Military Review

Day of Aviation and Cosmonautics in the German Center for Aviation and Cosmonautics of the city of Cologne

“The future should not be predicted, but made possible”

Antoine de Saint-Exupery

Perhaps this quote can be used to describe the general strategy and idea of ​​the activities of the German Center aviation and astronautics, the framework of which is simply impossible to describe with specific goals, situational financial, scientific and technical capabilities for their implementation.

The German Center for Aviation and Aerospace (hereinafter –DLR) is the national center for aerospace, energy and transport research in Germany. The offices and research centers of the organization are located in several places throughout Germany, the headquarters is located in Cologne. The organization is responsible for the planning and implementation of programs initiated by various ministries and departments of the German federal government.

German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.
Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy of Germany.
Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Construction and Nuclear Safety of Germany.
Federal Ministry of Health of Germany.
Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth.
Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development
Federal Ministry of Defense of Germany.

DLR is engaged in a wide range of research projects, both national and international. DLR employs around 8000 employees (as of 2013) and has 37 in Germany with various institutes, test and production facilities, mainly concentrated in 16 locations. The DLR office in the suburb of Cologne (which is also the headquarters of the DLR) employs around 1500 employees.

From all of the above, it becomes clear that the topics of scientific research of DLR institutes are quite diverse and are not limited to research and development in the field of aviation and cosmonautics, as can be inferred from the name of the cluster.

Немного stories.
The oldest predecessor of the DLR is considered to be the Modellversuchsanstalt der Motorluftschiff-Studiengesellschaft in Göttingen, founded in 1907, by Prandtl. It is believed that the first closed wind tunnel was built in 1908 in Gottingen under the direction of Ludwig Prandtl. The idea of ​​creating this closed air channel was pushed by a demo hydro channel created by him in 1904. At that time, he had already defended his doctoral thesis at the Technical University of Munich (in 1900 year). He was a professor in Hanover and from September 1 1904 - in Göttingen.

So with the works of the member of the Council of the Royal Aviation Society of Great Britain, Francis Herbert Wenham, Russian military engineer V.A. Pashkevich, Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, Corresponding Member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in the category of Mathematical Sciences Nikolai Egorovich Zhukovsky, I think, was familiar. ...

From this research society of motorized aircraft (yes, this is not a typo - it is aircraft, since they were previously engaged in aeronautics) later created the Research Institute for Aerodynamic Research (AVA). In 1969, the German Aerospace Research and Testing Institute (DFVLR) was established by merging several institutions. After numerous renaming and incorporation into the cluster of new and new institutions, which by the nature of their research were already quite far from aviation and astronautics, this formation from October 1 1997 of the year is called Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR).

20 this September, an open day was held at the main branch of this research cluster, which is located near Cologne - Tag der Luft- und Raumfahrt des DLR.

During the day, more than 60 thousands of people visited the institutes, including the author of these lines. In places that were open to the public, it was also allowed to take photographs. Although I knowingly and constantly asked again about this possibility in each particular case. Not everywhere, where the opportunity was provided, I managed to visit due to long queues and a banal lack of time. Also, I was not quite prepared (both informatively and technically, as well as in time) for this event, since for this day it was an option "B" in my personal plans. So do not blame the harmoniously non-integral publication material. There will be at least two parts.

As for the logistics of delivering such a number of people to the western entrance (it was the only one open for the public on this day), the DLR was organized at the highest level (my subjective opinion). People were collected by charter buses from five points - three huge parking lots, mainly for those who arrived on their own and two stops of electric trains. Charter buses went every minute.
The link to this file is more obvious:

Plan-map where DLR territory is visually represented:
file: /// C: /Users/lex/Desktop/tdlr15_Gelaendeplan.pdf
Or in the photo below:

Further relevant comments to the photos will be located under them.

The first on the right is the Institute of Materials Science (№51. It is not numbered on the map).
We will come back to it.

Between the buildings of the institutes were chalets. Photo by NASA Wings and Vereinigung der Sternefreunde ev

In the distance is the European Transonic Windtunnel, the European transonic aerodynamic channel, a pleasure so expensive and complicated that four European countries — Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands — built it and used it together. (At the moment, France has withdrawn from the project.) Construction began in the 1990 year, and was completed in the 1993 year. In 1995, the facility was commissioned.

The peculiarity of this complex is that the experiments take place at temperatures up to -160 Degrees Celsius. Moreover, the tested models are blown with a stream of pure nitrogen. There is a need for this: Aircraft models that are tested in wind tunnels are much smaller than the originals, then testing at room temperature with ordinary air gives the unpleasant effect of the discrepancy between the derived parameters when testing on the model to the flight original. Easier said - it is necessary to maintain the similarity of the size of the molecules of aerodynamic environments when scaling models.

Read more here:
Photos can be viewed here:
For public visits this complex was closed.

4 Systemhaus Technik - Bureau for analysis, design, selection of materials and construction of test technical systems for a variety of projects for both the DLR, and for development partners.
Read more here:

Through the lobby on the first floor of this office one could get into the workshop of this office. By the way, informative flyers hung in places open to the public.
Here are a couple of them in the foyer of the 4 building:

As you can see from this flyer, Systemhaus offers the opportunity to also get an education.

A couple of examples: technical product designer (computer designer) - works side by side with designers in the design and construction of various products.
This training lasts 3,5 year. They study this specialty in the dual system (by the way - the most common system of prof. Education in Germany) - three to four days a week are trained in practice and one or two days of theory at Berufsschule (simply - vocational schools). Moreover, to get prof. study, you must first conclude a contract for prof. studying with an employer who, in addition to everything else, offers the opportunity to study (in this case, DLR) and only then go to Berufsschule with this contract, moreover, you can choose the latter only by the place (in some cases, by region) of the enterprise with which the training was concluded contract ...
Industriemechaniker - (general definition) is qualified to handle (their production, repair, control, adjustment, commissioning) with the units and systems in production.
In the flyer from DLR we are talking about obtaining qualifications in prototyping, single and small-scale production, installation, quality assurance and service of products. This training lasts 3,5 year. They study this specialty also in the dual system.
At the bottom of the photo you can see the “Steam Machine” training project (by the way, the model is fully functional).

This photo shows a modular model for research in the Mach 3-4,5 speed range in an aerodynamic channel. The peculiarity of the idea embodied in this design lies in the possibility of permanently changing the geometry of the leading edge of the air intake of a ramjet jet engine when conducting experiments. (I repeat once again - the objects presented by me were allowed for photographing).

In the gallery between Systemhaus and their workshop.

Some photos from the workshop.
The last photo shows the processing of the demo model on one of the machines.

This photograph shows parts of the combustion chambers of rockets, made by the process of selective laser alloying. It takes up to ten hours to make one of them.

The material - the so-called “Iconel” - is a nickel-chromium heat-resistant alloy, which is rather difficult to machine. In a car, a layer of approximately one grain of powder is placed on a special pad: 0,05 of a millimeter. Then a laser beam of the required power is sent to the powder, which produces fusion exactly in those places where we need it. The process is carried out in an inert medium - in argon, in order to exclude metal oxidation reactions. After the fusion is performed in the first layer, the platform is lowered, a new layer of material is applied, and the process is repeated.

Another pair of parts created in this way.

In aerodynamic channels not only models of rockets and airplanes are blown through.

Modular model for research in the speed range of Mach 3-4,5 in an aerodynamic channel.

Leave the workshops behind and go on.

So to say the gates of a professional technical institution.

This unit, I think, does not need explanations.

Look to the right.

Look to the left.

Joint work of students.

Overall plan (Photo: DLR).

View of the building (Photo: DLR)

This building was commissioned 20 August 2008 of the year. It is taught by profession industrial mechanic and mechanic of exact mechanisms. In 2008, in the DLR department of the city of Cologne, the 54 person received vocational education in the professions of an information technologist, office worker, industrial mechanic, technical draftsman, photographer, and cook. During the summer holidays, people attending vocational education in the DLR department of Cologne have the opportunity to get practice in workshops and laboratories. DLR also offers a wide range of both higher education and career growth opportunities.
Starting with a bachelor's degree and further to the degree of doctor of science. Here they defend their dissertations, doctoral and dissertations.

One of the main tasks of the DLR is to stimulate interest in natural science among the younger generation, i.e. DLR works with students in schools and gymnasiums. With eight DLR research centers (Berlin, Bremen, Braunschweig, Göttingen, Cologne, Neustrelitz, Oberpfaffenhofen, Stuttgart), as well as with four partner universities (Aachen Technical University of Dortmund, Dortmund, Dresden, Universities, Hamburg, in-place, in a number of partners, in a non-profit, Hamburg, Dortmund, Technical University of Aachen; laboratories at the Technical University of Darmstadt) work the so-called
“School_Lab”, which enable students of junior and senior classes to discover the fascinating world of research. In total, school laboratories at DLR institutes and their partners are engaged with 20.000 students in schools and gymnasiums per year.

To be continued ...

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  1. prosto_rgb
    prosto_rgb 6 October 2015 09: 15 New
    Great job !!! soldier
    Thanks for the interesting article.
    It is strange that there are so few comments.
    Absolutely sadness.
  2. Simple
    6 October 2015 10: 07 New
    Probably the majority at work.
    Unfortunately, in an hour I will not be able to interactively answer questions, only after 23: 00 in Moscow.
  3. gridasov
    gridasov 6 October 2015 11: 10 New
    Even from those photos that you can feel the whole ideology that underlies. Accuracy, the highest craftsmanship and culture of manufacturing parts and devices show that from the process of the emergence of a substantiated idea to its implementation in a real device is one step. For example, our devices have such great potential that the main criterion for their operation is process control. Therefore, we do not risk producing them on our knees. But fall into such conditions and everything will be decided in one week.
    1. 31rus
      31rus 6 October 2015 12: 50 New
      The main thing is brains, like Pushkin’s "... and experience is the son of difficult mistakes, and the genius of paradoxes is different, and God is an inventor." The base is excellent, create and implement
    2. 31rus
      31rus 6 October 2015 12: 50 New
      The main thing is brains, like Pushkin’s "... and experience is the son of difficult mistakes, and the genius of paradoxes is different, and God is an inventor." The base is excellent, create and implement
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 6 October 2015 13: 00 New
        Saying to go along the road and go along it are completely different events and phenomena. Moreover, when you begin to comprehend the depths of the subtleties of processes related to science, the subtleties associated with life among people even more arise.
    3. Bayonet
      Bayonet 6 October 2015 17: 54 New
      Quote: gridasov
      Accuracy, excellence

      And cleanliness!
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 6 October 2015 18: 12 New
        This is possible if everything else is also given the succession of traditions and skill passed down from generation to generation. In one generation, it is almost impossible to recreate
      2. Simple
        6 October 2015 23: 22 New
        Quote: Bayonet
        And cleanliness!

        Well, not everywhere it was as clean as in the pictures I provided. )))
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 6 October 2015 23: 31 New
          No doubt creative mess is an attribute of the process going on.
          1. Simple
            6 October 2015 23: 39 New
            Without a doubt.
            And there is.
    4. Simple
      6 October 2015 23: 17 New
      Quote: gridasov
      .... But fall into such conditions ...

      Something of the same kind I heard from a DLR employee in one of the buildings- "We would have such finances that we invest in research in the United States, otherwise we squeeze out everything we can, but we would like better, from that equipment."

      I won’t discover America if I say that some equipment is still there 60-80-th years of the last century.

      Quote: gridasov
      ... and everything will be decided in one week.

      That employee was more modest in the forecasts.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 6 October 2015 23: 23 New
        I repeat, what is meant is conditions, not finances. The developer generally does not need money as such. We operate with other tools and goals in achieving results. Money and money is also a tool, but not ours.
        1. Simple
          6 October 2015 23: 38 New
          You can empirically work on ideas as much as you like, but for an idea to be embodied in a metal, banal cash infusions are required in the form of necessary resources (people, equipment) in research.
          1. gridasov
            gridasov 7 October 2015 00: 07 New
            Schauberger's developments are in theoretical justifications and in practical samples. One person said that there are significant archival reserves of such developments. BUT! There are no people who can analyze it. What can we say about the fact that Schauberger's developments are developed on a deeper basis. They are closer to reality and implementation at the modern technological level. This is a deeper level. The same applies to Tesla's research. The same applies to new methods of analysis on the function of a number expressed by its constant value. Everything is interconnected! Having shown the device, you will have to take the second step - to show its real effect. Having shown the effect, it is necessary to justify the algorithms of the physical process. So, what is more important than a device or theoretical justification? I noticed that everyone who asks to show the device is essentially hopeless in a relationship. In general, you have to really be a personnel officer and marketer and negotiator and all the rest. AND TEST MONEY IS NOT THE MOST IMPORTANT. However, not many understand this. More fundamental interactions are needed. Only in this case can one move forward sequentially. and not on the principles of "step forward and two back"
            1. Simple
              7 October 2015 00: 32 New
              If a device (any) is created (i.e. physically exists) and shows the declared characteristics (well, at least 50% percent of the desired), then theoretically substantiating the principles of its operation and creating a copy will not be difficult (for a group of people (or civilization))

              Only two "BUT" - both groups of people (civilizations) must operate with the same knowledge about the subject (the essence of the processes), and also have (or be able to create)
              devices for managing (necessary to create) processes.

              Of course, money is not the most important thing, but nothing happens for nothing. Even hemorrhoids must be earned.
              1. gridasov
                gridasov 7 October 2015 00: 48 New
                You have definitely noted everything. This search of people with whom it is possible to speak in a language understandable to the parties is going on. Everything else is solvable.
      2. gridasov
        gridasov 7 October 2015 00: 28 New
        3-D printing allows you to do everything very quickly. You see, but this is precisely what confirms the fact that the simplest change in an ordinary and very well-known basic device radically changes the essence of the physical process. Even if someone creates this, and I’m sure that this takes place, the effect can only be achieved by building an algorithm of the processes at the input of the device, its basic transformation, and then again combining it with the external environment. There are no trifles. Otherwise, the process will be “locked up" at any stage. Moreover, it is just as important how such a device is calculated, namely its basic part. It is built only on the basis of one parameter, the radius. Any scaling of it changes only one parameter! In this case, the operating parameters of the device or turbine change the energy of the process dramatically.
        1. Simple
          7 October 2015 00: 50 New
          You describe in parts, what you have an idea to one degree or another.
          But at the same time, you try to describe the matter in such a way that you do not guess.

          If you have a good idea, then patent. (no matter which country).
    5. Simple
      7 October 2015 00: 01 New
      Quote: gridasov
      ... the main criterion for their (devices) work is process control. ...

      Everyone wants to control the processes that take place in the turbine. )))
      I wonder when this jump will occur in the evolution of engine building?
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 7 October 2015 00: 18 New
        This race has already passed ten years ago. Already then, a model was built of a device combining an engine (if we talk about such a function), a propulsion device, a reactor, and a variable electric generator. magnetic flux. This is not a fight for percent efficiency. These are radically new approaches to analysis and technology for organizing successive stages of thermodynamic and electronic. magnetic cycles. Why is there no development of any so-called "perpetual motion machine"? There is no elementary understanding of the essence of the scaling process and the devices and principles of the organization of physical processes. Because there is no understanding of the complex principles of analysis and processes in the energy carrier and in the device for its conversion. That is what many scientists are talking about, namely, about interdisciplinary knowledge that is indeed such in our embodiment.
  4. Simple
    6 October 2015 23: 47 New
    How much I did not listen to conversations with the public, how much I talked, it seems that research on turbines (like engines) starts to slip on the spot or move with a constant slowdown.

    An increase in turbine efficiency of 1% is currently considered an achievement. And how much resources have been spent to achieve this one percent?
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 7 October 2015 00: 43 New
      It’s not right, but this means that the decisions made are unproductive precisely because the problem is not solved in terms of increasing efficiency. She generally changes the vector of her change. Moreover, this also does not mean that the “superunit” effect develops uncontrollably. We, as people, do not perceive everything adequately. The energy of our environment is designed so that all energy processes are fractal in their transformation. So our world is protected from various pandemics and other physical. processes that we perceive as avalanche-like developing. Everything can develop only within a certain level of interactions — the fractal level of these energy interactions. Therefore, the turbine that we position above all provides a balanced increase in polarization at all parts and stages of the process. She is not able to go into the "distribution", because it provides a whole complex of symmetrical and cyclical processes. But at the same time, it allows you to switch to different energy levels of potential energy transformation all the time. And kinetic energy is part of this organized process.
      1. Simple
        7 October 2015 10: 40 New
        Quote: gridasov
        ... She is not able to go into the "distribution", because it provides a whole complex of symmetrical and cyclical processes. But at the same time, it allows you to switch to different energy levels of potential energy transformation all the time. And kinetic energy is part of this organized process ....

        Good day!

        As you rightly noted, modern engines (hereinafter we will call them turbines, since they are the interest of our discussion) are not able to go into the "spacing", giving out more and more kineric energy to the "mountain".

        This is due to several factors.

        The first (and most basic) is the physical principles on which the operation of the turbine is based.
        Those. the only condition that causes the turbine to “spill” is an increase in the volume of oxidizer and fuel burned over a certain period of time.
        But even if this condition (purely hypothetically) worked, then it is instantly limited
        The “physiology” of the turbine, the main of which are heat resistance, heat resistance, and also the specific strength of the turbine, which are laid down at the stage of the project development process and are limited by the properties of the materials used in the future turbine.

        As an intermediate result of reducing the temperature of thermodynamic flows without reducing the potential energy -FLOX-technology.

        The subject of our discussion is a turbine, the cycle of work in which is more “open” than that of gas turbine engines — if we omit all the transformations, then ultimately the rotation energy of our mother Earth is used together with its magnetism potential.
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 7 October 2015 11: 20 New
          Good afternoon! I will answer, as you reasonably said, the “physiology” of the turbine. The issues of heat resistance, heat resistance, as well as its "quality factor" are solved by the fact that, contrary to modern methods, the so-called. the "combustion chamber" is brought out beyond the plane of the blades or vanes. This does not just create the conditions for resolving the issue. but it also turns this part of the process algorithm into the turbine “reactor” zone. A very important point is that in such a reactor the potential energy of the substance of the stream is realized in its entirety. That is, there are no parietal or other zones of activity. And since the result is processes at the "nuclear" level, namely at the level of their magnetic force interactions, the factor of the transience of the process becomes paramount. And since the stream has balanced vectors of longitudinal motion and spin, then its “hot” zone is inside the newly transformed stream. I want to repeat that the analysis takes place at the level of exclusively magnetic force interactions, which means that any thermodynamic processes are considered exactly - El. magnetic. In essence, the basic principles of the turbine operation are based on the principles of a “unipolar”, and more precisely, multipolar electric motor. Only taking into account all the influential and enhancing factors of the properties of the medium in which it is located and which it transforms.
          Since the device uses the property of the substance of the flow, namely its potential energy, the temperature is not a gradient of those properties that we are used to perceiving as such. It is rather a "cold glow" and only at the exit of the entire converted stream from the nozzle are processes possible due to contrasting polarization with the external atmosphere and whether there are water if these processes are under water or in space.
          One of the main tasks of the device was to recreate such a complex of conditions under which it is possible to overcome the thresholds of destruction of the rotor during centrifugal rotation. What we are striving for. And there are all reasonable prerequisites for this. Modern turbines simply collapse and do not allow development.
          1. gridasov
            gridasov 7 October 2015 11: 46 New
            Obviously, it is worth adding that in the framework of a related project, we are considering a method and method of increasing the density of email. current, I would say, a device that allows you to enhance the effect of Faraday cells. You have to look for words in order to be understood. In general, this is the simplest method and device that allows you to manipulate magnetic power flows, as a shell forming some local spaces of electrical circuits. Look, the whole circuitry is built on boards and planes. And the process of transferring momentum from one element to another is LINEAR. We are talking about a new round of progress and the creation of spatial modular electronic circuits. This allows, precisely, to use the magnetic spaces of some elements to enhance or weaken the effects of others. But these are trifles. The turbine is built on the same principles. Some processes take place in the space of others, which create not only a high potential effect on the back, but also on the rolling-in vectors of magnetic force flows. Modern methods and methods rely solely and only on linear methodologies.
            1. Simple
              7 October 2015 13: 43 New
              The principle of controlling magnetic power flows such as that of a Siemens electric motor?

              l-dlja /

              1. gridasov
                gridasov 7 October 2015 14: 05 New
                I could not open these sites. But I know that Siemens does not have such fundamental methods and devices. Firstly, the density of email. a magnetic pulse is provided by some devices by creating an external magnetic field. And secondly, the method of controlling magnetic power flows can be implemented by the fact that fundamentally different induction devices provide an impulse for spin rotation of the magnetic flux. These are two completely different methods and devices. Siemens works on the theoretical foundations laid a hundred years ago. And this is obvious.
                1. Simple
                  7 October 2015 23: 55 New
                  I checked both links - everything works.
                  Here is another one:

                  content% 5b% 5d = Corp

                  Siemens engineers have developed a motor that weighs 50kg. gives out 260kW. power.
                  And we are talking about power at which the motor is able to work for a long time.
                  He gives it already at 2500 rpm, i.e. as a load, you can connect a propeller without a gearbox.

                  From this paragraph it follows that yes, about the principle applied in the Siemens motor, you are right - it has remained the same.

                  Um ihren Weltrekord-Motor zu realisieren, haben Experten aus dem Geschäftsgebiet Large Drives und von Corporate Technology alle Komponenten der bisherigen Motoren auf den Prüfstand gestellt und bis ans technische Limit optimiert. So ist es ihnen beispielsweise gelungen, das Gewicht des sogenannten Lagerschildes mehr als zu halbieren: von 10,5 Kilogramm auf nur noch 4,9 Kilogramm. Diese Aluminum-Komponente vereint die Lagerung von Elektromotor und Propeller, der ohne zwischengeschaltetes Getriebe direkt mit dem motor verbunden ist. “Das ist ein absolut sicherheitskritisches Bauteil, auf das beim Nicken der Flugzeugnase nach oben oder unten sehr große Kreiselkräfte wirken”, erklärt Anton. “Darum war es bisher immer recht massiv gebaut und entsprechend schwer.”
                  Für die Schlankheitskur des Lagerschildes haben die Leichtbau-Experten zusammen mit ihren Product Lifecycle-Kollegen einen eigenen Optimierungsalgorithmus entwickelt und in das CAE-Programm NX Nastran von Siemens integriert. Er zerlegt die Komponente in mehr als 100.000 Einzelelemente und simuliert die Kräfte auf jede dieser Zellen. Im Verlauf vieler Optimierungsschleifen identifiziert die Software dann diejenigen Elemente, die kaum belastet und darum entbehrlich sind. “So ähnlich baut auch die Natur unsere Knochen”, sagt Anton. „Ihre Struktur folgt den Belastungslinien durch die äußeren Kräfte. Durch diesen iterativen Prozess gelangt man zu technischen Lösungen, die ein Ingenieur niemals theoretisch am Schreibtisch hätte erfinden können. "
                  Das Ergebnis der Optimierung ist eine filigrane, strebenartige Struktur, die dennoch allen Sicherheitsanforderungen an Biegesteifigkeit und Festigkeit genügt. Aber selbst damit haben sich die Entwickler noch nicht zufrieden gegeben - mittlerweile existiert schon der Prototyp eines Lagerschildes aus kohlefaserverstärkten Kunststoffen, der gerade mal 2,3 Kilogramm auf die Waage bringt und kefelten witt und elliten witt und elliten witt und elliten damten elliten wen
                  Auch beim elektromagnetischen Design haben die Entwickler tief in die Trickkiste gegriffen, um das Gewicht maximal zu verringern. Kobalt-Eisen im Stator sorgt für eine hohe Magnetisierbarkeit über den gesamten Aussteuerbereich, und die permanenterregten Magnete des Rotors weisen eine sogenannte Halbach-Anordnung auction führen lässt und dadurch die Grundwelle der Luftspaltinduktion im Vergleich zu herkömmlichen Magnetanordungen vergrößert wird. Die Kühlung leistet ebenfalls einen signifikanten Beitrag zur Gewichtsreduktion.
                  1. gridasov
                    gridasov 8 October 2015 11: 54 New
                    All principles are clear. However, we are talking about a fundamentally new approach. On the Simenovsky principle, the propeller is the propeller and the motor rotates it. We have a “motor” and a mover is one device. In addition, we are talking about high speeds of rotation, which are higher than the levels of destruction of the propeller. You remember that any screw has boundary rotation limits after which further application of power does not affect its rotation speed. Moreover, the physics of our organized process consists in the fact that we use the momentum and the vector of such a force that plays a negative role on the propeller, and in it it plays a positive role.
  5. gridasov
    gridasov 7 October 2015 00: 50 New
    Time is late. All the best.
    1. Simple
      7 October 2015 00: 59 New
      All the best.