Military Review

Anti-aircraft missile geometry: "Tor-M2E"

At the beginning of the 70-x, the military was faced with the issue of improving the military air defense. The existing Shilka already had an unsatisfactory range, and it was necessary to do something. As a further development of the Shilka, the Tunguska complex was created, having not only larger-caliber guns, but also missiles. However, the development of means of attack, such as adjustable bombs or cruise missiles, required a review of views on the defense of troops and objects.

In addition to the Tunguska missile-gun, it was necessary to create a purely short-range anti-aircraft missile system. Its main goal is to accompany the troops on the march and, if there is such a need, to cover stationary objects from air attacks. The creation of the air defense system was assigned to the Moscow Scientific Research Electromechanical Institute (NIEMI); the development of the rocket took MBC "Torch". And already in 1986, the TOR missile system was put into service. The new self-propelled air defense missile system, like the Tunguska, received ammunition of eight missiles, but the Torah 3М330 SAM has a larger radius of destruction - up to 12 kilometers against eight from the Tunguska. Also "Thor" has a greater height of destruction of targets - up to 6 km.

The tracked chassis of the GM-335 Minsk Tractor Plant was chosen as a running gear for the “Torah”. As in the case of “Shilka”, the missile system should have been able to accompany the troops on the march, including on rough terrain. Even at the stage of creating the appearance of the air defense missile system, the technical requirements eliminated the requirement to swim over water barriers: in this case, the complex would have turned out much more complicated and expensive. Characteristic features of the "Torah" were the vertical location of the missiles and the rotating "tower" - an antenna-launcher that carries two radar antennas (target detection and guidance stations), and there are vertical launchers for eight missiles.

At the end of the 80-x was upgraded complex. In addition to the updated equipment, Tor-M1 received a new transport and launch container under the index 9Я281 for missiles. Now they were loaded not one by one, but “packages” of four. Due to the new TPK, it was possible to reduce the reloading time of the air defense system to 20-25 minutes. Also on the basis of the 9М330 rocket 9М331 was created: it received a new warhead and some design improvements.

From the beginning of the 2000-x, work is underway on the next modification of the “Torah” - “Tor-M2”. Once again, the composition of the electronic equipment of the complex was revised. The main goal pursued by the designers was to ensure the work of the air defense missile system in the conditions of electronic countermeasures, including the attack of targets with low ESR. For this, Tor-M2E received a number of new equipment modules (the exact replacement structure is naturally classified), a slotted phased array and a new software for the target detection station. The list of potential targets of Tor-M2E now includes not only airplanes and helicopters, but also high-precision weapon (rockets and bombs), unmanned aerial vehicles, etc. So, for attacking targets, not two channels are now used, as in Tor-M1, but four, and the height of target destruction is increased to 10 km.

The composition of the "Tor-MNNUMX" as follows:

Anti-aircraft missile geometry: "Tor-M2E"

- fighting machine. Either 9А331М on a tracked chassis, or 9А331МК on a wheeled MZKT-6922. Both running gears are made at the Minsk Tractor Plant. At the same time, the "tower" with launchers and radar antennas, as well as equipment, are completely analogous.

- The anti-aircraft missile module 9М334, consisting of a container, four 3М331 missiles and two special beams for connecting it with other containers. The 3М331 rocket can hit aerodynamic targets flying at speeds up to 700 m / s and maneuvering with overload up to 10 units. To counteract the "dances" of the target, the rocket can maneuver with overload up to 30 units. The rocket is launched in a mortar manner, and at a height of about 15-20 meters, its cruise engine is launched. Also, the engine can be turned on 1 a second after the missile is ejected from the TPC or if the missile deviates from the vertical by an angle of more than 45-50 °.

- Transport-charging machine 9Т244, set of rigging equipment, etc.

The equipment of the combat vehicle allows detecting, identifying and tracking targets both in the parking lot and on the move. To launch a rocket, in turn, you need to stop the machine. After the launch of the Tor-MXNUME rocket, it can start moving again and catch up with the escorted unit. At the same time, Tor-M2 can “see” 2 targets and accompany ten of them, simultaneously identifying their danger. To improve the efficiency of work, Top-M48E has a so-called. pipeline mode of operation: one target channel is used to attack one target; As soon as a rocket is launched from the ground at the target and hits it, the channel can be instantly switched to another attack. Thus, Top-M2E has more opportunities to repel the enemy’s massive attacks than its predecessors.

Another innovation Tor-MXNUME concerns the interaction of combat vehicles. If necessary, two cars can be combined into a link and share information about the goals. In other words, another one immediately recognizes a target detected by one machine and vice versa. Also, the "link" mode allows you to distribute the surrounding space between two machines and, as a result, to provide a more effective cover for the object. In addition, a rocket fired by one machine can be induced at the target by means of the second complex. In addition to collaboration, the “link” allows you not to get out of the battle with a car with a damaged target setting station - in this case, all the necessary information will come from another “Torah” consisting of the link.

Due to the large automation of equipment, the crew managed to reduce the crew from four people at the “Torah” to three at the “Tor-M2E”.

For the first time, the general public learned about the "Tore-MNNUMX" at the MAKS-2 air show, and the complex was adopted by the Russian army in the following year. The last modification of the Torah has also interested foreign countries: a contract has already been signed with Belarus for the ZRK division, and the contract with Libya from 2007 of the year seems unlikely to be fulfilled for objective political and economic reasons.


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  1. Vadivak
    Vadivak 12 November 2011 09: 37
    "Chistilshik" is in demand, sorry Gaddafi did not have time

    1. Sergh
      Sergh 12 November 2011 10: 21
      The range would be a little more, although this is another car.
      Target Parameters
      in height, m ​​in range, m in exchange rate parameter, m
      Speed ​​300 m / s from 10
      up to 10 from 000
      up to 12 to 000
      Speed ​​600 m / s from 10
      up to 6000 to 12 to 000
      Speed ​​420 m / s
      shooting after 1500
      up to 10 from 000
      to 8000
      WTO with EPR * more than 0,1 sq. m
      speed up to 700 m / s from 50
      up to 6000 from 1500
      up to 7000 to 6000

    2. Voodoopeople
      Voodoopeople 12 November 2011 14: 26
      Quote: Vadivak
      "Chistilshik" is in demand, sorry Gaddafi did not have time

      - You did not pay attention to the fact that everyone does not "have time", and Russia traditionally "delays" deliveries or cancels with Iran - like the S-300 "Yugoslavia".
      1. Voodoopeople
        Voodoopeople 12 November 2011 15: 29
        This post - like left by everyone is not appreciated ... You are all - salagi
        1. mitrich
          mitrich 12 November 2011 15: 38
          Maybe you kill a cock, voodoo-man?
          1. Voodoopeople
            Voodoopeople 12 November 2011 17: 19
            Yugoslavia, Libya, Syria, Iran - this will not help ...
      2. Vadivak
        Vadivak 13 November 2011 10: 50
        Quote: Voodoopeople
        everyone does not "have time"

        I would not be so categorical
        The Ministry of Defense of Belarus purchased Tor-M2E short-range anti-aircraft missile systems from Russia

        The rest are in line, and Chavez in the course of the first
        1. Sergh
          Sergh 13 November 2011 13: 57
          Due to the rampant development of UAVs, an indispensable and economical technique!
          Incidentally, the charging machine, this is not a ZIL-131 diesel, by any chance? I can not understand.
          1. limmor
            limmor 6 December 2011 19: 54
            This is by chance the Urals.
  2. Lech e-mine
    Lech e-mine 12 November 2011 09: 40
    1. Insurgent
      Insurgent 12 November 2011 15: 50
      Failed that, Gaddafi also had special services that were corrupted, they rebelled
  3. dred
    dred 12 November 2011 12: 04
    great technique.
    1. Voodoopeople
      Voodoopeople 12 November 2011 14: 51
      Better Shell:
      1. mox
        mox 12 November 2011 23: 59
        The shell and Thor have completely different tasks! They cannot be better or worse; they are different.
        Thor can be compared with OSA. Here it is better.
  4. Ostwind
    Ostwind 12 November 2011 12: 26
    An excellent mobile air defense installation, I hope both in the global arms market and in the Russian army, it will be in demand.
    Praise to Izhevsk.
    1. Voodoopeople
      Voodoopeople 12 November 2011 14: 52
      No, it will not
    ZEBRASH 12 November 2011 14: 24
    The technique is very good. But it seems to me that the tracked chassis is better - passable. On the other hand, on a wheeled chassis, speed should be higher (at least on roads).
    1. Ostwind
      Ostwind 13 November 2011 13: 16
      And the wheeled chassis is cheaper.
  6. mitrich
    mitrich 12 November 2011 14: 50
    I also heard and read, as it is written in the article, that "Thor" displays only 10 targets on the trace indicator. But in automatic mode this top ten is a GUARANTEED end. I join the praises am !!!
  7. golem
    golem 12 November 2011 16: 47
    Carapace is not the best? Given the range of rocket fire.
    1. Voodoopeople
      Voodoopeople 12 November 2011 17: 15
      Thor has so far been proven - better, Carapace - the third prototype has been completed.
  8. Voodoopeople
    Voodoopeople 12 November 2011 17: 26
    All Belarusian chassis - paid attention.
  9. Kyrgyz
    Kyrgyz 12 November 2011 19: 06
    Chavez probably had time and is not steamed
  10. Andrey77
    Andrey77 12 November 2011 19: 06
    Buy what is verified. And in the field of armaments - which was verified by the war. Until there are reviews of real combat use, demand will be small.
  11. baykal79
    baykal79 12 November 2011 21: 16

    Ah, what a pity !!!!
  12. Komsomolets
    Komsomolets 13 November 2011 07: 26
    The technique is excellent, our aircraft need to be both on the block and on wheels. The main thing is that there really should be more, so that each transport-loading machine is attached, and not like we have one TZM for two guns. Well, and most importantly more missiles, the eternal problem of our air defense. In general, the system is cool, the author is a layman - a lot of significant errors.
  13. Komsomolets
    Komsomolets 13 November 2011 09: 21
    I wonder why the minus, probably from the author
    1. mox
      mox 13 November 2011 12: 32
      Our rocket index is 9M ... rather than 3M ...
      "The air defense system is equipped with eight 9M330 anti-aircraft guided missiles," says Wikipedia
  14. Kostyanich
    Kostyanich 13 November 2011 13: 44
    When the testing of tori and wasps in Cyprus began, they immediately spotted a couple
    Turkish F 16 violating the air border
    realizing that they were hanging on the fly, they turned sharply and hit the road
    the Greeks of our workers were ready to kiss
    it’s a pity that our army doesn’t need anything
    then they would sell Iran to us the built nuclear power plant from pedos to protect winked
    CARTRIDGE 17 November 2011 21: 45
    As for the cross-country ability of the wheeled chassis? It looks clumsy somehow-long, low, on small wheels.
  16. Urri
    Urri 17 November 2011 23: 02

    MZKT chassis, Designed specifically for air defense systems. It already has BEECH, OCA, TOP, Stiletto in iron. No one in the world. Comfort, speed, patency. Do not swim. There is no way to stick the ZRAK (in vain the Tetrahedron puffs)
  17. Sergh
    Sergh 28 November 2011 19: 11
    For the first time the general public learned about the “Torah-M2E”
    Checking the video.
  18. wasjasibirjac
    wasjasibirjac 9 January 2012 20: 54
    Belarus tractor on a wheeled MZKT-6922. Both chassis are manufactured at the Minsk Tractor Plant.
    MZKT - Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant, a division of MAZ, and here MTZ, I hope this is not a new tractor Belarus. Although ..... if for export - a Belarus tractor with attachments - that amers wouldn’t guess where the desert will plow, using the F-15
  19. Bars90
    Bars90 11 February 2012 15: 18
    A promising air defense system ... The most important advantage is working in a group with other air defense systems. A sort of SAM Special Forces ... All-Seeing TOP.
  20. kov
    kov 22 October 2012 23: 46
    TOP in exercises

  21. studentmati
    studentmati 22 October 2012 23: 53
    SAM Tor-M2E0 The car is good, but the human factor is still more important. A trained crew is a thousand times more expensive than the most sophisticated complex! A trained crew, going to work, must be sure that his family is in perfect order. Do we have this moment in Russia?