Military Review

"Buratino", fire!

The competent American publication Popular Mechanics has published a lengthy text about the Russian heavy flame thrower system. Readers were told: “When they start talking about ground-based weapons systems, it’s difficult to find something more frightening than the Russian Buratino flamethrower system. A full volley of the flamethrower system of 24 missiles is capable of incinerating 8 urban neighborhoods, thereby creating a "hell on earth for all who find themselves in the affected area," the magazine emphasizes.

And a year ago, when there were battles for the Donetsk airport, panic articles almost simultaneously appeared in the Western and Ukrainian press that the militiamen had terrible flame-throwers "Sunpinek", therefore, "maydanutykh cyborgs", airport defenders, had no chance to survive. Since almost all the "cyborgs" were mercenaries, then, having heard of the mortal danger hanging over them, the "zombie terminators" chose to leave the fighting positions. The airport came under the control of the militia.

... Flamethrower systems appeared before our era. They were of two kinds. Flame force was directed towards the enemy with an air jet, or incendiary projectiles were thrown with the help of catapults. The most famous was the "Greek fire" - a kind of napalm of the Middle Ages, a mixture of which consisted of many components that allowed the flame to burn even in water.

With the advent of artillery, the role of flamethrowers, the range of which was small, sharply decreased. Revived them in the twentieth century. The greatest success was achieved by the Germans. Flamethrowers were used to burn the entrails of the fortified structures and for psychological impact on the enemy. The impact was terrible. This is confirmed by the fact that captured German flamethrowers were never spared, often they themselves were burned alive ...

Flamethrower - really monstrous weapondifficult to argue with that. But any war is murder. And is it not monstrous? If, however, the enemy, realizing that he will not only have to die, but a terrible death, lay down his arms, thereby preserving life for himself and those with whom he fights, how is this to be perceived?

Therefore, we will not go into absolutely hypocritical arguments about the humanity or inhumanity of the weapon, in any case bringing death. Consider its technical side.
In the USSR in the seventies of the twentieth century developed a portable flamethrower "Bumblebee". In it, the incendiary mixture was placed in a thin-walled metal capsule, which was fired from a specially designed disposable container. When the Soviet Army began fighting in Afghanistan, these flamethrowers showed their high efficiency. They were guaranteed to destroy snipers or grenade throwers, hiding in mountain crevices, where they could not reach the usual blast wave.

In the same years, a heavy jet flamethrower system of volley fire was created, firing 220 mm missiles with a volume-detonating incendiary mixture. Each rocket was loaded with 100 kilograms of thermobaric mixture. It dissipated in the air and exploded, creating pressure in the 30 atmospheres and temperatures up to 3000 degrees. The mixture penetrated through the slots into a leaky bunker and destroyed the bunker itself and everything in it, a powerful fiery and blast wave.

Everything burned, alive and inanimate. In addition, there was the effect of "vacuum bomb" due to the burning of air. It was impossible to survive in the hellish flames and instantaneous pressure drops. They called the terrible weapon childishly: “Buratino” TOC-1.

Flamethrower salvo system mounted on the chassis tank T-72. A package of 30 launch tubes was closed with an armored box that protects against damage by bullets and fragments. This was done because the ignition of a rocket located in the pipe inevitably led to the complete destruction of the entire installation and everything that was within a radius of hundreds of meters from it. The fact is that the range of fire with flamethrower missiles was small - up to 4,5 kilometers. And "Pinocchio" actually exhibited on the line of fire. TOC-1 was supposed to be used at the leading edge within the visual visibility of the enemy.

"Buratino" was first used in Afghanistan in the early eighties to destroy caves and improvised bunkers. The use of "Pinocchio" made a terrible impression on dushmans. Those who saw the sea of ​​fire in the distance and remained alive could no longer forget it. Here you can say about what. One of the favorite tactics of Dushman was to hide in the mountain gorges, where there were many trained “holes”, of which unexpectedly struck the convoys of the troops of the limited Soviet contingent, who had the imprudence to enter the gorge. Detecting shelter in advance and knock out bandits from them was considered almost impracticable. And if the column of our army came under attack, Buratino entered into action.

They treated those areas of the gorges in which the hidden positions of the "spirits" could be. Everything that was on the open surface was burned. And the effect of the “vacuum bomb” did not leave a chance to survive for those who were hiding in the crevices or small caves.

The flamethrower was one of the most secret combat systems of the Soviet and then the Russian armies. Open "Buratino" showed only in 1999 year at an exhibition in Omsk.
In 2001, by joint efforts of the Omsk Transport Engineering Engineering Bureau and the Splav enterprise in Tula, a more sophisticated and lightweight version of the TOL-1A Solneptek was created.

It features a more advanced fire control system, fewer rocket barrels - 24 instead of 30, better armor protection and new ammunition. By the way, the American edition of Popular Mechanics, although it writes about Buratino, but in fact it is precisely Sun Solovice. The firing range of the new missiles increased to 6 kilometers, and the radius of destruction of each missile increased. One such installation burns everything in the territory up to 40 thousand square meters, there is nothing left alive. In the future, "Sunlight" will be based on "Armata". All 24 TOC-1A missiles can be fired within 24 seconds, delivering tons of fire mixture to the 2,4 target.

"Sun" adopted by the Russian army 4 April 2001 of the year. It is in service with the troops of radiation, chemical and biological protection. And since 2008, the export of the system has been allowed, and this flamethrower is already being shipped to Iraq.

If among the commanders of the Islamic State group in Iraq there are experienced commanders, especially those who have passed the “Afghan”, they must have heard some terrible ones - not fairy tales! - about "Buratino".

And those who will experience the heat of the Suntape are unlikely to want to fight for the interests of the “new world order”, which is constructed not by Islamic sages, but by people for whom there is one god — the golden calf and the paper dollar.
Therefore, "Buratino" and "Sunlight" should be considered a highly humane weapon capable of stopping the fratricidal slaughter in the Middle East. Heavy flamethrowers of Russia carry peace there!
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  1. papik09
    papik09 4 October 2015 00: 57
    It has long been necessary for these "democratizers" to slap a democratizer am , and even better - HEAT repeat repeat hi
    1. igordok
      igordok 4 October 2015 08: 55
      It seems to me that "Buratino" will be an ingrained name, like "Katyusha". How not to name the new flamethrower systems - "Solntsepek", etc., they will be called "BURATINO" in the "old fashioned way". Or for Ukraine "Cheburashka". smile
      1. captain
        captain 4 October 2015 11: 17
        The main thing in the "Buratino" ("Solntsepek") system is its strong ideological property, instantly from Russophobes, makes Russophiles, that is, it clears the brains of everyone who remained alive.In Afghanistan, in mountain motorized rifle battalions there were flamethrower squads as part of anti-tank platoons. They acted better than all the propagandists and political workers.
      2. Ustian
        Ustian 4 October 2015 16: 06
        In general - a complete shepaklyak laughing
  2. Darkmor
    Darkmor 4 October 2015 00: 58
    I was always interested in a few things in these cars. Can someone give a sensible answer?
    Why is a separate platform used? Isn't it easier to unify missiles with another rocket launcher, for example 122mm "grad", or 300mm "tornado"? Why do we need such a highly specialized machine that fires 220mm rockets that are not used anywhere else except on it? Why isn't there any additional weaponry on the vehicle that actually operates on the front line? Why is the booking of the rocket rails not complete, but only lateral?
    1. Aleksandr81
      Aleksandr81 4 October 2015 05: 23
      not easier, a range of up to 6 km implies finding the installation in the direct line of sight of the enemy, which means that you need to have sufficient armor protection. have you seen a lot to direct hail hail output?
    2. Cat man null
      Cat man null 4 October 2015 05: 59
      Quote: Darkmor
      Why is the car, which actually operates on the front line, not provided at least some additional weapons? Why is the reservation of guides for missiles not complete, but only lateral?

      There is such IMHA (I didn’t find confirmation - one hundred percent, although I was looking for it):

      Pinocchio was not intended at all (initially, in theory) to be used as a means of defeating the enemy. By the way, initially the range of Pinocchio was not 6000, but 3600 meters ..

      Pinocchio is in service with the armies of the Russian Chemical Forces. Radiation, Chemical and Biological Protection.

      Designed .. for the disinfection of the area, in such an original way .. "burn out all the nafig."

      Hence the lack of protection (booking, machine guns, guns, ATGMs, air defense systems, etc.)

      Quote: Darkmor
      Why do we need such a highly specialized machine firing 220mm rockets that are not used anywhere else but on it?

      Historically, I guess ..

      Quote: Darkmor
      Isn't it easier to unify missiles with another rocket launcher, for example 122mm "grad", or 300mm "tornado"?

      What for? For Tornado, for example, there is thermobaric ammunition:

      Quote: Wiki
      9M55S - rocket with thermobaric warhead 9M216 "Excitement". An explosion of one shell creates a thermal field with a diameter of at least 25 m (depending on the terrain). Field temperature - over +1000 ° C, lifetime - at least 1,4 s. ...
      Ammunition tests were completed in 2004. By order of the President of the Russian Federation No. 1288 of October 7, 2004, 9M55C was adopted by the Russian Army

      Quote: Aleksandr81
      range up to 6 km assumes the installation is in direct line of sight of the enemy

      Nah .. it doesn't seem to suggest (see above).

      Quote: Darkmor
      Can someone give a sensible answer?

      I do not know how "sensible", but - "what happened, then stole" request (C)

      Correct, if I am mistaken.
    3. mrDimkaP
      mrDimkaP 4 October 2015 11: 31
      Quote: Darkmor
      Why is the car, which actually operates on the front line, not provided at least some additional weapons? Why is the reservation of guides for missiles not complete, but only lateral?

      And where to stick it? The tower is a launcher, you can’t go there. Course machine gun perhaps, but then you need to redo the case, and its effectiveness is questionable. Moreover, no one will let go of potato without accompaniment. In addition, care must be taken that the chassis is not overloaded and the equipment can always move along with the tanks.

      As for unification, I can’t say anything, but I’m sure there are reasons. At a minimum: hail is small, tornado is large, and a hurricane is not used.
      1. Darkmor
        Darkmor 4 October 2015 12: 49
        Thanks for answers. But there are only more questions.
        which means that you need to have sufficient armor protection. have you seen a lot to direct hail hail output?

        The question was more about the launcher and the guides. Why a tank is used as a chassis is understandable.
        The unification of the caliber with any other RZSO would allow the use of "solntsepek" as an armored RZSO of the front flank (for strikes on the rear positions of the enemy, which can only be carried out from the line of contact), and some "hail" - as an RHBZ vehicle (for example, to destroy warehouse of chemical ammunition) There would be loaders under the same caliber - which would greatly simplify the reloading of "sun machines"
        And where to stick it?

        This is not a correct statement of the question.
        Thinking where to shove weapons is an activity for design engineers. I just point out the tactical necessity, based on the conditions of use.

        If you want to make a good car, then such questions should be worked out. But it’s not stupid to tear off a tower from a tank and place a guide for missiles on it - calling it all a flamethrower installation.
        1. mrDimkaP
          mrDimkaP 4 October 2015 21: 25
          If it’s not stupid to replace the tower, then the chassis needs to be reworked, and then what kind of unification can we talk about?

          "Thinking about where to shove a weapon is a design engineer’s occupation. I’m only pointing out the tactical necessity based on the conditions of use."

          Yes, but. The troops needed CBT. The design bureaus set deadlines and priority tasks. The KB fulfilled its priority tasks, but could not deliver additional weapons. In modernization - the sun - he is not there either. So it is really very difficult or there is no such need or it was simply not discerned.

          In general, it all boiled down to the fact that either they could not or did not want to.

          Why couldn’t they? About the machine gun and the change in the body has already said. In principle, it can be attached on the side of the launcher, on the wall, but for this you need, in addition to the machine gun itself, also insert electronics with a control system. Do not lie on the roof to shoot? But we must remember the weight and volume - at that time a serious problem for electronics. In addition, all this can go beyond the dimensions.

          Well, about the fact that they should always be accompanied by me, I also said.
    4. Aqela
      Aqela 4 October 2015 16: 14
      Such garbage that (quote from everyone's favorite Wikipedia): wink
      BM-21 Grad:
      Firing range MinimalM
      OFS: 4000
      CAS: 2500
      WAS: 1600
      Maximum shooting range, m
      OFS: 40
      CAS: 33
      UAS: 42
      TOS-1 Pinocchio:
      Minimum firing range, m - 400
      Firing range maximum, m - 3600 (with new missiles - up to 6000)
      So the proposal to combine the two-in-one is very reminiscent of the desire to combine a 12-gauge shotgun and a 12,7 mm machine gun or 23 mm cannon into a single barrel. Ridiculous. These are just systems that are similar in appearance, but different in purpose. request
      1. gladcu2
        gladcu2 4 October 2015 17: 53

        In the case of different calibers work
        3 factors.

        1. Historically developed. Often does not meet modern requirements but is dictated by the need to use developed ammunition.

        2. Economically and combat effectiveness in one. It also takes into account the modern need, in connection with the variety and security of the processed target. The size of the caliber depends on the performance characteristics of the task and the common sense of engineering.

        3. Design errors and performance characteristics of the task.
        These also exist and account for up to 25% of the systems used in various types of weapons. 25% is a subjective intuitive opinion. My.
    5. gladcu2
      gladcu2 4 October 2015 17: 39

      The caliber of a weapon is dictated only by the economic efficiency of its use.

      Note. Firing range is only 4.5 km. This suggests that the charge delivered directly to the rocket engine should have an optimal weight and volume. To create a given efficiency.

      Apparently they thought that in the volume of delivery it is necessary to have a caliber of 220 mm.
      Surely we took into account the problems of service and logistics of the system.
    6. sergius60
      sergius60 5 October 2015 00: 39
      1. There is a "Hurricane" in the 220 mm caliber.
      2. Due to the large mass of the warhead (100 kg), the missiles have a small (relatively) firing range - about 6 km. A "Hurricane", though large, but still unprotected truck. Hang up the armor - the mass will increase, the loss of passability ...
      3. The system was originally created for demining by detonating mines. All other "nischchaks" are concomitant. And this is done before the attack. There, and so it will be enough for someone to shoot. A volley - and washed off. ;-) Therefore, the tank chassis is something that is not too much of a "nuisance".
      4. How? In front - rockets fly out, behind - a place for "exhaust". ;-) Only from the sides - anti-fragmentation. Again, we strengthen the booking - the mass grows. I saw pictures of the war years ... So in the plowing (probably after the rain) "tiger cubs" got stuck in the tower. And to agree to fight only on the roads ... ;-)))))
      Here it is necessary without fanaticism. ;-)
  3. aszzz888
    aszzz888 4 October 2015 01: 22
    But any war is a murder. And isn't that monstrous?

    In war, all means are good. This was not invented by me, but this is the basis for the use of any type of weapon.
    And this will sin all, especially the warring parties.
    There are many examples of this in history. Starting from the use of mustard gas by the Germans, and ending with our days.
  4. NEXUS
    NEXUS 4 October 2015 02: 35
    Pinocchio system is very frightening for any adversary, but I think the range should be increased by at least three. Although it’s clear that one thing to say, but it’s completely different. One thing is certain, this complex will be needed and will be improved. Maybe in the future it will be transferred to the platform Armats.
  5. Ngauro
    Ngauro 4 October 2015 02: 50
    Well, they delivered it to Iraq,
    1. 2С5
      2С5 4 October 2015 04: 47
      ... everything has its time, dear wink
  6. Aleksandr81
    Aleksandr81 4 October 2015 05: 21
    the effect of a vacuum bomb :))))). well what nonsense. well, not to mention what they’ll put on the armature (from this project, Soncepec shells will receive + 100 to the range + 200 to the force + 300 to the intimidation for sure)
  7. 31rus
    31rus 4 October 2015 06: 18
    To develop on a wheeled chassis for Arab "friends", they delivered to Iraq, and only a few units in Russia itself, another thing is surprising, you can create ammunition for existing systems
    1. Cat man null
      Cat man null 4 October 2015 06: 27
      Quote: 31rus
      another thing is surprising, you can create ammunition for existing systems

      And to get into Vika, at least - we are broke, it’s clear .. it’s easier to be surprised laughing

      Quote: Wiki
      For Smerch: 9M55S - rocket with thermobaric warhead 9M216 "Excitement"
      For Hurricane: 9M51 - rocket with thermobaric 9N515

      Somehow request
      1. Wal
        Wal 4 October 2015 06: 49
        For the BM-21, too.
  8. srha
    srha 4 October 2015 06: 28
    "creating a pressure of 30 atmospheres" and "there was an effect of a" vacuum bomb "due to the burning of air."

    Here is an indestructible myth: then 30 atm, then a vacuum due to burning out and, most importantly, everything in one explosion at once, but in different paragraphs, to avoid cognitive impairment.

    And calculate, for example, how many liters of gases are formed and how many liters of oxygen burns out during the combustion of one of the fuels used in thermobaric ammunition - ethylene oxide - C2H4O, taking into account the fact that at the declared explosion temperatures all components are gaseous: 2 * C2H4O + 5 * O2 -> 4 * CO2 + 4 * H2O. Well, chemistry says that there are more gases, which means there is no vacuum "due to the burning of air." And where does it come from there? And he is not. And there is a shock wave up to 30 atm, which creates a deadly pressure drop. And that's why the name of the ammunition uses "bar" - pressure.
    1. igordok
      igordok 4 October 2015 08: 46
      The use of gases, and ethylene oxide-GAS, in thermobaric munitions is unprofitable. Powders of metals with additives, sometimes liquids, are used as fuel. And at the moment of undermining of thermobaric ammunition, air oxygen is used to oxidize the constituent ammunition. But the products of an ammunition explosion can be either gaseous or solid.
      I agree that "vacuum bomb" is a journalistic name and it is incorrect to use it. The main damaging effect of thermobaric ammunition is shock wave and arson. And the backward shock wave, which is characteristic of almost all ammunition, is auxiliary. It's just that it is more noticeable in thermobaric and nuclear munitions.
    2. Nikolay K
      Nikolay K 4 October 2015 09: 36
      Chemistry is good, but don't forget physics. There were more gases, but where does the shock wave come from? That's right, when the gases are heated, they expand, when they are suddenly heated, pressure is created and most of the incandescent gases tend to leave the epicenter of the explosion as an area with increased pressure. After an explosion and a sharp cooling, it turns out that the air at the epicenter is discharged, hence they speak of the "vacuum" effect.
    3. crambol
      crambol 4 October 2015 09: 40
      the effect of the "vacuum bomb" due to burning air.

      Another mistake because of ignorance of the school chemistry course. Air does not burn out! Air oxygen oxidizes the components of explosives, and nitrogen and everything else remains!

      1. gladcu2
        gladcu2 4 October 2015 18: 02

        Nikolay K.

        He gave the most accurate description of the process of creating a vacuum explosion. Also, vibrations of the medium are added, and when superimposed explosions and resonance processes.
  9. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 4 October 2015 08: 20
    Good technique. Need to send to Syria. With the capture of cities and fortified areas, that’s it!
  10. zombiunian
    zombiunian 4 October 2015 09: 13
    Cheburatorrrrr)))))) annealed psakilysaki. A good "pill" hit the thinking priest - here and "burned" the priest then
  11. testerman
    testerman 4 October 2015 09: 37
    There is a video on the network of the operation of TOC for the purpose and consequences of work, if anyone has a link, discard pliz, it's interesting to see

    thanks in advance
  12. Whowhy
    Whowhy 4 October 2015 10: 12
    It is time to stop confusing ODB and TB. lol In the first case, ethylene oxide (or propylene) is used, which is sprayed and burns (explodes) due to atmospheric oxygen. In the second case, fuel (the same thickened gasoline) is already mixed with oxidizing agents (for example, with ammonium perchlorate), where metal powders (the same aluminum) and powdery hexogen (octogen) are added to create detonation centers. In terms of pressure in the front of the shock wave, TBs are slightly inferior to ODBs, but they are completely independent of weather and the presence of open fire in the target area, and they are superior to ODBs in terms of temperature effects in the explosion zone. hi
    Yes, there are completely "dry" thermobaric ammunition (for example (GM-94 shots), but the essence remains - in the TB the fuel is already mixed with an oxidizer, and when the TB explodes, a large cloud, as in the ODB explosion, is not formed.
  13. Hammer
    Hammer 4 October 2015 10: 56
    There was a "Cheburashka" under the airport, do not forget
    1. kotvov
      kotvov 4 October 2015 11: 32
      There was a "cheburashka" under the airport, do not forget,
      let it be, cyborgs, do not forget.
  14. AdekvatNICK
    AdekvatNICK 4 October 2015 11: 44
    Shots of a volley of the Solntsepek flamethrower system

  15. Taoist
    Taoist 4 October 2015 12: 21
    Thermobaric, they are also "volumetric explosion ammunition" they are for journalists "vacuum" charges certainly have a great future - and in this regard, TOS is a good weapon of war. But do not assume that this is a "wunderwaffe" (in principle, it does not exist) - it is worth remembering that this type of ammunition has significant restrictions on the conditions of use and, above all, on weather conditions. If an ordinary explosive explodes regardless of the wind speed, temperature and air humidity, then the aerosol cloud is very sensitive to these parameters.
  16. Cat man null
    Cat man null 4 October 2015 13: 42
    Here ( is a quite suitable article about Pinocchio - Solntsepeki. Recommend yes
  17. repytw
    repytw 4 October 2015 15: 27
    Panic screams of the Igil Basmachi fan club rained down after the publication of a photo of the march of the heavy Solntsek fire systems in Syria. The upcoming kneading for ISIS basmachi-dushmans in Syria and Iraq is already looming on the scale of local armageddon. I would like to hope that the terrorists will not have a slight fright, like the illiterate speaker of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine Lysenko, who has seen the deadly CB “Cheburashka” at the Donbass militia in battle.
  18. kirpich
    kirpich 4 October 2015 16: 05
    Guys, I understand correctly that when this great-great-granddaughter of "KATYUSHA" just comes into position and says - (WHO DIDN'T HIDDEN, I'M NOT GUILTY). After that, having offended the adversary, he briskly goes to recharge repeat soldier
    1. sergius60
      sergius60 5 October 2015 00: 55
      You understand correctly. ;-)
  19. Cat man null
    Cat man null 4 October 2015 18: 16
    I really want to believe that Pinocchio (or Solntsepek), Cheburator, in short - there is a child prodigy, and only the Death Star is cooler .. and - well, it doesn’t work out .. request

    Help, who can, dispel doubts?

    We have:

    - firing range (limit) - 6000 m. That is, we can reach for a 120 mm mortar (7000), and there’s no other question.
    - is obviously a priority goal. That is - it is necessary to covertly bury, bury .. that is possible only when the enemy has no intelligence (including aviation and drones). Absolutely.
    - quickly "run away" from the place of the volley - cannot. That is, in the presence of minimal counter-battery systems, it will be covered after the first salvo. Yes, and without them - too, is, consider, next to the enemy, the place of the volley is visible with eyes.
    - recharge after the first volley - just do not have time, in the same conditions.

    In total, for successful application it is necessary that:

    - the enemy must be "blind" (without aerial reconnaissance and counter-battery systems, at least)
    - the enemy did not have anything that shoots further .. well, say, 3 kilometers

    Where such "greenhouse" conditions were encountered and where Buratino was actually used:

    - Afghanistan - the enemy has neither aviation (at all), nor artillery (practically)
    - with. Komsomolskoe - the same
    - Donetsk airport - the same

    The same Syria is highly questionable. Intelligence there may come from mattress friends, for example. How to shoot Pinocchio - definitely there.

    This is a sad picture. Maybe I don’t understand what?
    1. zarya
      zarya 5 October 2015 01: 55
      I may have misunderstood, but it looks like this system is used to escort the columns. And to hit the thermobaric ammunition at a greater distance, the "Smerch" is used.
  20. tchoni
    tchoni 4 October 2015 18: 33
    This is all cool and incredibly awesome .. but the question is: "What kind of vegetable, excuse me, instead of burning out block after block during the storming of Grozny, did they drive our soldiers to the slaughter?" After all, the author clearly discards in the article the question of the humanity of weapons - in any form it is inhuman, in any form it brings death. So the question is: WHAT THE FUCK? The only case of using TPS in Chechnya is fighting for the village, if I am not mistaken "Komsomolskoye" in 2000 ...
    1. kirpich
      kirpich 4 October 2015 21: 14
      There was such a commander in chief Grachev. So ask this ... eccentric
  21. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 5 October 2015 00: 57
    Here's another "catch": the following names are used to designate the type of ammunition: 1. Volumetric detonating (OD); 2. Thermobaric (TB). And the “catch” is that some sources claim that OD and TB ammunition is the same thing (mostly). But there was also a statement about the difference: OD-ammunition contains only "fuel" and the effectiveness of its use is limited to 100 kg (aerial bombs, and 220 mm (shells.nury). TB-ammunition contains " fuel and an oxidizer, which made it possible to create ammunition with a caliber of up to 43 mm. And what is the truth? Who knows this truth?
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 5 October 2015 10: 08
      The principle of action is important ... Both for thermobaric and for OD ammunition, the principle is one, but it consists of a cloud of only fuel or does not have a binary composition. The principle is important - and the principle is the formation of an aerosol cloud, which ensures when the explosion does not propagate the shock wave from the point of explosion, but the striking target with a combination of multidirectional pressure fronts, temperature and the force of the explosion flame. Just ammunition containing in addition to fuel also an oxidizing agent is less sensitive to external conditions of use - and require less time for the correct formation of the mixture.
  22. pescimakhi
    pescimakhi 5 October 2015 02: 52
    "With fire and sword"
  23. builder
    builder 5 October 2015 07: 23
    The article is generally good. Why only frank nonsense to write:
    Since almost all the "cyborgs" were mercenaries, then, having heard about the mortal danger hanging over them, the "zombie terminators" chose to leave their fighting positions. The airport came under the control of the militias.
  24. Whowhy
    Whowhy 6 October 2015 07: 17
    For those on an armored train: When a TB explodes, an aerosol cloud (see Wikipedia) is not formed - there is simply no time for this, since detonation begins immediately. The expansion of the "TB-composition" can be measured only by tens of centimeters, due to the difference between the detonation velocities of the "initiating-expelling" charge and the "TB-composition". Therefore, in order for the TB to work "correctly", an explosive with a high detonation velocity is selected for the "initiating-expelling" charge (not forgetting, of course, economic considerations), for example, the same RDX.
    At the same time, when using volumetric detonating ammunition (ODB), in fact, an aerosol cloud is first formed, the coverage area of ​​which in modern ODBs reaches hundreds of meters.