Military Review

"Roscosmos has a mundane task now"

19
"Roscosmos has a mundane task now"“Experience shows that the creation of modern space technologies allows us to tighten up to many other sectors of the economy. But while we are sitting on the oil needle, we are unlikely to fly far away, ”said Alexander Zheleznyakov, academician of the Russian Academy of Cosmonautics, on the Day of the Space Forces.


Exactly 58 years ago, the USSR launched the first artificial Earth satellite into space. This date is celebrated in the Russian Federation as the Day of the Space Forces and is considered the beginning of the space age of mankind. Now in the Russian cosmonautics there are periods of despondency and pessimistic forecasts caused, in particular, by the crash of the Proton-M launch vehicle and a number of other loud failures, periodically replaced by periods of hope associated, for example, with the announcement of the promising project Soyuz-5 or commissioning (in the foreseeable future) of the Vostochny cosmodrome. But the position of pessimists seems to be still stronger. Especially after the American probe New Horizons for the first time transmitted a signal to Earth after approaching Pluto (after which adviser Barack Obama called the USA the world leader in space).

“Now at the helm of the rocket and space industry are people who were not brought up inside the industry, but came into it from the outside. These are “crisis managers”, which, unfortunately, it does not matter which industry is in charge of ”

On whom does the national astronautics stand today, how have we disposed of the gigantic Soviet heritage and what are the prospects for the space industry of modern Russia? The answers to these and other questions concerning Russian space were given in an interview to the VIEW newspaper by an academician of the Russian Academy of Cosmonautics named after K.E. Tsiolkovsky Alexander Zheleznyakov.
VIEW: Alexander Borisovich, many experts have repeatedly stated that the development of space research in Russia without cooperation with Ukraine is impossible. Do you agree with this opinion?

Alexander Zheleznyakov: I do not agree. Russia's economic, technological and scientific potential is sufficient to conduct space research alone. Another thing is that within the framework of international cooperation this can sometimes be done faster, and even cheaper. Especially considering the close ties that we have or have had with other countries of the former Soviet Union.

But a lot depends on the international situation. Now we are forced to break contacts with Ukraine, but we continue to strengthen them with Belarus and Kazakhstan. Not everything is smooth in space cooperation with the United States and Europe, but in their place China and India immediately arose. Of course, psychologically we do not feel very comfortable, breaking ties with Ukraine. We are one people and historically should be together. But the thing is “big politics”. There is one recipe in this difficult situation - to continue working.

VIEW: What powers are currently leading in the space industry?

A.Zh .: Three unconditional leaders: Russia, the USA and China. In some ways, we play the first roles, for example, manned cosmonautics, in some ways the Americans are leading, for example, deep space, in something we must pay tribute to the Chinese with their pace of increasing space efforts. But the current astronautics is different from the one that was 60 years ago. Today, international cooperation is in the first place, which allows us to do much more than go it alone. Space exploration and exploration is a matter for all of humanity. Therefore, it is better to lead all together, and not separately.

VIEW: By the way, were the Americans still on the moon or not?

A.Zh .: There were. And this topic should be closed for a long time, and not to discuss all sorts of crazy versions. But we have not been to the moon so far. And it's a shame.

Space research is one of the locomotives of the country's technological progress. The experience of space research shows that the creation of modern space technologies makes it possible to pull many other branches of knowledge and economics under their level. Remember how the space-rocket industry was created in our country. In 1950, we had to develop not only science and heavy machinery, but also the chemical industry, energy, and light industry. That is, to develop the entire economy in order to become the first in space. Another example is the American Apollo program, which pulled many sectors of the American economy along with it and brought many technical innovations to our lives. If today the task of organizing an expedition to Mars is set, it will also be able to pull along other branches of knowledge and other branches of the economy. It is important that this was not an ephemeral goal, but a specific goal with clear deadlines for its implementation.

In order to compete in the modern world, to be a strong power, it is necessary to develop precisely those industries that contribute to this. At the same time, it is necessary to understand that sooner or later the earthly resources will be partially exhausted and will have to fly behind them into space. This may not be the near future, but someday it will happen. And it is necessary to prepare for this now, so as not to be "at the bottom of the tub." Man has always sought to expand the range of his habitat, to learn new, unknown.

VIEW: If distracted, why does the Russian astronautics need a flight to the moon? For the construction of lunar bases for the extraction of fuel for hydrogen energy? Well, in general, when will Russia return to large-scale breakthrough space projects like the flight of Gagarin or the landscaping of Mars?

A.Zh .: One should not expect that in the next century Mars will "bloom apple trees". This is still very, very far away. And the moon is not at all the place where we will extract energy resources. But we must fly to the moon. First, the natural satellite of the Earth is a unique testing ground for space technology, with which we will conquer deep space. The rockets and ships created on Earth, before they fly to asteroids, to Jupiter, to Saturn, should be tested closer to the Earth. Secondly, the moon is a great research base. From the surface of the night luminary, we can even further look into the depths of the universe and learn something new, unexpected. Thirdly, our eternal satellite companion is a promising “launch” cosmodrome. Created on its surface, the ships will be easier to go into deep space. Yes, and it will be safer to do it, especially if we are talking about ships with nuclear engines.

It seems to me that when our compatriots land on the moon, then we can talk about the return of our astronautics to the leading position. After that, there will be new breakthroughs in space and new pioneering achievements. Just not to delay with this.

LOOK: Today we are talking about our preservation in space at the level of one of the leading countries, or are things different?

A.Zh .: The situation is complicated. Now at the helm of the rocket and space industry are people who were not brought up inside the industry, but came into it from the outside. These are “effective managers”, “crisis managers”, which, unfortunately, it does not matter which industry is in charge of. Regarding the professionalism of such leaders, I will say this: as managers, they are high-level professionals. But I am not sure that such people are needed for our cosmonautics. In many cases, it would be desirable for enterprises to be run by people who know how and why missiles fly.

Fortunately, there are still quite a few people left in space enterprises who know their business and for whom cosmonautics is not only a way to earn their daily bread, but also an important component of life. Cosmonautics is holding them today. Yes, romantics are now much less than pragmatists, but they are. And I would like to hope that it is they who will revive the former glory of the national astronautics.


Success statistics of space launches in different countries


VIEW: How much money is currently allocated to Roskosmos?


A.Zh .: For the solution of the tasks set by the government before Roscosmos, money is allocated enough. Another thing is that these tasks are not small, but some, I would say, “mundane”: communication, navigation, remote sensing of the Earth, reconnaissance, meteorology. Of course, all this is necessary for the normal functioning of society. But there is no “zest” in them that would attract unrelenting attention of people to space. How was it at the beginning of the space age?

Well, how much money is needed “for the full development” of cosmonautics, no one can say. Astronautics is the “redundant” activity of humanity, and its development is determined by the capabilities of the economy. How many will give - so much and "eats". The main thing is that the money goes to its destination, and not into the pockets of those who distribute this money.

VIEW: Is the presence of a private business in the space field - good or evil?

A.Zh .: Cosmonautics cannot exist in the modern world apart from other sectors of the economy. Therefore, I believe that in some cases the presence in the space sphere of private traders is both justifiable and useful. An alternative, of course, could be full state control over the space industry. But this is hardly justified in modern realities. And the effect of this may not be at all what one would like.

LOOK: Can further space exploration become one of the fundamental components of our national idea, because for this, people must be well educated and organized, right?

A.Zh .: The fact that space exploration can and should be one of the main components of our national idea has been discussed for a long time. Indeed, there must be something that will unite the nation, determine the goal to which not a separate group of society, but the whole people will strive. For example, a manned flight to Mars could well be one of the first goals in the conquest of space and one of the elements of the national idea. Or something similar in scale. But, I'm afraid, this is from the realm of fantasy. While we are sitting on the oil needle, while we continue to form a consumer society, we are unlikely to fly far.

VIEW: You agree with the statement that the Soviet and Russian cosmos was and remains the successes of socialism, the successes of people who did not consider profit to be the meaning of life, but were guided by higher ideas, such as the ideas of development and progress of our society, both technological and moral?


A.Zh .: I agree that this was the success of our people. And no matter what at that time was the socio-political system. We were united in our aspirations. We had a goal. We were really guided by the ideas of development and progress. And not only in the interests of his country, but of all mankind. We were romantics. And we went into space.

VIEW: People who have paved the way to space, alive and dead, are the heroes of our country. But do we remember them today as they should?

A.Zh .: Unfortunately, not always and not at all. Most often this happens "about." And the rest of the time as if these people were not there.

But I would like to warn those who stood at the origins of the national cosmonautics against canonization. First of all, they were people, with their strengths and their weaknesses. And this must also be remembered. And remember that in this case hundreds of thousands and millions of people participated, the contribution of each of which, though not as weighty as that of the leading figures, but the overall success depended on them.
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19 comments
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  1. GRAY
    GRAY 8 October 2015 14: 40 New
    +5
    To restore the satellite constellation to begin with.
    1. Temples
      Temples 8 October 2015 16: 02 New
      +5
      Therefore, it is better to lead everyone together, and not separately.

      Lead together ??? What is it like??? fool
      Impressive picture: athletes run a hundred-meter holding hands and cross the finish line synchronously!
      The goals are achieved by those who set this goal in front of themselves and move towards it no matter what.

      Article - drooling and snot!
      “Everyone is doing the wrong thing and the wrong people!”

      Take it and do it! If you know what and how !!!
    2. Andryukha
      Andryukha 8 October 2015 16: 03 New
      0
      And which of the groups? There are many tasks.
      I looked at the photo of a friend and understood why he was not brought here. The comrade in the photo looks like a pessimist. I do not want to offend anyone.
      In the sayings of this distinguished person, there is always a motive: Give money, give money! Something that reminds me.
      Astronautics for the sake of astronautics is certainly possible, but will someone pay for it? All will be their taxes. And this is necessary in order for some enthusiastic and deserved people to swing wide. And where is the return? In future? Which one? And there is no answer.
      1. mervino2007
        mervino2007 10 October 2015 09: 40 New
        0
        Quote: Andryukha
        Give money, give money! Something that reminds me.

        The interviewee indicates how the main goal of the Russian cosmonautics is to land on the moon. A task that has nothing to do with the efforts of our competitors. Man lives in isolation from life. On the vital issues of the survival of our cosmos, the Moon is the last task. Need a heavier booster. Americans are already swinging 130 tons of payload. And we? At 35, with the Hangar.
      2. mervino2007
        mervino2007 10 October 2015 09: 40 New
        0
        Quote: Andryukha
        Give money, give money! Something that reminds me.

        The interviewee indicates how the main goal of the Russian cosmonautics is to land on the moon. A task that has nothing to do with the efforts of our competitors. Man lives in isolation from life. On the vital issues of the survival of our cosmos, the Moon is the last task. Need a heavier booster. Americans are already swinging 130 tons of payload. And we? At 35, with the Hangar.
  2. CTEPX
    CTEPX 8 October 2015 14: 59 New
    0
    were the Americans on the moon or not?

    A.Zh .: There were.

    Alexander Zheleznyakov, as a decent person, cannot break the oath once given to the Americans)).
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet 8 October 2015 19: 19 New
      0
      Quote: ctepx
      Alexander Zheleznyakov, as a decent person, cannot break the oath once given to the Americans)).

      If Galileo was like you, he would not spoil his eyes at night at his homemade telescope, but would crack a beer and fall asleep ... hi
      1. CTEPX
        CTEPX 9 October 2015 01: 37 New
        0
        Quote: Bayonet
        like you

        And why are you so interested in my humble person that you advise me to break the regime?))
        And about the "living Americans on the Moon" ... That will end the US hegemony on information and many will be ashamed)). I hope. If they have a conscience ...
        1. Bayonet
          Bayonet 9 October 2015 07: 11 New
          0
          Quote: ctepx
          And about the "living Americans on the Moon" ... That will end the US hegemony on information and many will be ashamed)). I hope. If they have a conscience ...

          It is foolish to deny the obvious, if there is a conscience. Even satellite images of the moon do not convince you. You may not love or even hate Americans, but they were there. Armstrong, stepping on the moon, said - "This is one small step for man, but a giant leap for all mankind." You see - "for all of humanity", including for you and me! hi
          1. FlyEngine
            FlyEngine 9 October 2015 11: 49 New
            0
            You just can not take seriously people who consider flying to the moon a fiction. This is ordinary, children's envy. Even our astronauts say that they know for sure that the Americans were there, and we monitored their flight a lot and tightly. Even ships of the Navy were sent, so that if anything, they could pull out the American crew upon landing "not there."
            Twenty-first century, and people still live on stupid conspiracy theories. Oh God-God-God.
            1. CTEPX
              CTEPX 9 October 2015 14: 06 New
              0
              Quote: FlyEngine
              Even our astronauts say

              The astronauts are military personnel)). They ordered - they are silent, it will be necessary - they will say)).
              Quote: FlyEngine
              Even ships of the Navy were sent, so that if anything, pull out the American crew upon landing

              So they caught ... the Apollo 11 model. Without a crew)).
          2. CTEPX
            CTEPX 9 October 2015 14: 03 New
            0
            Quote: Bayonet
            even satellite images of the moon do not convince.

            About the "pictures" - this is a different story)). Does it bother you that the moon has not yet been visited by a single living cockroach (mice, cats, dogs), but there were only "live Americans"?)).
  3. lilian
    lilian 8 October 2015 15: 14 New
    +4
    Article plus. In contrast to the "Terrible Space", the goal of space exploration is not set as commercial, but as a factor of progress and prestige of the country.
    Indeed, the reason for the existence of the state can be made not only a squabble with America and the West, but the disclosure of the secrets of the universe, the search for extraterrestrial life, extraterrestrial intelligence.
    1. kil 31
      kil 31 8 October 2015 15: 34 New
      +3
      Quote: lilian
      Article plus. In contrast to the "Terrible Space", the goal of space exploration is not set as commercial, but as a factor of progress and prestige of the country.
      Indeed, the reason for the existence of the state can be made not only a squabble with America and the West, but the disclosure of the secrets of the universe, the search for extraterrestrial life, extraterrestrial intelligence.

      We have a squabble there, even in interplanetary contracts. Nasa calculated that it takes at least 40 yards to fly to Mars, we calculated we need at least 20 yards and invited them to cooperate. They strongly refused, they said we will not cooperate with the Russians in this area. hi
    2. Andryukha
      Andryukha 8 October 2015 15: 45 New
      +2
      The economy must be economical.
      First you need to understand why to do something, to propose solutions. This is politics. Then you need to calculate how much these options will cost. This is the economy. You need to choose an option. This is a strategy. Then you need to do it. This is a production. Then you need to apply and succeed. This is a tactic. And then celebrate. And only here is pride.
      1. lilian
        lilian 8 October 2015 17: 01 New
        +1
        And the very beginning is to want. But the trouble is that those who are concerned do not want to. No ambition. Or there is, but they seem to be their personal well-being and do not in any way affect the successes of the country as a whole.
  4. Vladimir 1964
    Vladimir 1964 8 October 2015 16: 17 New
    +2
    “Now at the helm of the rocket and space industry are people who were not brought up inside the industry, but came into it from the outside. These are “crisis managers”, which, unfortunately, it does not matter which industry is in charge of ”


    Hard but correct phrase. You can disagree with my colleagues, but that unfortunately is, that is.
    And the article itself is really interesting!

    Something like this. hi
  5. rosarioagro
    rosarioagro 8 October 2015 17: 17 New
    +2
    "Roscosmos has a mundane task now"

    And this is bad because, having not learned how to work for the future, they will solve problems no further than the gestational
  6. NordUral
    NordUral 9 October 2015 11: 45 New
    0
    “Now at the helm of the rocket and space industry are people who were not brought up inside the industry, but came into it from the outside. These are “crisis managers”, which, unfortunately, it does not matter which industry is in charge of ”
    The whole country is run by such crisis managers, crisis managers in the sense that they will bring the country to the grave.
  7. pescimakhi
    pescimakhi 9 October 2015 16: 23 New
    +1
    Bet should be placed on people who are driven by the idea and are passionate about their business (space) and then the managers ...