his leg and boot.

        He jumped out into the street, took off his boot, took off his shoes, rinsed off, put everything on again and went to work.

        In the evening, he was walking with his family in the park, he became ill, fell, lost consciousness.

        They brought to the hospital, they could not understand the reason, while they found out where it works, etc. he died

        Probably, this episode is also "nothing to do with", but this is for those who are interested in where it comes from.


    4. tolian 11 October 2015 10: 00 New
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      Would you like to see an article on porn?
    5. alexs1833 11 October 2015 23: 06 New
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      really, what does ????? here we are discussing culinary laughing
    6. kamil_tt 12 October 2015 11: 22 New
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      and you were waiting for the next political propaganda, weaned from an article about weapons?)
  3. starshina pv 11 October 2015 08: 30 New
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    rather historical article for general development.
  4. aziatt 11 October 2015 10: 07 New
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    Quote: Scharnhorst
    All this is very touching. But where does the site "Military Review"? I do not evaluate the article, but minus the author.

    Have you ever read what the article is about? Well, at least looked at color pictures?
  5. Resistance 11 October 2015 11: 07 New
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    Yes, I’m interested in reading about a gyroscopy setting like this for the first time. We were still a bit read the R-21, but about this is not told. The officers from the "zero nine" have a wealth of experience, they told me this, you will hear it.
  6. akudr48 11 October 2015 12: 34 New
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    Our space rocket epic was most fully described by Chertok in his 4 volumes, which told not only about rockets and launches, but also about people who created the most advanced equipment in difficult conditions.
    They started with FAU-2, and then only on their own components, according to their technology, by their engineers, scientists and workers.
    And all this - without any import substitution, as well as without chuibas, Naibulin, Gaidar, Berezovsky and other effective managers to plunder the country.

    About the creation of the domestic atomic, and then rocket submarine fleet, there are no voluminous and solid materials at the Chertok level, as far as I know, but it's a pity.

    Therefore, such memories are valuable, those who directly participated in the development and testing of nuclear missile carriers.

    Very good post.
  7. Vladimir 1964 11 October 2015 13: 15 New
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    A good, somewhat touching article. hi soldier
  8. kvs207 11 October 2015 15: 58 New
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    Quote: Scharnhorst
    All this is very touching. But where does the site "Military Review"? I do not evaluate the article, but minus the author.

    Weird question. But what if, for example, I, as a non-military person, also do not have the right to come here?
    The article is certainly necessary and useful. Allows you to penetrate how difficult it was to go ahead.
    1. WUA 518 11 October 2015 18: 02 New
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      http://library.by/special/k-19/contents.htm
  9. xomaNN 11 October 2015 18: 10 New
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    Very informative. And on the topic is close to our related work. Humanities do not even imagine that missiles do not themselves successfully fly hi
  10. Stirbjorn 11 October 2015 20: 27 New
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    By the way, the film good Americans shot "K-19". We were sent to the military department by officers to watch it, by mouth) Then they said that in general it was removed as it was, even in reality a little worse. This is probably why the American movie audience did not appreciate it, there were problems with cost recovery - without a cool action, with the Americans saving the world.
  11. mosquit 11 October 2015 21: 43 New
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    My task, in particular, was to put the rocket on the base as precisely as possible in a horizontal plane. To do this, my team brought me from the mine (necessarily at night to hide what was happening from prying eyes), then I climbed the ladder to the hatch under the head, unscrewed the bolts, removed the hatch and attached a special theodolite to the onboard equipment. After that, he gave commands down to the turns of the launching pad with a rocket until the deviation from the plane became minimal. It was not easy to do all this in extreme cold, when it was still necessary to record all instrument readings in the dark with petrified hands.

    During launches, it was necessary to be in the fourth (missile) compartment of the submarine at its equipment, to monitor the current values ​​of its coordinates, to be corrected manually in the event of their deviations during prolonged operation and overheating from those determined for the starting point.


    Forgive the "gentlemen / comrades", but we do not read this "text" ...
  12. mosquit 11 October 2015 21: 44 New
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    And this is in memoris

    At launch, it was necessary to be in the fourth (rocket) compartment of the submarine at its equipment

    Let's say ..

    follow the current values ​​of its coordinates

    The coordinates of the equipment are actually known ... or is it about a rocket? wassat

    manually correct in case of deviations during continuous operation and overheating from those defined for the start point

    I'm lost here wassat
    What to correct?
    Deviations of what?
    Long work of what?

    and overheating from those defined for the starting point
    - tin ...

    During sea trials of K-19, including immersion to the maximum depth, on a combat alert, I accidentally put on the jacket of the technical manager of the tests and found in my pocket a draft of the encryption on the shore, in which it was written: "There was a leak of the 2nd circuit, I continue the test." Keep it still
    - hiding evidence? bully

    In those years, there was an amazing atmosphere at the site. Perhaps this is one of the main and most exciting periods in my life. Most of the senior officers were participants in the war, while respecting us, the "green" lieutenants. Appealed exclusively to "you", by name and patronymic. Only after a closer acquaintance, the senior bosses allowed themselves to call us by name, but not to call us by name. Then it seemed a natural continuation of the traditions of the Russian fleet. Now this seems to be an unattainable ideal.
    - that is, did not swear? laughing

    Delivered MINUS ...
  13. Captain45 11 October 2015 22: 00 New
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    Thanks for the article. This is OUR story that you need to know and remember! And to this sunken cruiser my "---"
  14. Boa kaa 12 October 2015 00: 02 New
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    A deep bow and deep respect to the people who stood at the origins of our nuclear missile fleet.
    But for me, as if I were involved in the sub-melting, this paragraph causes legitimate bewilderment:
    After all the necessary operations on the boat, the launch was made, the launch team decided that everything was in order and the commander reported to the leadership of the supporting ship “Aeronaut” that the rocket had left. From there they reported that they did not see the flight. To understand what had happened, the boat moored at the Aeronaut. They opened the hatch of the mine and were amazed to see that the rocket was still in it.
    And now in the specialty:
    -r start-21 - wet: pressurization, blowing of tanks, bells, filling the annular gap with water, balancing pressure with outboard, opening the shaft cover, product outlet. At the same time, very quickly (1,5s) a hung boat loses 17 tons of weight, which are filled
    system of possession in the equalization tank (!) to keep the boat at a given depth. Then the mine is closed, drained, and the next rocket was launched. This is approximately the cycle.
    Now questions:
    - The weight of the R-21 rocket is almost 17 tons, and when replaced by the hold operator of the 4th compartment, it is impossible not to notice their receipt in the replacement. Accordingly, the report in the CPU also sounds.
    - The rocket engine runs for 1,5 seconds, the roar of the liquid propellant rocket engine is concrete, it is simply impossible to not hear it in the 4th compartment, separated from the 50mm shaft.
    - The boat shudders: at a speed of 17m / s 17t of a roaring product breaks up. The boat receives an impulse of 290t. Here you need a good boatswain to keep the nurse at a given depth ...
    If all “this” was not there, then how could the “starting team” report on the output of the product from the mine? Maybe the respected author, being a young specialist in the 4th compartment, didn’t hear what kind of report the shooting director (located in the CPU-3rd compartment) made on the controller ship? (Whether you like it or not, * Lieutenant *, even a very respected one, has the "16th number" in the whole story).
    Most likely, the Commander was ordered to come up and approach the controller ship to clarify the circumstances ... This is of course a violation, but it’s safer than going to the base with a “misfire” ...
    In addition, over time, much is forgotten, and age makes itself felt. The author is now required to under 80 years old! (In 1960, he was 23-24 years old).
    I repeat once again: these people deserve the deepest respect! soldier
    1. Mister22408 14 October 2015 11: 45 New
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      "... By July 1958, the R-11FM missile was finalized for underwater launch and received the C4.7 index. The first launch of the C4.7 missile from the B-67 took place on the White Sea in August 1959. The launch failed. For launches observation was carried out with the help of the Aeronaut vessel. A cable-cable went to the surface from the boat to the raft with the antenna. Using it, communication was made in the VHF range with the observation vessel. It gave a start signal. The boat equipment signaled that the rocket had left. However they didn’t see the launch from the “Aeronaut”. The boat surfaced, opened the mine, and from The missile that appeared in it spontaneously started. The next attempt was made (again unsuccessfully) on August 14, 1960 - in the process of filling the mine with water due to a manufacturing defect in the system, the missile was dropped from the launch pad and the warhead was lost. The first successful underwater launch in the USSR C4.7 missiles took place on September 10, 1960, 40 days after the first underwater launch of the American Polaris A-1 rocket on July 20, 1960. "
    2. Mister22408 14 October 2015 12: 03 New
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      "... By July 1958, the R-11FM missile was finalized for underwater launch and received the C4.7 index. The first launch of the C4.7 missile from the B-67 took place on the White Sea in August 1959. The launch failed. For launches observation was carried out with the help of the Aeronaut vessel. A cable-cable went to the surface from the boat to the raft with the antenna. Using it, communication was made in the VHF range with the observation vessel. It gave a start signal. The boat equipment signaled that the rocket had left. However they didn’t see the launch from the “Aeronaut”. The boat surfaced, opened the mine, and from The missile that appeared in it spontaneously started. The next attempt was made (again unsuccessfully) on August 14, 1960 - in the process of filling the mine with water due to a manufacturing defect in the system, the missile was dropped from the launch pad and the warhead was lost. The first successful underwater launch in the USSR C4.7 missiles took place on September 10, 1960, 40 days after the first underwater launch of the American Polaris A-1 rocket on July 20, 1960. "
  15. DenZ 12 October 2015 13: 43 New
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    this paragraph is legal bewilderment

    This paragraph has long been roaming the Internet and hardly belongs to the author of the article.
    I read about all this about 3 years ago. I note that by creating an article about the "birth of missile carriers" it would be possible to pay more attention to the options for project 611 (diesel) with which, in fact, this birth begins. The topic in this regard is not completely disclosed, unfortunately.
  16. mvg
    mvg 13 October 2015 16: 22 New
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    Are these the boats where Harrison Ford served? :-) At that time, the Americans were already sailing boats with a dozen rockets, and with a range of 1600 km, they had to catch their blood from the nose, they launched absolutely raw products into the series, not worrying about crew safety, only time, taking care of safety countries ... The main first entry into the sea and a successful launch .. Somehow I read about this a more professional article. The tragedy abruptly Kursk. Maybe we live now thanks to them .. So the article is no worse than the Armored Car Lynx, which didn’t swim, didn’t go anywhere, and most likely will not go ..
  17. rohl 21 October 2015 02: 04 New
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    It would seem that it was so drive? But this is all from the fact that we were chasing the whole world. It’s hard to fight the whole world.
    Or maybe it was worth being in peace with peace? We checked this with M.S. Gorbachev and B.N. Yeltsin. The world needs Russia in the form of a slave plantation.