Military Review

Towards a classless society

Towards a classless society

The first Constitution of the RSFSR defined the political structure of the country for two decades.

The Blank Slate

The main law, adopted by a resolution of the 5th All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers, Peasants, Red Army and Cossack Deputies 10 July 1918, defined the principles for the organization of a state that did not know its analogues in the world stories. The constitution was largely based on the first decrees of the Soviet government and the documents adopted by the All-Russian congresses of the Soviets, and this is not accidental - one of the main goals of its adoption was the need to summarize the principles of statehood and the legal system established during the months that passed after the October Revolution. For example, the first of the six sections of the Constitution of the RSFSR actually repeated the “Declaration of the Rights of the Working and Exploited People”, recalling the main task of the victorious revolution: “the destruction of all exploitation of man by man, the complete elimination of the division of society into classes, the ruthless suppression of exploiters, the establishment of the socialist organization of society and the victory socialism in all countries. "

This section did not stint on such formulations: “expressing the uncompromising determination to wrest mankind from the clutches of finance capital and imperialism, which filled the earth with blood in the real most criminal of all wars”; "Insists on a complete break with the barbaric policies of bourgeois civilization, which built the welfare of the exploiters in a few selected nations to enslave hundreds of millions of working people in Asia, in colonies in general and in small countries." The Constitution did not hide the fact that the new state is “doomed” to fight against a hostile environment and is oriented toward a reorganization of the whole world. That is why the creators of the document deliberately broke with many traditions of European law, for example, with the principle of separation of powers.

However, the first Soviet Constitution still set itself more specific goals: it had to determine the structure of power in the new state.

State of the dictatorship of the proletariat

The Constitution established the appearance on the map of a new country - the Russian Soviet Republic, which was established on the basis of a “free union of free nations” in the form of a federation of Soviet national republics. The constitution declared Russia a republic of Workers ', Soldiers' and Peasants 'Deputies' Soviets - it was the Soviets who should have owned all the power in the center and in the provinces. Congresses were required to convene at least twice a year.

The constitution called the state of the proletarian dictatorship, which was to serve the interests of only the working population, was the main tool for achieving the ultimate goal of building socialism, in which there would be no division into classes or state power. All the others were deprived of political rights: “now, at the time of a decisive struggle of the proletariat with its exploiters, the exploiters can not be in any of the organs of power,” the authors of the Constitution reminded. At the same time, the Constitution provided workers with a number of political advantages over other classes, even over the peasantry. So, city councils sent more deputies than rural ones. The constitution dissolved the permanent provincial councils, replacing them with congresses, but kept the lower level councils - city and workers - retained, made them permanent bodies and at the same time provided for frequent rotation of personnel within them: council members were elected for 3 month and could be withdrawn voters for any wrongdoing.

Thus, the electoral scheme in the new state meant a departure from the gains of the February Revolution (by the way, the electoral law adopted after its victory was the most democratic in the world): the new elections were neither universal, nor equal, nor even direct, because the All-Russian Congress was elected by city councils and provincial council congresses. The principle of the election to the councils was production-territorial: the workers elected deputies from factories and plants, and the rest of the urban population and peasants elected deputies at their place of residence.

In the period between congresses, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTSIK) became the carrier of power. However, the congress was enshrined the right to cancel any decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee or orders of local authorities that are contrary to the Constitution or decrees adopted by the Congress of Councils. The All-Russian Central Executive Committee, in turn, had the right to cancel or suspend the decisions and decisions adopted by the government - the Council of People's Commissars (SNK). National policy as a whole was expressed in the law of regions differing in national composition and “special way of life” to the formation of autonomies.

The delegates of the 5th All-Russian Congress of Soviets are standing in front of the entrance to the Bolshoi Theater. Photo: RIA News

According to the Constitution, the government controlled the activities of 17 of individual commissariats: foreign, military, maritime and internal affairs, justice, labor, social security, education, post and telegraph, nationality, financial affairs, communications, agriculture, commerce, industry, food, state control, health care, as well as the High Council of the National Economy - the body engaged in planning in the economy. People's Commissar possessed enormous power, he could single-handedly make decisions on any issues in his area of ​​government. Only the board formed at each commissariat and under the chairmanship of the commissioner himself could limit his actions. In case of disagreement with his decisions, the board could complain about him to the Council of People's Commissars or to the presidium of the Central Executive Committee.

"Not a worker, let him not eat!"

The main law established labor as the duty of all citizens of the republic, proclaiming the somewhat sloping slogan borrowed from the Bible: “Do not eat and not eat!” And it’s not surprising that the Constitution of the first proletarian state in the world provided a lot of advantages to the “working class and peasant poor”: She passed into their hands all the technical and material resources for the publication of newspapers, brochures, books and any other printed materials, ensuring its free distribution throughout the country. In order for proletarians to freely organize meetings, rallies and processions, they were provided with all premises suitable for organizing people's meetings “with furnishings, lighting and heating.” The constitution declared the determination of the Soviet government to give the proletarians a complete, comprehensive and free education.

For the first time in the history of the country, the Constitution introduced universal military service. True, “the honorable right to defend the revolution with weapons in the hands ”was granted only to the working people: the Soviet authorities did not trust those who did not belong to the proletariat so much to give them a weapon. They were supposed to help the country's defense with "other military duties" like digging trenches. The constitution also separated the church from the state, but, curiously, kept full freedom for citizens, both anti-religious and religious propaganda.

The first Soviet Basic Law contained several norms that seem surprising even now, as they broke with the generally accepted tradition of state-building. Thus, putting at the center of the solidarity of the working people of all nations, the RSFSR granted to foreigners living on its territory all the same political rights that its citizens had. Moreover, the country guaranteed the right of asylum to all foreigners who are being prosecuted for political and religious crimes (even now the laws of the states stipulate this rule with great care).

The main principles on which the first Constitution of the RSFSR was built, not only formed the basis of all the constitutions of the Union and autonomous Soviet republics that were subsequently adopted, but were also reproduced in the first Constitution of the USSR that followed in 1924, thus defining political and the socio-economic structure of the new state. Many of these principles were abolished only by the Constitution of 1936. So, the "Stalinist" Basic Law returned universal suffrage.
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  1. 3 Gorynych
    3 Gorynych 9 October 2015 16: 03 New
    It’s time to return some norms to our Constitution, and the latter is written taking into account the wishes of a certain category of non-citizens!
    1. Truth
      Truth 9 October 2015 18: 57 New
      On the way to a classless society ...

      Well, yes, of course, classless, so it is, our teperic society has already become a clan ...
      Humpbacked for 15-18 thousand, and parasitic on them with feeding in 85-110 thousand ...
      But the average salary in the country is 40-45, why not Paradise ...
  2. akula
    akula 9 October 2015 16: 07 New
    Maybe back to the future.
    1. Petrovich1952
      Petrovich1952 9 October 2015 16: 33 New
      Maybe back to the future. And what is wrong with 46 years of work experience of 9997. with 2 copecks in the USSR I would get 130 rubles and everything was enough. There was confidence in life.
      1. SibSlavRus
        SibSlavRus 9 October 2015 16: 52 New
        Your truth! There was consistency, stability and confidence in the future! There were guarantees! GOSTs, standards. Those. all that is missing now. And the population did not have the desire to kill each other for social justice and legal parasitism.
  3. SibSlavRus
    SibSlavRus 9 October 2015 16: 09 New
    All the same, better than socialism, humanity has not come up with anything and will not come up.
    1. 3 Gorynych
      3 Gorynych 9 October 2015 16: 11 New
      Theoretically YES!
  4. starshina pv
    starshina pv 9 October 2015 16: 34 New
    Robyat !!! BACK TO USSR!!!!!
  5. SibSlavRus
    SibSlavRus 9 October 2015 16: 44 New
    All the same, better than socialism, humanity has not come up with anything and will not come up!
    And our country was on the path to achievement. And yet, it is worth considering socialism as a unique, purely Russian socio-political phenomenon.

    One has only to recall how rapidly the world, looking at Russia, the USSR, absorbed the ideas of a socially just state and what opposition capitalism had to do with it.
    The most interesting thing is that during the struggle (competition) of social and capitalist ideas (or rather two systems), the best indicators were demonstrated on both sides, but with the collapse of the USSR and the change in the socio-political system, all social guarantees under capitalism collapsed. There was a rollback and degradation in the countries of the capitalist world. For there was no one to compete with.

    The worst thing that happened was that society was deprived of the right to self-clean (physically and mentally) through executions and penal servitude for the genetic ugliness of society (from pedophiles to maniacs), embezzlers, traitors and enemies of the people.
    We were replaced by the values ​​and immune system of the state according to the Western model.
    And convinced that this is normal.
    But tens of millions of citizens gave their lives for the idea of ​​a Socialist state.
    А the fruits of the achievement of this state are used by a handful of enemies of the peoplewho have already written for themselves many laws that would be clever to rule and protect themselves loved ones.
    Whoever, for myself, decided that the current government is legal (by means of re-elections of course), but not legitimate in fact (Enough of cynicism to blame ukrov for the Maidan, but did they come to power in 1991-93 otherwise?).
    Only after revising the results of privatization in favor of the State Power and creating a lifelong special zone in the northern latitudes for everyone involved in the robbery of the country and people, moving towards a Social State with a Constitution similar to 1977, the people of the slandered and plundered country will be worthy of their Power .
    And much of what is being done now (do not flatter yourself!) Is done primarily to maintain the status of the government itself, people in power, but otherwise it will be as usual - imitation of violent activity, handouts, etc., until the category of population traders, hucksters, other businesses (especially bankers and industrial capital!) does not exceed the number of citizens-creators of the past socialist state.
    And then, as it is now in the West. I really do not want this, however.
    After all, all those achievements of the current President and his team can be offset by the number of Yeltsin’s liberals who still have many at key posts and who have become impudent from impunity and permissiveness. For misses and sabotage, coupled with a huge waste (theft) of funds, I want to see PUNISHMENT, not a mockery of justice.
  6. 34 region
    34 region 9 October 2015 17: 45 New
    Well written but a little disagree. The president has already declared his commitment to liberal values, the rejection of state ownership of the means of production, Stalin called the time terrible and generally no return to the past.
    1. nail
      nail 9 October 2015 18: 36 New
      Of course terrible. Then it was impossible to steal, as it is now, in billions. It was also possible to earn a "tower".
  7. Yuri Y.
    Yuri Y. 9 October 2015 20: 58 New
    "On the way to a classless society"
    Forgot about such a class as bureaucracy (bureaucracy). Stalin in my memory.
  8. boris-1230
    boris-1230 10 October 2015 06: 36 New
    It is based on a fair view of things: whoever works, he must live with dignity. And here someone plows from morning to night, barely making ends meet, and a rich parasite sat out in restaurants for days on end, not knowing how to pamper himself.
  9. Raider
    Raider 11 October 2015 00: 01 New
    The words the worker sounded! Now office plankton among business sharks and gas and oil whales sounds proudly !! The so-called middle class. Who shout the most, sell everything, we must produce it ourselves. But no one hurries to the machine. Liberals are those who have something or have raped. Unions have turned into departments of social programs. Workers are listed in the Red Book. But it was the most powerful layer of society. They made a revolution in 17 ... What the GOELO plan was worth. We want to live better, we must raise the working class and educate good engineers. A country of frightened lawyers and fat economists, forever predicting a crisis and fearing the onset of "war" communism. What in Moscow, for example, is produced where the average monthly salary is equal to annual income in the outback ?? No oil, no gas, ah !! Yes, all firms are registered in megacities, and money flows in the heart of the country, which feeds on the blood of the regions. I would like to know, on the scale of the capital, how many soldiers are drafted from Moscow ??? In% of the total population of the city registered ... We all love our homeland, we only protect it in different ways. Something went wrong in the steppe. IMHO.