“Tselina of the Rostov region. To the Secretary of the Tselinsky District Committee of the CPSU (b) Comrade Danilovsky. Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Tselinsky District Council of Workers' Deputies Comrade Mishakova. Pass to the workers of the Tselinsky district, who collected 400 thousand rubles for the construction tank “Don Co-Operator” columns, my fraternal greetings and thanks to the Red Army. I. Stalin. "
On the example of the life of just one of the numerous Russian regions, one can see all the sorrows and all the joys of our country.
In 1904, in the village of Sredniy Egorlyk, a solemn event was held to celebrate the centenary. Present himself Stavropol governor and spiritual ranks. At the ceremonial gathering laid the foundation for charity. A donation opened a charity house and a lower vocational school.
In 1914, the First World War began, it covered almost all European countries, the USA and a number of Asian countries were involved. To the front they took horses, cattle, moves, a harness. Only from Middle Egorlyk 3 000 people were mobilized. There was nobody to work in the fields. The ruin of the peasantry began, especially the middle peasants. This was followed by famine, a typhus epidemic.
From 1 March 1916, the traffic was opened along the Don line “Bataysk-Torgovaya” of the Vladikavkaz railway. The station Celina began to operate. Before the revolution, eight general and three parochial schools for children of well-to-do people worked on the territory of the future Tselinsky district; these schools employed 16 teachers.
The February and Great October Socialist Revolutions took place in 1917. In late November, Soviet power was established in the villages of Srednyaya Egorlyk and Lopanka.
In 1918, the Kornilov people shot and killed 300 people within 24 hours, and more than 2 residents of Srednyaya Yegorlyk village were killed in the 500 day.
In 1920, Soviet power was restored. Formed the first collective farms - the commune. After the unification, the names were subsequently assigned to them: the name of Karl Marx and the name of Karl Liebknecht. Already in the first years, the communards began to harvest wheat per hectare of sown area one and a half to two times higher than the individual farmers.
And in 1921, the first military stud farm was opened here.
In 1921, the mass resettlement of Dukhobors and Molokans from the Caucasus and Turkey began. 1921 to 1923 Thousands of Dukhobors and Molokans settled in these parts of 4,5. By the 1923, in the territory of the present district, they had equipped 45 villages and farmsteads.
In June, the 1921 of the year, by decision of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic, was established the State Stud Farm “Salsky”, later renamed the Kirov Military Stud Farm. The plant was part of the Salsky district at the station Celina Don region.
In the spring of 1922, the state donated seed grain to the population. Weather conditions allowed us to harvest a good harvest - hunger was liquidated. A seed fund was procured for the following year.
In 1922-1924, a new economic policy was introduced by a government decree in the country. The villagers were allowed to produce grain, grow oilseeds, raise livestock in unlimited quantities. This caused a sharp rise in enterprise, economic resourcefulness. Some workers left the communes and single-handedly engaged in agriculture.
In 1923, the Tselinsky District was founded. He received the name "Western Konnozavodchesky."
Earlier, the territory was part of the Medvezhinsky district of the Stavropol province and part of the Salsk district of the Don Cossack region. The center of the area became the station Celina. At the end of the year, a regional Komsomol organization was created; it consisted of 50-60 Komsomol members.
In 1924, the virgin lands fell asleep in the bins of the Motherland more than two million pounds of bread.
In 1924-1925 Artels, TOZs (cooperative land cultivation partnerships) were created.
1925 year was fruitful. In the commune named Karl Liebknecht gathered about forty thousand pounds of grain. This year, the villagers received money for delivering grain to the state.
In 1927, the construction of the state grain reception station at Celina station was started. The building was wooden. Created by DOSAAF.
In 1928, the construction of the elevator was completed, but soon it burned down. Another grain receiving station and a two-story building were built.
In July, the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR decided to create the first Soviet grain farm in the Salsk Steppe — State Farm No. XXUMX, which was later renamed Giant. The central manor was located in the new settlement of New Tselina. In September of this year, tractors, combine harvesters, plows and other agricultural equipment purchased in America arrived at the Tselina station.
The middle Yegorlyk vocational school began to train mechanics and tractor drivers. This year, the famous Soviet writer A. Karataeva visited the commune of Karl Liebknecht.
1929 year. A complete collectivization of peasant farms began in the region. By decision of the Salsk okruzhkom VKP (b), this campaign was carried out in the 2 phase: the first was in villages and farms located along the Yul beam and south of Celina station; the second is in the Dukhobor-Molokan massif.
The communes named after Karl Marx and Karl Liebknecht, the Sower, the Path of Truth became collective farms (collective farms). Collectivization contributed to the increase in the number of inhabitants of the station Celina. The influx from the neighboring villages and farms of those who did not want to join the collective farms increased. Different views on life, foundations, and traditions at first divided them.
In 1929, the writer M. Gorky was a guest of the state farm “Giant”.
1930 year. Western Konnozavodchesky area was renamed to Gigantovsky. Then it will be abolished. Its territory will become part of the Salsk district.
14 August 1930, the Soviet government passed the law on compulsory primary education, which was introduced universally. In the same year, an evening work school was organized in the school building of the village of Novaya Tselina for training young people in grain growing professions.
1931. Began to form machine-tractor stations (MTS). Subsequently, there will be four of them in the district (Tselinskaya, Khleborobnaya, Olshanskaya, Krasnopartizanskaya). In September, an agrotechnical study began in the school building of the village of New Tselina.
On the initiative of the Komsomol in the region, as well as throughout the country, a TRP complex was introduced (ready for work and defense) - the basis of the Soviet system of physical education.
When MTS and state farms created political departments, designed to promote the fundamental reconstruction of the national economy. The policy of accelerated industrialization led to the removal of bread from the population. The political departments controlled by the NKVD even took the seeds. With a good harvest, hunger was artificially created.
1934. Collectivization in the area is complete. In the spring, the state allocated seed material, it began to strengthen the collective farms. The processing industry is developing in the district (a oil mill, butter-making factories, mills, an elevator farm, a slaughterhouse), an artel for the provision of public services, and an industrial complex. In December, a meeting of the organizing bureau of the Azov-Black Sea Regional Committee of the Party at Tselinsky RK VKP (b) took place. The question “On the unbundling of areas” was considered. In 1934, the state farm “Giant” was divided into four independent state farms.
1935 year. The district became independent and became known as Tselinsky. The center of the restored area is the station Celina. In the area there were 76 collective farms, 2 state farm, 3 MTS, 3 industrial enterprises. This year, the 45 district collective farms issued state acts for the perpetual use of land. The first to receive these documents were the collective farms named after Budyonny (Khoryborobny Village Soviet) and the name of Stalin (Mikhailovsky Village Soviet).
In January, the first issue of the district newspaper Stalinets was published. In February, the first district party conference was held in Tselin. In November, a meeting of the Stakhanovists of the district, to which the 350 people arrived, was held. These were tractor drivers, combine operators, blacksmiths, field workers and livestock breeders.
Voroshilov's cavalrymen appeared in 1936 year. Despite the difficulties and hardships, life was slowly getting better. Sown areas increased. In 1936, the crops occupied 95 155 hectares, including 31 708 hectares - winter wheat, 7262 - corn. Growing livestock. By the beginning of 1936, there were 30553 cattle heads in the area, including 10146 cows; over 40000 sheep heads; 10 033 pigs.
In order to reproduce the Don horses in the interests of agriculture and the country's defense, mother farms are being established in the region. The Tselinsky district is included in the circle of activities of the “Dongosplegrassnik”. The best workers are assigned to 2 of the year to work at horse farms. Created clubs Voroshilov cavalry.
By the end of the year, 5 feldsher points, 3 medical stations, the central district hospital for 25 beds are operating in the district; 79 schools. There were 2516 illiterate adults in the district, of whom 1013 was trained, and 3699 were illiterate people. To educate the population under the village councils created sections to combat illiteracy.
At the meeting of the Bureau of the Republic of Kazakhstan VKP (b) a plan for the construction of fish ponds was approved. Subsequently, according to this plan, 14 ponds on collective farms were created: Molstroy, named after 13 in October, Karl Liebknecht, Zhoby, Northern Indicator, named after May 1, XVII Party Congress, Stalin, Red Dawn, Path to Socialism, 2 Five-Year Plan "," Political Department "," 1 Konarmiya ", named after the Revolutionary Military Council of the North Caucasian Military District. This year, the first common area raids of rural activists and village correspondents to check the progress of field work took place.
Almost 50 000 tons of bread harvested in 1937 year. On 9 months ahead of time, the Soviet people completed the tasks of the second five-year plan. Tselintsy made a worthy contribution to the common cause. In the middle of 1937, 214 stakhanovtsev worked in the field area, among them 16 combine operators, 28 tractor drivers; in animal husbandry - 26 Stakhanovists. 49 800 tons of bread arrived at the elevator after the harvest. Collective farms named after 13 October, Karl Liebknecht, Zhoby, Northern Indicator, First of May, XVII Party Congress, Stalin, Red Dawn, Path to Socialism, 2 Five-Year Plan, Political Department Worker, 1 Conarm ", named after the Revolutionary Military Council of the North Caucasian Military District. This year 9862 cows, 4516 pigs, 38 096 sheep and goats took place.
For success in assisting the RK CPSU (b) to mobilize district workers to carry out national economic plans, the regional newspaper was named a participant in the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition.
Military oath and employment records entered in 1939 year. In 1939, on the basis of a resolution of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR of 1938, labor books were introduced in the region. By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council, the text of the military oath was approved and the soldiers of the Red Army and Navy were brought to it fleet and the Border Guard, including our fellow countrymen serving in all branches of the USSR troops.
1939 year was very fruitful. At the Exhibition of Economic Achievements in Moscow there were delegations of eight Tselina collective farms. Among them, the collective farm named after the First of May, which received by that time an excellent harvest: 18,6 centners of grain and 9,2 centners of sunflower per hectare. For this labor victory, the Glavvystavk awarded the collective farm with a first-degree diploma, a cash bonus in 10 000 rubles and a car.
Special honors were given to the workers of the former commune, and then the Karl Marx collective farm, for high yields of grain, maize and sunflower. They were awarded a first degree diploma at the Exhibition of Economic Achievements, a 10 000 rubles money prize and a car.
The awards of the All-Union Exhibition were also received by the Karl Liebknecht collective farms and Lenin’s Way. Representatives of the collective farm Northern Indicator, who received 17,5 centners of grain and 14,4 centners of a sunflower per circle, visited VDNKh. The district newspaper "The Stalin banner" was also a participant in the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition.
Workers of the Tselinsky MTS also exceeded their production targets and took the top place in the region. Teachers and kultarmeytsy (Komsomol members) took the initiative to turn the Tselinsky district into an area of continuous literacy.
District wealth on the eve of the 1940 war. Harvest was higher than in 1939 year. Kolkhoz got rich, in recent years a lot of equipment was acquired, gardening and viticulture were widely developed. Was organized by the vetsluzhba village. Improved medical care. In each collective farm a paramedic station worked, hospitals were opened on the periphery.
Special attention was paid to children. In the gardens and nurseries they were fed for free. The new generation grew physically strong and educated. School graduates began to be sent to universities. pre-war years widely developed cultural and educational work. In 1940, residents of the Tselinsky District wrote out 1,5 thousands of newspapers, 2421 copies of magazines.
At the beginning of 1940, 28 drama, 48 choral and musical, 22 anti-religious, 37 agronomic circles operated in the region. 3 regional amateur art competitions were held, in which 800 amateur artists took part.
In Tselina and the large villages of the district, there were 95 primary organizations of the Aviakhim CCA, which were divided into circles: shooting, PVCO, and Voroshilovskiy horsemen. In just one year, the “Voroshilovsky shooter” badges were awarded to the 498 man, the PHVO - 686, and the “Young shooter” - the 60 man.
And in February 1940, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics for outstanding success in raising agriculture and over-fulfilling the indicators of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition for two years during 1937-1938. awarded the collective farm named after the First of May and the Tselinsky grain farm with the Orders of Lenin.
1941 year. This year, everything foreshadowed a rich harvest: spring was warm and wet. All spring work was carried out on time. The acreage was 114 397 hectares, including 4000 hectares under winter wheat, 2116 hectares under corn.
But the Great Patriotic War began. On the first day of mobilization, one and a half thousand Tselina voluntarily went to the front, and in the first weeks - almost the entire male population of the region of military service age. All worries about the collective and private households fell on the shoulders of women, old people, adolescents and professionals left on the reservation. Started accelerated training of girls and women to work on the technique. On the fields of the region ripe harvest. All forces were thrown at cleaning and sending bread to the front. On 19 days ahead of time, the Tselinki coped with all field work.
Public livestock feed was procured at 2 of the year. In August, the Tselina hosted the 9 Plenum of the RK VKP (b), which addresses peaceful issues inextricably linked to the war. It was decided to organize a collection of gifts for the fighters of the Red Army; deduct monthly the daily earnings of each worker until the end of the war. On the initiative of the Komsomol members, Sundays were regularly held, the funds from which were sent to the defense fund. In a short time, virgin workers collected government bonds, and 76 560 rubles were collected and transferred to the defense fund.
Organized fundraising for the tank column "Rostov collective farmer." In order to strengthen the military power, the landowners from their personal savings contributed almost two million rubles (in monetary terms of that time). In the area was organized by the national militia. His task was to protect state and public facilities, travel, dams, roads. The population was trained in defense rules, ditches and trenches were settled. The youth built defensive fortifications on the left bank of the Don.
Heavy transport aircraft arrived in Tselina, after which the settlement was declared in martial law. A fighter battalion acted - in case of the appearance of enemy paratroopers. The squadron, despite the fact that the planes were transport, flew every night to the bombardment of the front edge of the Nazis, the bombs were dropped manually.
1942 year. The area spent the sowing time. An order to prepare for evacuation was received. Evacuated public livestock equipment.
The first aerial bomb on Tselina Germans dropped in mid-June. On July 28, the district military registration and enlistment office sent to the military registration and enlistment offices in the south of the country all the remaining men to be conscripted into the army.
July August. The occupation of the area by the Nazis. From the first day the curfew was set, the population was forbidden to go out in the evening and at night. The commandant's office was located in the building of the former militia.
A punitive detachment arrived, it was located in the tank farm room. Arranged raids began shooting. But punitive measures brought reverse results. Officers and soldiers began to disappear from the German garrison. During the occupation, by the end of August 1942 of the year, an active underground group was organized and acted on Yul's gully and surrounding areas, which informed the Soviet command about everything that happened in the center of the Tselinsky district, and also near Salsk, where the Gestapo .
The Nazis were in the area from July-August 1942 of the year to 23 of January 1943 of the year. During this time, they shot 150 people, destroyed and destroyed housing, buildings, equipment, equipment, livestock, perennial plantings worth 484 million rubles.
January 1943 of the year was snowless and slushy. 20 numbers the Germans blew up a railway station, a water tower and some apartment buildings.
23 January 1943, the district was liberated by 28 and 51 armies. During the fighting for the station Celina killed 17 fighters, among them Colonel PF. Dimurin. A district center street is named after him.
A few days after the liberation of the region, a special commission was established to investigate the atrocities of the Nazis in the virgin lands. The act drawn up by the commission was a detail in the All-Union Act, presented to defeated Nazi Germany in the 1945 year.
Spring field work was carried out by women, adolescents, the handicapped and the elderly. With the spring sowing of 1943, the 3 of the region coped with the Azov, Yegorlyksky and Tselinsky districts. The entire population worked heroically. In agricultural production, the virgin lands exceeded the prewar level.
Toilers of the Karl Liebknecht collective farm took the initiative to help the areas liberated from the occupation with seeds for spring sowing. In the order of labor mobilization, the population of the region was involved in the cultivation of earthen landslides to shelter Soviet aircraft at the airfields of the Celina station and the village of Zhuravlevka. At the work sites organized food, overnight.
The District Party Committee filed a petition with the regional education group on the allocation of textbooks, notebooks, pencils, visual aids, military equipment and glass for schools. In September, the children went to school. Over 1000 children of Rostov-on-Don, victims of the German occupation, arrived in the area. Premises were prepared for the reception of evacuees, material and living conditions were created, food, study and housing were provided. Adults evacuees were employed, small children were identified in nurseries and gardens. Since September, the special estate has begun to operate on the central estate of the Tselinsky state farm; 90 children were placed in it, whose parents died.
1944 year. On January 9, the newspaper “Stalin's Banner” wrote that the collective of the Budenny Khleborobny Village Soviet, where the Mandrykin family lives, received a message about assigning the title of Hero of the Soviet Union to Mandrykin Yefim Ivanovich.
Since January 11, schools have introduced a digital five-point system for assessing student performance and behavior.
Komsomol youth brigades of the district took part in the All-Union socialist competition.
Sev-44 was completed in a short time at a high agrotechnical level. The soldiers began to return from the front. They took an active part in the restoration of the war-ravaged economy of the region.
During the time after the liberation from the fascist yoke, the working people of the region contributed 12 million 500 thousand rubles to the fund of the Supreme Command 1; 67 million 514 thousand 48420 pounds of bread; Xnumx pounds of meat; 1 956 864 liters of milk; 76 thousand 43 kilograms of wool.
The collective farmers and the intelligentsia of the region also collected 400 000 rubles for the construction of the Don Kooperator tank column. On this occasion, a telegram was published in the Stalin banner, No. 41 from 28.05.1944, of the following content: “Tselina of the Rostov Region. Secretary of Tselinsky District Committee of the CPSU (b) Comrade. Danilovsky. The chairman of the executive committee of the Tselinsky district council of workers' deputies comrade. Mishakov. Pass to the workers of the Tselinsky District, who gathered 400 thousand rubles for the construction of a tank column "Don Cooperator", my fraternal greetings and thanks to the Red Army. I. Stalin.
1945 year. Since January 1 1945, the order of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR on the basis of the grain farm “Yulovsky” organized the second military stud in the region number 160 named after K.E. Voroshilov. In May, the Tselintsy, together with the entire Soviet people, celebrated the Victory Day over Nazi Germany. The damage caused by the war with the German fascist invaders, not counting even colossal waste and losses during the occupation period, amounted to 190.171,8 thousand rubles.
9720 Tselina warriors who went to the front 6456 fell on the battlefields. More than two thousand distinguished in battles were awarded orders and medals. For the heroic work in the rear, about a thousand Tselina were awarded the medal "For conscientious work in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945."