In 1932, Komsomolsk-on-Amur was laid on the bank of the Amur among the Far Eastern taiga. After 10 years, the city became an important industrial and defense center. In the years of the Great Patriotic War, steel mills were used to produce steel in it, combat aircraft and ships were built.
In wartime, the construction of the runway began in 18 km southeast of Komsomolsk-on-Amur to provide air defense.
Originally, a runway length of 800 meters and caponiers was built. The personnel was housed in huts and huts of dwelling type with stove heating. In the postwar period, the construction of concrete GDP of length 2500 m, capital structures, residential and technical buildings, shelters for aircraft was carried out.
The name of the airfield, located near the village and the military town of Khurba-2 received from the small rivers Malaya Khurba and Bolshaya Khurba flowing nearby.
Currently Khurba airfield is one of two large airfields in the vicinity of Komsomolsk-on-Amur. The second airfield, where there is a runway capable of receiving all types of aircraft, is the factory airfield Dzemgi on the north-eastern outskirts of the city. The XnUMX-iap is also based on the Dzemgah, which is armed with Su-23CM, Su-27 and Su-30 fighters.
Google Earth Satellite Image: Khurba Airfield
For various reasons, the deployment of fighters providing cover for Komsomolsk-on-Amur took place in Khurb already in the post-war period. From 1948 to 1962, the 311st fighter was based here aviation Air Defense Regiment (until June 28, 1946, the 48th IAP).
Monument MiG-17 in the military town Hurba-2
The regiment was armed with fighters: I-15bis, I-16, I-153, Yak-9, MiG-15, MiG-17, Su-9. Combat aircraft and regiment airplanes took part in the battles on Lake Hassan, Khalkhin-Gol and the Soviet-Japanese war.
In 1969, the 277 bomber Mlavsky Red Banner Aviation Regiment was redeployed to Khurba from the GDR.
A regiment of two squadrons on the SB-2 aircraft was formed in April 1941 in the Krasnodar Territory. September 13 1941, he received the name 277 th melee bomber aviation regiment. This date is recorded in the annals of the regiment as the day of the formation of the unit.
The regiment became part of the Air Force of the 56th Army of the Southern Front and from October 1941 participated in the defense of Taganrog, delivering bombing strikes on the advancing tanks and motorized infantry of the Nazi invaders. After this operation, in June 1942, the regiment, which suffered serious losses in personnel and equipment, was assigned to reorganize in Kirovabad, where the personnel of the regiment underwent retraining for Boston A-20 aircraft received from the USA under Lend-Lease.
The bomber regiment fought in the Caucasus and the Crimea, after which it entered the 16 BA of the 1 of the Belorussian Front, where it participated in the Bobruisk and Lublin operations to defeat and destroy large enemy groups. For high rates of combat activity, courage and heroism shown by the personnel, the regiment was given the honorary title "Mlavsky" by order of the Commander-in-Chief from 19 February 1945. After the end of the war, the regiment airplanes were based at the airfields of Poland and the GDR.
The successes achieved by the regimental personnel in the post-war years were repeatedly noted by the command.
At the time of the redeployment, on the Far Eastern airfield Khurba, the 277 was armed with IL-28 bombers, including an IL-28Sh assault modification. The difference between the assault modification from the usual bombers was the presence of additional pylons under the planes for the suspension of various weapons. The IL-28 assault variant was designed for operations from low altitudes on clusters of manpower and enemy equipment, as well as on single small targets such as rocket launchers and tanks. Under the wings of the aircraft they installed up to 12 pylons on which they could be suspended: NAR blocks, suspended gun nacelles, cluster or ordinary aerial bombs.
The idea of creating an IL-28Sh appeared at the end of the 60-s after the Soviet-Chinese armed conflict on Damanski Island in 1967. In this version, the bombers were refitted undergoing repairs at aircraft repair enterprises.
In 1975, the regiment's pilots were among the first in the Air Force to begin to retrain to the new Su-24 front-line bombers. In parallel, continuing to operate proven IL-28.
The first five Su-24 arrived at 277-th bap from the Baltic airfield Chernyakhovsk (63-bap), where they passed military tests. These were the cars of the very first series - 3, 4 and 5.
As the IL-28 equipment was mastered, they transferred to the aircraft storage base (reserve base) created in Khurba, where later, in addition to bombers, there were also Su-17 fighter-bombers and Su-15 interceptors.
Simultaneously with the arrival of the Su-24, reinforced concrete shelters were built for them, as well as the expansion and improvement of the Khurba-2 military town.
The construction of a civilian airport in Khurba began in 1964, when, by decision of the main headquarters of the country's air defense, a site was allocated at a military airfield with the transfer of a part of the buildings and structures previously owned by the military.
Prior to this, the dirt runway of the airport in the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur was located in the settlement of Pobeda. Since it made regular flights An-2, Lee-2, IL-12, IL-14. After the appearance of turbo-jets and turboprop airliners in the Aeroflot park, the old airport could no longer receive them. Subsequently, this dirt runway was transferred to the flying club. Until recently, with her Yak-52 piston and motorized hang-glider.
After the separation of the civilian sector in Khurba, the construction of a modern airport began with a runway to receive all civil aviation aircraft existing at that time.
In 1971, the runway was built to receive IL-18 aircraft, and in 1976, the construction of the first stage of the airport was completed. Flights on An-24 turboprop aircraft have opened regular air links with the cities of Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Blagoveshchensk, Nikolaevsk.
New milestone in stories The airport became 1977 the year when the first passenger flight was made on the IL-18 to Moscow, with an intermediate landing in the city of Novosibirsk. By the beginning of the 80's, the airport has regained its current shape.
For the development of local communications in 1983, the Komsomolskaya United Aviation Squadron was established at Komsomolsk Airport, having the Czechoslovak-made L-410 aircraft in the USSR. On which regular flights were carried out by local air lines to Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, Nikolaevsk, Blagoveshchensk, Roshchino, Chegdomyn, Polina Osipenko, Ayan, Chumikan.
In 1986, the Tu-154 replaced the well-deserved turboprop Il-18 with regular flights from Komsomolsk-on-Amur to Khabarovsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, and Moscow. The largest number of passengers was transported in 1991 year. Then the airport services used 220 thousand passengers, in addition 288 tons of mail and 800 tons of cargo were delivered. During the day, the airport served 22 regular flights.
Postcard with air terminal image
Only in the direction of Khabarovsk from Komsomolsk, eight flights were made daily with an acceptable ticket price. Usually the flight time to Khabarovsk was 40-45 minutes, which was very convenient for passengers who did not want to waste time on an eight-hour train ride. In our time, this can only dream of.
The collapse of the Soviet Union and economic turmoil affected the Far Eastern region very sharply. The outflow of population in the western regions and a sharp decline in solvency, an abrupt rise in prices for jet fuel made most of the air routes economically unprofitable for carriers.
In 90-ies, the state of the airport reflected the general decline in which the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur has been located since the beginning of the “market reforms”. Passenger traffic has decreased several times, regular air traffic was available only in summer, and in winter the airport operated with minimal workload.
However, life at the airport has not stopped. In 90-2000, the Krasnoyarsk Airlines airline on Tu-154 aircraft with a stopover in Krasnoyarsk operated flights to Moscow (once a week).
In the summer of 2009, after a long break, direct flights to Moscow began again. The flights were carried out by Vladivostok Avia on a Tu-204 airliner.
In the 2010 year, in the midst of “Serdyukovschiny”, the leadership of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation attempted to “squeeze out” civilian carriers from the territory of the Khurba airfield. All this was motivated by “the need to eliminate violations of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of land use by the civil aviation sector on the territory of the aerodrome”.
Fortunately, then the air carriers, with the help of the regional authorities, managed to defend their positions and the decision infringing on the interests of Far Easterners interested in regular air communication with remote territories was not implemented.
In 2011, Vladivostok Avia was purchased by Aeroflot and Komsomolsk-on-Amur was again left without direct air communication with Moscow, since the Aeroflot management found this direction unprofitable.
In 2012, Yakutia began regular flights to the capital at Boeing-757.
Boeing 757-200 of the airline "Yakutia" "at the airfield Khurba
Since 2014, VIM-Avia began to fly to Komsomolsk on Boeing -757, and since May 2015, Transaero has resumed Komsomolsk-on-Amur-Moscow flights on Tu-214 aircraft.
Tu-214 of Transaero Airlines at Khurba airfield
Compared to the past decade, the business and economic situation at Komsomolsk airport has improved somewhat. However, the lack of investments in the hung infrastructure over the past two decades requires immediate repair and modernization of a significant part of it.
The years of the “reforms” and the economic difficulties of the 90-x had a negative effect on the level of combat training and the technical condition of combat aircraft of the 277-th bomber aviation Mlavsky Red Banner Regiment. Due to the lack of jet fuel and the shortage of spare parts, the number of flights has sharply decreased. The infrastructure of the airfield and the military camp began to decline.
In the middle of the 90-x, the anti-aircraft missile division S-125 and the aircraft storage base, which covered Khurba, were eliminated. Available on the basis of the aircraft: IL-28, Su-15 and Su-17 were cut on metal.
However, in the midst of “market reforms,” in 1997, the pilots of the 277-th bap began retraining to the upgraded Su-24M. Given the fact that the production of aircraft of this type by the time it was discontinued, it was not new cars from other aircraft parts, subjected to "optimization".
In the spring of 1998, there was a case when an old strip, built back in the war years, came in handy.
At Su-24M (w / o 04 white) during landing due to a hydraulic system failure, there was a failure to release the main landing gear. The crew made passes over the runway, trying to overload to release the main landing gear. When this failed, it was decided to sit on the ground. Above the near driving beacon the navigator dropped the lantern, an emergency landing was made successfully.
A snapshot from the site of an emergency landing on the ground Su-24M
Su-24M, which made an emergency landing on the ground, arrived from Lake Paddy, after landing on the ground it was restored and subsequently transferred to Dzhida, where it continued to fly.
In 1998, the regiment successfully mastered the Su-24M and began to take part in all major aviation exercises conducted in the Far East.
The regiment's bombers repeatedly participated in the elimination of ice jams during the spring floods in Yakutia, where they carried out point bombing of FAB-250 bombs in the narrowness of rivers, to prevent flooding of settlements and the destruction of hydraulic structures and bridges.
After mastering the upgraded Su-24M, following the results of combat training for 1998 — 1999. The regiment was recognized as the best in the Far Eastern 11 Army of the Air Force and Air Defense. From 2000 to 2007, the regiment took the 1 place among the 11 bomber regiments of the Air Force and Air Defense armies. For the courage, heroism and success in mastering new technology, a number of regimental officers were awarded orders and medals.
In June 2007, the regiment took part in the exercises "Wing-2007". At the same time, in practice, the withdrawal of the air regiment from the strike was worked out. From the Khurba airfield, in less than 13 minutes, the 20 of Su-24M aircraft took off. Also, an imitation of a landing on the Khabarovsk-Komsomolsk-on-Amur highway prepared for this was simulated. During the exercise, the Su-24M link passed over the section of the highway prepared for the runway at the minimum height.
Unfortunately, during this period it was not without emergencies. So, 23 August 2007 of the year when performing a training flight on the Su-24M (tail number "63 white") an emergency situation occurred - a fire in the cabin compartment. The crew safely catapulted. Six months later, 15 February 2008 of the year, already on another Su-24М in flight there was an engine failure, the pilots acted competently and performed a safe landing on one working engine.
After the beginning of “Serdyukovschina” and the transition of the armed forces to a “new look”, another round of reorganizations and renames began. At the end of 2009, the 6988-I Mlavskaya airbase of the 1-level was created at the Khurba airfield. At the same time, it was decided to eliminate 302-th bap in the village of Pereyaslovka near Khabarovsk, with the transfer of equipment and weapons to Khurba. Able to rise into the air, front-line bombers flew from Pereyaslovka near Komsomolsk. Part of the ground equipment and weapons was delivered by military transport aircraft. The rest, including the bombs, were carried by road along the Khabarovsk-Komsomolsk-on-Amur highway. At about the same time, a part of the 523-th apib was deployed in Khurba, Vozdvizhenka airfield.
When mass reductions, mergers and renames were going on, in Khurba, which became home to the 277-th bap, warplanes of other aviation units, which were driven from their airfields, were based.
For some time, in parallel with the front-line bombers, there were MiG-29 404-iap fighters, previously based at the Orlovka airfield in the Amur region, and Su-27 216-IAP from the Kalinovka airfield near Khabarovsk.
Satellite image of Google Earth: Su-24M and MiG-29 in the parking lot of the airfield Khurba
With 2010, the Su-24М2 "Gusar" SuМXNUMX aircraft with more advanced avionics began to come into service.
However, on the territory of the airfield there are at all rare aircraft samples of our time. For example, the Yak-28P, established as a monument near the checkpoint.
Yak-28P on the territory of a military unit in Khurba
The appearance of the Yak-28P interceptor in Khurba is mysterious. Apparently, he arrived at the airfield "under its own power", but airplanes of this type were not in service with aviation units based here. According to the assurances of old-timers, there have never been such planes at the aerodrome. Most likely, this copy was sent from one of the air defense units to the currently disbanded storage base (BRS, military unit 22659). Unlike other warplanes "stored" there, he happily escaped the fate of cutting into metal.
As of 2011, the 6983-th Guards Aviation Vitebsk twice Red Banner, the Order of Suvorov and the Legion of Honor of the Normandie-Neman base of the 1-level were formed on the basis of the Khurba airfield.
Currently, the bomber regiment, based in Khurba, has the former designation - 227-th bap (military unit 77983), but without the honorary name "Mlavsky".
On the whole, the Khurba airfield, being one of the largest in the Far East, fully corresponds to the status of the 1 airbase. However, the runway, a number of facilities and infrastructure have long been in need of repair and reconstruction.
Cleaning pebbles from the runway
Back in 2014, a tender was announced for the reconstruction of the airfield. The plans envisage the reconstruction of the storage of aviation armament, the building of the charging-battery station, the boiler room, the guard and service buildings, as well as the construction of more than 30 new facilities. So far, everything depends on financing, and there has been no special progress in this direction.
Not so long ago, the anti-aircraft cover of the airfield, which he was deprived of in 90, was restored. On the opposite bank of the Amur River, in the vicinity of the national Nanai village of Verkhnyaya Ekon, about 11 km from Khurba, the C-300PS air defense missile division was deployed.
Satellite image of Google Earth: C-300PS positions in the vicinity of the village of Verkhnyaya Ekon
In addition to the airfield Khurba, very well located on the top of one of the hills, the anti-aircraft missile division covers the Dzyomgi airfield and the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur from the south-east direction.
In the whole huge Far Eastern region, only at the Khurba airfield, the aviation part remained, armed with Su-24M and M2 front-line bombers.
Flights on Su-24 front-line bombers have always been a difficult affair. This is a rather complicated machine in operation and piloting, which places high demands on the level of ground handling and pilot skills.
In the summer of this year, the pilots of the 227 th bap confirmed their high qualifications. At the military professional skill competition
Aviadarts-2015 pilots crew from Khurba on Su-24М2 won the 3-e place.
However, the Su-24 aircraft of all modifications have the dubious fame of the most combat aircraft in the Russian Air Force. During the period from 2000, two dozen Su-24 were lost in various incidents, including the upgraded Su-24М and М2. Sad as it may seem, 227, which is based at Komsomolsk, is no exception.
In March, the 2013 of the year, due to a pilot error, was severely damaged by the Su-24М2, which, while taxiing, crashed into the airfield mobile unit APA-5D.
Most recently, tragedy struck Khurba: July 6 2015, Su-24М2 crashed while taking off from the Khurba airfield, both pilots died. After the separation of the aircraft from the runway, the propulsion system refused, the plane abruptly fell into the left lurch and collided with the ground. A front bomber fell near the runway. Due to the fact that he was heading for a training bombing at the Litovko test site, there was a bomb load on board.
Prior to this, Su-24 pilots flying from this airfield always managed to eject in case of emergency situations.
After the catastrophe during the investigation of its causes by a specially created commission, the flights of all Su-24 were suspended, and the airfield of Khurba was closed for flights.
At present, the flights of the front-line bombers of the Russian Air Force have resumed. Nevertheless, the issue of flight safety and the extremely high accident rate of the Su-24 continues to be acute. The leadership of the Ministry of Defense has repeatedly stated that by the year 2020 all bomber regiments operating the Su-24 family will be transferred to the Su-34. However, in the current difficult economic conditions it is extremely doubtful that in the foreseeable future it will be possible to replace all the old bombers with new strike machines in the ratio 1: 1.
Links to the fact that Su-34 is more efficient than Su-24М2 are untenable. In terms of their percussive capabilities, both cars are very close. Moreover, the Su-24М2 is much better in flight at extremely low altitude when an air defense breaks through. At the same time, the Su-34 is a much stronger machine when conducting defensive air combat, and it is better protected by armor protection.
Apparently, the upgraded Su-24М and М2 will be operated even after 2020, since the one-time refusal of them will lead to a sharp weakening of the already rather modest shock capabilities of our air force.
And this means that these swift and very elegant cars will continue to fly from the Khurba airfield. And God forbid that the number of landings always equals the number of take-offs.
The author is grateful Ancient for advice.