Reading some documents about the creation of a new image of the army, the principles of uniting and dismembering units and formations, including scientific institutions, you involuntarily feel the reformers' cool attitude to science in general and to military aviation medicine (YOU) in particular, the specificity of which lies in the fact that the subject of her research is not “disease”, but “activity”. As you know, aviation medicine includes physiology, psychology, hygiene, ergonomics, ecology, pedagogy, computer science. But all these scientific disciplines are associated with aviation medicine in relation to the activities and ensuring the health of a completely healthy person.
Aviation specialists (pilot, navigator, engineer, etc.) are considered as subjects of military labor, the goal of which is to achieve higher professionalism in military affairs. From here follow such tasks YOU:
- investigate all risk factors that threaten readiness, combat capability and health security;
- develop means of protection, rescue and ergonomic conditions of flight work, taking into account the human psycho-physiological capabilities;
- to create a system for the restoration of occupational health in order to maintain working capacity and prolong longevity;
- to introduce knowledge about the person, mental and physical reserves of the body into the system of designing and creating aerospace equipment and weapons;
- create training and education methods for increased mental and physical reserves in order to ensure the reliability of the pilot-plane-environment system;
- create an inventory of risks, and on their basis, develop and implement hardware advisory systems that contribute to the formation of criteria and standards for rationing of flight loads in the process of combat training.
It is clear from this short list that military aviation medicine as a science and as a component of the combat training of troops is actively included in the system for ensuring the effectiveness of the human factor. As for its connection with clinical aviation medicine, this is expressed in cooperation with the medical flight examination, in whose interests new factors of flight work safety are investigated, the reasons for the decrease in efficiency, the increased likelihood of erroneous actions, which reduce mental and physiological resistance to flight factors and overall organism adaptability to unearthly habitat.
Thus, BAM specialists are developing methods and equipment for monitoring health status and the level of professionally important qualities. Ultimately, aviation medicine is organically included not in the logistics support of the activity, but directly in the activity of the aviation of the Armed Forces. For example, in the United States more than 30 centers, laboratories, and institutes are actively working at the Air Force. It seems that the reorganization of scientific units should still take into account these features of the science of man flying.
There is another side to aviation medicine. This is its fundamental nature as a science, the knowledge of which is necessarily introduced into practice together with engineers and designers. The combat readiness and combat capability of troops from a socio-psychological point of view is a state of mind and psychophysical health that realizes the ability of a person to use his knowledge and skills, moral motivations to fulfill his duty - to defend the Fatherland.
In the professional dimension of combat readiness, the data of military science, including aviation medicine, is used entirely. Aviation medicine has proven that the fighting qualities of flight crews, especially their long-term sustainability, are determined by their professional, mental, and somatic health. The practice of life has confirmed that in 85% of cases, top professionals 30 – 35 do not go away for years, but lose their profession due to loss of flight health. It is aviation and space medicine that nourishes the medical service of the troops with scientific knowledge, with the help of which flight longevity is maintained as a combat resource.
THEORY AND PRACTICE OF HEALTH
Extending flight longevity on 4 – 5 for 100 years to 1 class pilots brings savings to 300 million dollars (provided they fly to combat use). That is why, both for the military leadership and for the science of military aviation medicine, the practical vision of the source of the achievement of the combat result centers around the problems of the human factor. The withdrawal from the combat regiment by more than 20 pilots of the 1 class during the year reduces its combat readiness by 45 – 55%. The study of the problems of the human factor as a carrier of the result of an activity begins with the worldview understanding of the psychophysiological laws of the functioning of the “man-man” system, and then only “man-weaponry”.
In aviation, the methodological foundations of research on the psychology of personality, body physiology, psychophysiology of activity, and environmental ecology research were determined by two main factors:
- extraterrestrial conditions of human life, contrary to the nature of the evolutionary basis of adaptation;
- a flying man, whose psychophysiological advances, mental mechanisms for reflecting flight situations, the laws of integrative coherence of analyzer systems and the psyche by themselves do not provide the necessary safety and efficiency of flight work.
It is these features of human interaction with the universal physical and informational environment in the interests of mastering the profession of a pilot that determined the focus of attention of aviation medicine on the seemingly non-medical object of study, namely, on the physical environment as the leading biosphere around a person flying.
Let me remind you that aviation gained altitude and speed thanks to the efforts of aviation physiologists and doctors. High-altitude, anti-grip and anti-shock equipment in its medical substantiation kept the pilots healthy and the required level of efficiency and safety in flight.
And today, with universal education, they forget that it was precisely due to the results of the science of aviation medicine and, above all, thanks to its basic research, flight crews got rid of altitude and decompression sickness, injury and death from loss of consciousness. For these reasons, flight incidents occur no more than 0,2 – 0,5% of all accidents and disasters. Of course, this is largely a technical solution, but let me remind you that it took more than 15 thousands of complex human experiments and hundreds of thousands of animals to work out the physiological rationale for high-altitude equipment for highly mobile aircraft.
Extraterrestrial living conditions gave rise to the need for fundamental research on the study of limits in adaptation plasticity under conditions of chronic overstrain of the adaptive systems of the body. The solution of scientific problems required a high-tech methodological support. Tools of knowledge were created in the form of mathematical, technical, psychophysiological modeling of all the leading factors of the physical environment: hypoxia, acceleration, noise, vibration, radiation and non-radiation nature of radiation, electromagnetic oscillations, decomposition products of chemicals, their effects on performance and reliability in flight.
It took studies of the subject impact on the cells, organs, systems in order to obtain accurate characteristics and nature-dependent limits of the organism's survival in the proposed living conditions.
As a result, it was possible to substantiate in practical terms the technical means of protection, survival and rescue, standardize habitat conditions, create training equipment, and equipment for health monitoring.
But no less important is the fact that a theoretical basis was created for exploring the possibilities of re-shaping the properties of an organism and personality based on psychophysical, ethical and moral principles that ensure human activity in flight over 20 – 25 years.
All astronauts pass through the centrifuge at Star. Reuters Photos
The psychophysiological principle of activity has become the unifying principle of the integration of the complex around the pilot-aircraft-weapons-management system. It is the activity approach of human interaction with the machine that became the basis for creating a goal-oriented system, that is, when goal-setting remains with the person. The development of theories of operator activity reliability, the principle of an active operator, the creation of a projective ergonomics system contributed to the designers of military equipment of the 4 generation to reach a parity level in the field of military aviation with a powerful US power.
The principle of an active operator in the development of protective equipment, weapons, technical training tools, the introduction of the theory of professional intelligence and professionally important qualities in the interest of maintaining flight abilities allowed aviation medicine as a science and practice to become an organic component in all types of combat training, rear, medical, engineering training Aviation personnel of the Armed Forces.
Scientific aviation medicine by its definition “looks beyond the horizon” as the object of its study is the subject in its specific quality: a flying man. The pilot, like a man in the sky, is no longer an earthly man, for he lives in a different space and time, he lives in a different psychological world of values. In particular, a high-speed, highly maneuverable aircraft in his mind is primarily a means of achieving the main result: superiority in dueling situations. Speed for a man flying is a maneuver, a tactic that is transformed by the intellect into the successful achievement of a result. The psychology of flight work, relying on the theory of personality, motivation, needs, personal meaning, is able to rise to the level of research on the spiritual component of aviation reliability and combat effectiveness. I can cite only one argument to the fact that the spiritual world of the pilot is not an abstraction, but the very real strength of his mindsets and actions. Take a highly maneuverable, speedy melee. Speed and maneuver as a physical reality are transformed by a pilot into a psychological one. Namely in the passion. A pilot in a dynamic, maneuverable battle fears not so much the loss of consciousness as his prestige, his professional self.
This self-sufficiency, not fear, entails it in a zone of perceived enhanced risk. A pilot in flight is able to transform his individuality into a general social interest, with the ability to accept the energy of information and torsion fields of the universe. This is not a mystery yet. When I talk about aviation medicine as a science, organically included in the system that ensures the combat effectiveness of troops, I mean, above all, its anticipatory character at the design stage of 5-generation aircraft. The principle of designing for weapons based on the principle of fitting a person to an aircraft is extremely dangerous. The fact is that highly maneuverable aircraft are characterized by new principles of separate control of angular and trajectory movement, which will lead to the emergence of new forms of disorientation, multidimensional forms of altered consciousness.
I will bring one historical example. In the 70s, the geopolitical situation required to increase the combat effectiveness of aircraft at extremely low altitudes and high speeds. However, small viewing angles, poor quality of glazing, lack of damping, anti-vibration devices, reliable automation led to a decrease in combat efficiency, increase the level of accident rate. The main problem was spatial orientation in visual flight, since at speeds of more than 900 km / h, at altitudes of 50 meters, people could not fully navigate in time and space. Let me remind you, then I had to develop psychophysiological methods for identifying objects of observation, create systems that support the accuracy of piloting, new types of safety alarms, new forms of lights, ventilation systems, and air conditioning systems and much more. These developments of AM allowed to increase the probability of solving the problem from 0,45-0,50 to 0,8. This fit of the aircraft to the person on the basis of the “catch-up” principle cost the flight crew a lot: reducing flight longevity by 3-4 years, rejuvenating diseases.
And one more direction. Today, the development of technical systems of protection and life support is impossible without physiological soundness and from a position of safety. The introduction of a promising 21st-century technique poses an acute problem of searching for exo-reserves of the body. By exoreserts, I mean the formation of new properties within biological systems that enable these systems to function against the background of the influence of extreme factors, as in a normal environment. It is necessary to return to the study of the phenomenon of chronotope of anabiosis in the interests of preserving work activity. This is a change in the required direction of the processes of assimilation and dissimilation, immunity, and metabolism. Work in the direction of not only creating bioblockers, but also mechanisms of resistance to extreme influences.
In the XXI century, the health of aircrews on airplanes with high thrust-to-weight ratio and a variable speed vector will be exposed to such effects that a person does not have a safety factor. Attracting attention to this problem will help the study of long-term effects with the involvement of persons of the retirement age and the analysis of diseases that led to death.
The humanistic methodology requires us to be acutely aware that the remedies we are developing do not so much preserve health as they provide operational efficiency in the expanded conditions of occupational hazards of labor. The phenomenon of “shagreen” obliges us to think about the creation of a medical declaration on the permissible level of effects that destroy human health and reduce its active life. I am convinced that in the 21st century the fundamental task of aerospace medicine will be reorientation from the nosological principles of health protection (in the patient's center) to the principle of “healthy person health”, implemented by the state strategy of protection and reproduction of a healthy nation, and in military affairs - reproduction of a healthy combatant.
Aviation medicine is able to achieve this, provided that it is not only competent to ensure the implementation of basic scientific research. It is equally necessary to understand that the level of implementation of technical civilization in aviation has exceeded economic feasibility and objectively reduces the “cost-effect” indicator of military systems.
In the interests of combat effectiveness, the moment of introduction of the global methodological principle comes: control of the aircraft and its armament. Weapon should be managed by a healthy, intelligent, mentally enduring crew. It is on these sides of the combat readiness and combat capability that military aerospace medicine works.
Today’s day of history is reforming, building new principles for the organization of the army and its institutions and the outgoing generation that created the scientific school of aviation medicine. I hope that military thought will illuminate leaders of all ranks about the role of the force that prolongs their future. This force is called simply - science. Only she is capable of solving the problems of building information systems on the principle of pairing the natural and artificial intelligence of a person controlled by a military object in the conditions of military operations. The pinned hope for nanotechnology in technology outside the laws of mental regulation of activity is futile.
The goal, the task, the way to achieve a combat result is decided not by the tool, but by the person, because only he is responsible. And knowledge about it is also based on nanotechnology, as in technical sciences.