] “Sergey Yesenin is not so much a person as an organ created by nature exclusively for poetry.”
Sergey Yesenin was born on October 3 1895 in the village of Konstantinov, which lies in the Ryazan district of the Ryazan province. His mother, Tatyana Fedorovna Titova, married at sixteen, and her father, Alexander Nikitich, was one year older than her. He was rarely at home — he was sent to the Moscow butcher’s shop as a teenager, and since that time, Yesenin Sr. lived and worked there. Tatiana Fyodorovna, however, was huddled in one hut along with her mother-in-law, and when her husband's brother married, the two daughters-in-law in the house became cramped and quarrels began. Yesenin's mother tried to get a divorce, but nothing happened without her husband’s permission. Then Tatyana Fedorovna returned to her parental home and, in order not to be a burden, went to work, entrusting two-year-old Seryozha to her father, Fyodor Andreevich. He already had three adult unmarried sons, whom the boy was in the fun. The mischievous uncles, teaching the three-year-old child to swim, were thrown from a boat into the wide Oka, then put on a horse, letting it go at a gallop. Later, when Sergei grew up, his father Alexander Nikitich shared with his brother, the family moved out, and relations in the Yesenins' house began to improve. In the future, a great poet will write about his parents: “... Somewhere my father and mother live, / Who doesn't give a damn about all my poems, / I cherish like a field and like flesh, / Like the rain that looses green in the spring ./ They would prick you with a pitchfork to stab you up / For every cry that you throw at me. "
The Yesenins were devout people, and often Tatyana Fyodorovna along with her mother-in-law and little Seryozha went pilgrims to the monasteries. In their house, wandering blind men often stayed, among whom were wonderful performers of spiritual poetry. On Sundays, the boy attended church. In general, the Esenin childhood strongly resembled the adventures of his transatlantic peer Tom Sawyer described by Mark Twain. The poet himself later said to himself: "Thin and short, / Among boys there is always a hero, / Often, often with a broken nose / I came to my home."
At the age of eight, Yesenin, imitating the romping local ditties, for the first time tried to add verses. And in September, 1904 Sergey went to the Zemstvo four-year school. He studied there, by the way, for five years, because due to bad behavior he was left in his second year in third grade. But he graduated from college with a meritorious certificate, which was a rarity for Konstantinovo. By that time, Yesenin had already read quite a lot, scaring his illiterate mother, who was saying with a sigh: “Throw down the void again! Dyachok in Fedyakin also loved to read. I read it before that I lost my mind. ” In 1909, Yesenin, “since he is such a scribe,” was sent to study at a church school in the distant trading village of Spas-Klepiki. According to the teachers' stories, the distinctive feature of Sergey’s character was “gaiety, cheerfulness, and even some excessive ridiculousness”. By that time he was already actively writing poetry, but the teachers did not find anything outstanding in them. Most of his comrades were diligent and diligent, and, according to his recollections, Yesenin "really scoffed" at them. The case often came to a fight, and in the scuffle, he was often the victim. However, he never complained, while he was often complained: “And to meet a frightened mother / I squeezed through my bloody mouth: /“ Nothing! I stumbled on a stone, / It will heal by tomorrow. ”
At sixteen (1911) Sergey Alexandrovich graduated from a church teacher's school. The next step was to enter the metropolitan teacher's institute, but the poet did not do this: "Didactics and methods were so fed up with me that I did not even want to listen." A year later, Yesenin, on a call from his father, left for Moscow. In the capital, a place was found for him in the butcher's farm of Krylov. But in the clerks (in the current "office workers") Sergey Alexandrovich did not last long, and, in order to be closer to his beloved books, got a job as a seller in a bookstore. Then he worked as a freight forwarder in the famous Sytin Association, and then there he was also an assistant corrector. In those years, he read a lot, spending all the money he earned on new magazines and books. He also continued to write poems and unsuccessfully offered them to various editions. The father scolded his son: “You have to work, and you roll poems ...”.
In 1913, Yesenin entered the Shanyavsky People’s University and in the evenings he attended lectures on literature there. And soon he met Anna Izryadnova, who was four years older than him and worked as a proofreader in Sytin's printing house. They began to live together in a modest room near the Serpukhov outpost. At this time, Sergey Aleksandrovich got a job as a proofreader at the printing house of Chernyshev-Kobelkov, however, the work took him too much time and effort, and he soon quit. At the end of 1914, the firstborn of Yuri was born to the poet. Izryadnova said: "He looked at his son with curiosity and repeated everything:" Here I am and my father. " Then he got used, shook, lulled, sang songs over him. ” And in January, 1915 in the children's magazine “Mirok” published the first work of Esenin - now the textbook verse “Birch”. But all this was just a threshold ...
In one of his letters to a friend, Sergei Alexandrovich reported: “Moscow is not the engine of literary development, it is used by everyone from St. Petersburg ... There is not a single journal here. And those that are, fit only in the trash. " Soon a young and unknown writer "unexpectedly struck out to St. Petersburg." With poems tied up with a village handkerchief, Yesenin went straight from the station to the very Block. By that time, the village boy’s “cherub-like” village boy was ready to have more than sixty poems and poems, including the most famous lines: “If the holy army shouts: /“ Thou art Rus, live in paradise! ”/ I will say:“ Do not paradise / Give my homeland. " After Esenin told how, seeing the "live" Blok, immediately sweated from the excitement. However, he could have thrown a poet into a sweat for another reason - he came to Alexander Alexandrovich in his grandfather's boots and a naked sheepskin coat, and at that time the spring 1915 was boiling in the yard. Of course, it was a masquerade, a kind of bait, which immediately met the capital bohemian. Country nugget in St. Petersburg literary environment has created a real sensation. Everyone wanted to see him as a poet “from the plow only”, and Sergey Aleksandrovich played along with them. Yes, it was not difficult for him - yesterday's Moscow days in comparison with the village days were rather short. Blok gave the Ryazan guy a recommendation letter to the writer Sergei Gorodetsky, who was keen on pan-Slavism. Sergei Mitrofanovich poet and settled. Later, Yesenin, touched by Alexander Alexandrovich’s attention, argued that “I would forgive the bloc everything.” Gorodetsky also presented the poet with a letter of recommendation to Mirolyubov, the publisher of the Monthly Journal: “Caress this young talent. He has a ruble in his pocket and wealth in his soul. ”
According to one critic, "the literary chronicle did not know of an easier and quicker entry into literature." Gorodetsky noted "From the very first lines it became clear to me what joy had come to Russian poetry." Gorky echoed him: “The city met Yesenin with admiration as the glutton greeted strawberries in January. His poems began to praise insincerely and excessively, as the envious and hypocrites know how to praise. ” However, Yesenin was not only “insincere and excessively praised” - at one stiff reception, the poetess Zinaida Hippius, pointing her lorgnette over Esenin’s felt boots, said loudly: “What fun entertaining leggings!”. All present snobs rolled with laughter. Chernyavsky recalled: “He walked like in a forest, smiled, looked around, was still not sure about anything, however he firmly believed in himself ... This spring, Seryozha passed among us ... passed, finding a great many friends, and , no friend.
In just a couple of months, the “wonderful spring boy” conquered St. Petersburg and at the end of April 1915 departed for the village. In the summer, metropolitan journals published collections of Esenin's poems. In October of the same year, Sergei Alexandrovich returned to the northern capital and became close friends with the poet, representative of the Novo-peasant direction, Nikolai Klyuev. The influence of Nikolai Alekseevich on Yesenin in 1915-1916 was enormous. Gorodetsky wrote: "A wonderful poet and a cunning clever man, charming with his work closely adjacent to the spiritual poems and the epics of the north, Klyuev undoubtedly mastered the young Yesenin ...". It is curious that the periods of friendship between Sergei Alexandrovich and the “Olonetsky Guslar” were followed by periods of hatred - Yesenin rebelled against the authority of his friend, defending and asserting his identity. Despite further discrepancies, until the last days, Yesenin singled out Klyuev from the crowd of friends around him, and once he confessed that he was the only person he really loved: “Take away ... of Blok, Klyuev - what will remain with me? Horseradish and a pipe like a Turkish saint. ”
In the world, meanwhile, there was the First World War. In January, 1916, with the help of Klyuev, published the Yesenin book of poems "Radunitsa", and in the same January he was called up for military service. He was enrolled as an orderly at the Tsarskoye Selo field military-sanitary train assigned to an infirmary under the tutelage of the empress. As part of this train, Sergei Alexandrovich was on the front line. For the wounded in the hospital, concerts were often held, and at one of these performances in the middle of 1916, Yesenin, in the presence of the empress and grand princesses, read his works. At the end of the speech, Alexandra Feodorovna said that the verses are very beautiful, but sad. The poet said that this is all of Russia. The meeting had fatal consequences. In the salons of the “advanced” liberals, where Sergei Alexandrovich had recently “shone”, a storm of indignation arose. Poet Georgy Ivanov wrote: “The monstrous rumor was confirmed - Yesenin’s vile act is not fiction or libel. Our Yesenin, “dear”, “adorable boy” introduced herself to Alexandra Feodorovna, read poems to her and received permission to dedicate the whole cycle to the empress in a new book! ” Sophia Chatkina, a rich liberal lady, whose funds were used by the Northern Notes journal, tore at Yesenin’s manuscript at a magnificent reception, shouting: “They have burned the snake. New Rasputin. Yesenin's book "The Blue" was published in 1917, but at the last moment the poet who had undergone a liberal dressing took the dedication to the empress.
After February, 1917 Sergey Alexandrovich voluntarily left the army and joined the Socialist-Revolutionaries, working with them "as a poet, not as a party." In the spring of the same year, he met Zinaida Reich, a young secretary-typewriter of the Left Socialist-Revolutionary newspaper Matter of the People. In the summer, he invited the girl to go with him on a boat to the White Sea, and on the way back he proposed to her. The marriage was hasty, and at first the newlyweds lived apart. But soon Yesenin took two furnished rooms on Liteyny Prospect and moved there with his young wife. At that time, he printed a lot and paid him well. Cherniavsky recalled that the young people “despite the beginning of the hunger strike, knew how to be friendly hospitable people” - Sergey Alexandrovich always attached great importance to his home life.
The whirlwind of revolution whirled the poet, as well as many others. Later, Yesenin will write: "During the war and revolution, fate pushed me from side to side." In 1918, he returned to Moscow, which had become the capital, added the poem "Inonia" and joined the group of proletarian literary men. At that moment, Sergei Aleksandrovich tried to establish his own poetic school, but did not find a response from his comrades. The union with proletarian poets did not last long, Yesenin, who was disillusioned with them, later (on 1923) wrote: "No matter how I recommend and praise Trotsky of various Nameless, the penny is worthless to proletarian art ...".
1919 Yesenin considered the most important year of his life. He reported: “We then lived in the winter in five degrees of room cold. We did not have any logs of firewood. ” By that time, he essentially broke up with Zinaida Reich, who went to her family in Oryol, and she was stuck there - in May 1918 she gave birth to a daughter, Yesenin, Tatiana. Later, in Orel, her marriage with Yesenin was officially dissolved. The second child, Kostya, was born after their divorce. According to the poet Mariengof, Sergey Alexandrovich, looking at the baby, immediately turned away: "The Yesenins are not black." Nevertheless, he always kept a photograph of grown-up children in his pocket.
Sergey Aleksandrovich himself at that time did not abandon thoughts about creating a new literary movement. He explained to his friend: “Words, like old coins, were erased, having lost their original poetic power. We cannot create new words, but we have found a way to revive the dead, enclosing them in vivid poetic images. ” In February, 1919, Yesenin, together with the poets Anatoly Mariengof, Rurik Ivnev and Vadim Shershenevich, founded the “Order of Imaginists” (literary movement, whose representatives determined the creation of the image by the purpose of creativity) and released the well-known Manifesto. Imagist literary evenings were held in the literary cafe "Pegasus Stable", where Sergey Alexandrovich, despite the "dry law", was served vodka without fail. In addition, the poet and his associates were published in the magazine under the interesting name "Hotel for traveling to the beautiful", and also had their own bookstore. In Imaginism, according to Gorodetsky, Yesenin found "an antidote against the village" —the framework was narrow for him, now he did not want to be just a peasant poet and "consciously went towards becoming the first Russian poet." Critics rushed to declare him a “hooligan”, and hooliganism for Sergey Alexandrovich became not only a poetic way, but also a way of life. In the snow-covered Moscow 1921, when everyone went in boots and earflaps, Yesenin and his friends walked around in a top hat, tailcoat, and lacquered boots. The poet could playfully wipe the wine spilled on the table, whistle like a boy in three fingers so that people ran to the side, and told about the cylinder: “I don’t walk in a top hat for women - / / It is more convenient in him, having reduced his sadness, / to give the mare gold. In the early twenties, the Imaginists traveled all over the country — one of Mariengof’s high school gymnasts became a major railway official and had a saloon car at his disposal, giving his friends permanent seats. Often, Yesenin himself worked out the route of his next trip. During one of his travels right on the train, Sergei Alexandrovich wrote the famous poem Sorokoust.
At the end of 1920 in the cafe “Stall of Pegasus,” the poet met Galina Benislavskaya, who was working at the Cheka at Krylenko at that time. According to some reports, she was assigned to the poet as a secret employee. However, agents can fall in love. Sergey Alexandrovich, not having his own corner, from time to time lived with Galina Arturovna, who loved her unrequitedly. She helped the poet in every possible way - she led his business, ran through the editorial offices, entered into agreements for the publication of poems. And in the hungry 1921, the renowned dancer Isadora Duncan arrived in the capital of Russia, delirious with the idea of a children's international - a pledge of the future brotherhood of all nations. In Moscow, she was going to establish a children's dance school, gather hundreds of children into it and teach them the language of movements. Under the school studio "great sandals" took a huge mansion on Prechistenka, and she settled there in one of the gilded halls. With Sergey Alexandrovich, who was eighteen years younger than her, Isadora met in the workshop of the artist Yakulov (also an imagist) and instantly converged with him. There is an opinion that Yesenin reminded her of a little son who died in a car accident. It is curious that the poet did not know a single foreign language, saying: “I don’t know and do not want to know - I’m afraid to dirty my native one”. Later he wrote from America: “Apart from the Russian language, I do not recognize any other, and I keep myself so that if anyone is curious to talk with me, then let him study Russian.” When asked how he explained with “Sidor”, Yesenin, actively moving his hands, showed: “And this is how mine is yours, yours is mine ... You cannot handle her, she understands everything.” Rurik Ivnev also certified: “Isadora’s sensitivity was amazing. She unmistakably caught all the shades of the mood of the interlocutor, not only fleeting, but almost everything that hid in the soul. ”
Sergei Aleksandrovich, who had sent the Pugachev press and the Confession of a hooligan in the meantime, visited the dancer every day and, eventually, moved her to Prechistenka. Of course, the young imagists followed him. Perhaps, in order to take the poet away from them, Isadora Duncan suggested that Yesenin go with her to a joint world tour in which she would dance, and he would recite poetry. On the eve of departure, they got married, and both took a double surname. The poet had fun: "From now on, I am Duncan-Yesenin." In the spring of 1922, the newly wedded couple flew abroad. Gorky, with whom the poet met abroad, wrote about their relationship: “This famous woman, glorified by thousands of fine connoisseurs of plastics, next to a short, amazing poet from Ryazan was the complete embodiment of everything he didn’t need.” By the way, at their meeting Sergey Alexandrovich read Gorky one of the first versions of the “Black Man”. Alexey Maksimovich at the same time "cried ... tears cried." Subsequently, the well-known critic Svyatopolk-Mirsky defined the poem as "one of the highest points of Yesenin's poetry." The poet himself, according to the testimony of friends, believed that it was “the best that he had ever done.”
Abroad, the aging Isadora began to roll up wild scenes of jealousy to the poet, pounding the dishes, and once arranged such a rout in the hotel, in which Sergey Alexandrovich tired of her disappeared, that she had to pledge property to pay the presented bill. Yesenin, at that time, sent desperate letters home: “Paris is a green city, only the French have a boring tree. The fields outside the city are combed and tidy, the farms are white. And I, by the way, took a clod of earth - and it does not smell anything. ” When he returned home, he told his friends: “As soon as we arrived in Paris, I wanted to buy a cow - I decided to ride a horse on it. That would have been a laugh! ”Meanwhile, Franz Ellens, who was the translator of Yesenin’s poems, noted:“ This peasant was an immaculate aristocrat. ” Another interesting line from Yesenin’s letter to Mariengof: “Everything is tidied up here, ironed. Your gaze would have liked it at first, and then you would start slapping yourself on the knees and how to whine like a dog. A solid cemetery - all these people, who lurk faster than lizards, and not people at all, but grave worms. Their homes - the coffin, the mainland - the crypt. He who lived here died long ago, and only we remember him. For worms cannot remember. ”
In America, Duncan and Yesenin sailed on a huge ocean liner "Paris". The tour was accompanied by scandals - Isadora danced to the sounds of the Internationale with a red flag in her hands, in Boston, the mounted police, dispersing the audience, drove right into the ground floor, journalists did not let the couple pass, and the poet himself wrote: "In America, art is not needed by anyone ... Soul which in Russia measures for pounds, is not needed here. In America, the soul - it's unpleasant, like unbuttoned pants. " After staying abroad for more than a year, in August 1923 Isadora Duncan and Yesenin returned to Russia, almost from the train station’s platform going their separate ways. Sergey Aleksandrovich, who had returned home, according to his comrades, “as a child was happy about everything, touched his hands with trees, houses ...”.
The time of the NEP came, and people in furs began to appear in literary cafes, who perceived poetry reading poems as another dish on the menu. Yesenin at one of these performances, having come on the scene last, exclaimed: “Do you think I left you to read poetry? No, I then went out to send you to ... Charlatans and speculators! .. ”People jumped up from their seats, a fight started, they called the police. There were a lot of similar scandals with drives for Sergey Alexandrovich, and the poet answered all the questions about them: “Everything comes from being angry at petty bourgeoisie, raising its head. It is necessary to beat him in the face with a biting verse, dumbfounded, in an unusual way, if you want, with a scandal - let them know that poets are unshakable, restless, enemies of swamp welfare ”. One of the critics noted that the “hooliganism” of the poet was “a purely superficial phenomenon, worn out of mischief and thirst to be known as original ... Left to himself, he would take a quiet and calm road ... because in poetry he is Mozart”.
In the autumn of 1923, Yesenin had a new hobby - actress Augusta Miklashevskaya. His wife Mariengof introduced him to her, both performed in the Chamber Theater. Lovers walked around Moscow, sat in the cafe of imagists. The actress was amazed by the strange way of communicating imagists. She wrote in memoirs that the sober Sergei Alexandrovich and his poetry were not needed by his comrades, they were arranged by his famous scandals that attracted curious people to the café. It must be said that Yesenin at the time, half in jest, half seriously tried on the role of the poetic heir of Alexander Pushkin and even wore (together with the notorious cylinder) Pushkin's lionfish. It was a lot of game, masquerade and shocking. Rurik Ivnev, for example, argued that the poet "loved to joke and joke, making it so clever and subtle that he almost always managed to catch people" with a bait. " Very soon, Yesenin and Miklashevskaya broke up.
From the end of 1923 to March 1924, Sergey Alexandrovich was in hospitals — either in Polyanka (with a bit of a mental disorder), now in Sheremetyevo Hospital (either by injuring his hand, or by cutting his veins), then in the Kremlin clinic. By the way, there are many curious stories of friends and acquaintances of the poet, indicating that Yesenin was sick of persecution delusions. For example, the poet Nikolai Aseev wrote that Yesenin "told him in a whisper that he was being watched, that he shouldn’t remain a single minute, that he wouldn’t miss anything either and he wouldn’t be allowed alive." However, Sergei Alexandrovich had reason to fear. In the autumn of 1923, Yesenin, Klychkov, Oreshin, and Ganin were involved in the “Case of Four Poets”. The court decided to bring them "public censure", poets were accused in the media of "black-Hundred, hooligan and antisocial behavior, as well as idealism and mysticism", in the pages of magazines and newspapers walking the term "Yeseninschin". And in November 1924 was arrested the poet Alexei Ganin (among other things, witness Yesenin at the wedding with Reich), declared the head of the "Order of the Russian Fascists." He was shot in March by 1925, and in 1966 he was rehabilitated due to the “absence of corpus delicti.” In total, more than a dozen cases were brought to Yesenin after returning from abroad - all the applicants were well versed in the criminal law, instantly pointing out to the police the articles of the criminal code for which the poet should have been involved. It is worth noting that in 1924, Yesenin broke off relations with Mariengof. The quarrel in the description of the witnesses was rather strange, but since then the paths of the two poets have diverged forever. And in April 1924 Sergey Alexandrovich refused to cooperate with imagistists. At that moment, he planned to found a new magazine called "Muscovite" and, according to his friends, again began to "glance in the direction of" muzhikovskuyuschie ": Klyuev, Klychkova, Oreshin." However, nothing happened with the magazine.
In 1924, Yesenin wrote a terrific series “Persian Motives” and finished work on the poem “Anna Snegina”. It is curious that when Alexandrovich was alive, not a single response appeared on her. It was also with other poems. Gorodetsky noted: “All his work was only a brilliant start. If the share of what is now being said and written about him, Yesenin would have heard during his lifetime, perhaps this beginning would have the same continuation. However, the vigorous creativity did not find his Belinsky. "
It is worth noting that Yesenin treated children and beasts with great affection. In the twenties in ravaged Russia was full of street children. The poet could not easily pass by them, approached the little tramps and gave them money. Once in Tiflis Sergey Aleksandrovich climbed into the collector, in which little lousy, dirty with coal dust, lay on the plank beds and sat. A poet found a common language with “Oliver Twists” (as Yesenin called homeless children in Russia “homeless”) instantly, a lively conversation began to thicken with jargon. Sergei Alexandrovich’s smart outfit didn’t bother the homeless teenagers, they immediately recognized the poet as his own.
Family disarray and homelessness Yesenin - the last year, he then toiled in hospitals, then traveled to the Caucasus, he lived in Bryusovskiy lane near Galina Benislavskaya. The poet’s sisters — Katya and Shura — whom Sergey Alexandrovich had transported to the capital, lived right there. In almost every letter, Yesenin gave the Benislav order to collect money for his poems in publishing houses and magazines and spend it on the maintenance of sisters. When Yesenin was in the city, his numerous comrades came to the house of Benislavsky. The sisters recalled that Yesenin never drank alone, but after drinking he quickly grew drunk and became unbridled. At the same time, one of his friends noted: “His slightly faded eyes began to look in a new way. Yesenin made an impression of a man burned with some kind of disastrous inner fire ... Once he said: “You know, I decided to get married, I was tired of such a life, I don’t have my own corner”.
In March, 1925 Sergey Alexandrovich met Lev Tolstoy’s twenty-five-year-old granddaughter, whose name was Sophia Andreevna, just like the wife of a great writer. Yesenina's sister described her in this way: “The girl looked very much like her grandfather — sharp and domineering in anger, sentimental and smiling sweetly in a good mood.” In the spring of 1925, Yesenin left for the Caucasus. This was not the first trip of the poet to the eternal place of exile of Russian writers. For the first time, Sergey Alexandrovich visited 1924 there in the fall and, moving from place to place, lived in the Caucasus for six months.
In May, 1925 Yesenin arrived in Baku. It is curious that Sergei Aleksandrovich had his outer clothing stolen on the train, and, as a result, the writer caught a cold and became ill. He was diagnosed with a Qatar of the right lung and had to undergo a course of treatment in a Baku hospital. And the poet went to the Trinity home. It was not good at home — back in 1922, when Yesenin was abroad, there was a terrible fire in Konstantinov. Polsela burned out, his father's house burned down completely. On the insurance, Yesenin's parents purchased a six-chin hut, placing it in the garden, and they began to build only after their son returned from abroad. However, the most terrible thing for a poet was the disintegration of the established peasant world over the centuries. Esenin told friends: “I visited the village. Everything is collapsing there ... You need to be from there yourself to understand ... Everything is over. ” Sergey Alexandrovich brought new poems from the village and immediately made an offer to Sophia Tolstoy. In July, they went to rest in Baku, returned to Moscow in early September, and the 18 numbers were legal marriage. This event was marked in a narrow family circle. The young settled in the apartment of Tolstoy, located in Pomerantsev Lane. Almost in the first week after the marriage, Yesenin wrote to his comrade that “everything that I hoped for and dreamed of was crumbling to dust. Family life does not stick and I want to escape. But where? Yesenin was visited by friends, and when asked how the poet lived, pointing to dozens of portraits and photographs of Leo Tolstoy, he said: “Sadly. I'm tired of the beard ... ".
In the last month of the poet’s life, events developed rapidly - 26 in November 1925 Yesenin went to the psychoneurological clinic of Professor Gannushkin and worked fruitfully there. On December 7 he sent a telegram to his comrade, the poet Wolf Ehrlich: “Find two or three rooms immediately. Moving to live Leningrad. December 21 Sergey Alexandrovich left the clinic, took all his money from the savings book and 23 went to the Northern Capital by an evening train. Upon arrival in Leningrad, Yesenin informed one of his friends that he would not return to his wife, would transport his sisters here, would organize his own journal here, and also write “a big prosaic thing - a novel or a novel”. 28 December 1925 Sergey Alexandrovich was found dead in the fifth room of the famous Angleter Hotel.
Shortly before his death, Yesenin said - enough autobiographies, let it remain a legend. And so it happened - Sergey Aleksandrovich is one of the most common myths of the twentieth century. According to the official version, the poet, being in a state of black melancholy, hanged himself on the pipe of steam heating, using the rope from the suitcase, presented to him by Gorky. This version is confirmed by documentary evidence - an act of autopsy, death certificates, a farewell letter from Yesenin himself, stuck on the eve of Erlich. According to another version, the death of the poet was guilty of the Cheka. Countless attacks on the Bolsheviks (according to the writer Andrei Sobol, “so the Bolsheviks, as Yesenin publicly did, couldn’t come to anyone, everyone who said a tenth share would have been shot long ago”), a quarrel in the Caucasus with the influential Jacob Blumkin (who even shot the poet, as if Martynov, but missed), Trotsky, offended by the poem “The Country of Scoundrels” - all this could well cause the security officers to eliminate, in their opinion, too much of a poet. According to other assumptions, the murder was not included in their plans, in exchange for getting rid of litigation, they wanted to make Sergei Alexandrovich only an informant. And when the enraged Yesenin rushed to the provocateurs, he was killed. Hence, a huge bruise above the poet’s eye, written off as a burn from a hot heating pipe, and a rout in the room, and the poet’s disappeared shoes and jacket, and a raised hand, which Yesenin is still alive, struggled to pull the rope from his throat. Young imagist painter Wolf Ehrlich, who allegedly found a suicide letter, later turned out to be a secret officer of the Cheka. The classic thirty pieces of silver are attached to this monitor - they did not find any money removed by Yesenin.
The fate of some of Yesenin’s women turned out to be tragic. His first wife, Zinaida Reich, was brutally stabbed to death in her own apartment on the night of July 15 1939. The second wife of the poet Isadora Duncan survived him for a year and nine months. She died in an accident - a red shawl, slipping overboard of a racing car, wound on the wheel, the dancer died instantly. Galina Benislavskaya, a year after the death of Sergey Alexandrovich, shot herself dead at his grave. The revolver, by the way, gave five (!) Misfires.
In the Russian tradition it is extremely important how a person died. For the unsolved death of the poet, the victim is seen, and this, throwing a shining beam at his fate, elevates Yesenin to the heavenly height. Critic Svyatopolk-Mirsky wrote in 1926: “For the Russian reader, not to love Yesenin is now a sign of either blindness or some kind of moral defects.” No matter how hard the aesthetes and snobs try to belittle and diminish the role of Sergey Alexandrovich in literature, labeling “poet for the crowd”, “for simpletons”, “for cattle”, “for gangsters”, Yesenin remains the first poet of the twentieth century in popular opinion.
According to the materials of the site http://esenin.su/ and the weekly edition “Our история. 100 Great Names »