Military Review

SAU "Akatsiya": forty years of impeccable service

SAU "Akatsiya": forty years of impeccable service

The legendary Soviet self-propelled divisional howitzer was born almost a miracle, and now in no hurry to resign
In 1981, the US Department of Defense issued a poster on which were presented seven types of weapons of the Ground Forces of the Soviet Army, which presents the greatest danger in the event of a direct armed clash. Five of the seven “Soviet threats” are tracked combat vehicles, among which the legendary models were naturally: the T-72 tank, the BMP-2 tank, the Shilka self-propelled anti-aircraft gun and the two “flower” self-propelled guns - “Carnation” (122 mm) and "Acacia" (152 mm).

Anti-aircraft self-propelled unit "Shilka" during exercises. Photo: Anatoly Kuzyarin / TASS

Such recognition by a potential adversary is worth a lot. By that time, the United States had a similar 109 mm caliber M1X155 self-propelled howitzer, but it was inferior to the Soviet self-propelled gun in many respects. In addition, our gunners, in contrast to their American colleagues, had already managed to test the howitzer in battle: it was the main means of artillery support for the motorized riflemen of the 40 Army, which fought in Afghanistan. But after all история "Acacia" was formed in such a way that this legendary machine could not even be born ...

Return from missiles to guns

There was no serious self-propelled artillery that could be used for classical firing from closed positions and counter-battery fighting in the post-war Soviet army. Self-propelled guns of the Su-100, ISU-122, and ISU-152 type remaining from the war were either assault or anti-tank and, in theory, should have been used in battle formations along with tanks. Meanwhile, the troops of the North Atlantic Alliance, and primarily the United States, were actively moving from towed artillery to self-propelled.

Timid movements in this direction were undertaken in the USSR, but they very soon put up a cross. The fault was the reckless fascination of the Soviet leadership with rocket technology and the boundless faith in its omnipotence. When it became clear that the missiles could not replace the entire range of heavy field weapons, and the global nuclear war was clearly postponed, replaced by a series of local conflicts, they returned to the idea of ​​self-propelled field artillery. The supporters of Nikita Khrushchev, who did not want to see any other army, also played into the hands of her supporters. weaponsexcept rocket.

4 July 1967 was a joint resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR to eliminate the backlog of Soviet self-propelled artillery from the artillery of the NATO countries. That it was the starting point in the history of the 152-millimeter self-propelled howitzer 2C3 "Acacia". The design of the Ural Transport Engineering Plant took up designing the novelties.

The work was carried out not from scratch. A few years before, the specialists of the All-Union Research Institute of Transport Engineering (aka VNII-100 - the main research institute dealing with tracked combat vehicles) conducted a large study on the subject of “Acacia”. It turned out that the new self-propelled gun should not be built according to the usual pattern, when the conning tower is located in front, and the engine-transmission compartment is at the back, but vice versa. It was also obvious that the diesel engine at that time was not able to meet all the needs of the self-propelled gun and needed a new one. The easiest was with a gun: all that was needed was to redo the well-proven towed 152-mm howitzer D-20 under tower installation. Its creators from Sverdlovsk OKB-9, whose trunks stood on the legendary predecessors of the future Acacia, took up this task.

The military also had their wishes: they needed a fairly light and mobile self-propelled howitzer of the divisional level, which could be deployed not only under its own power, but also on airplanes and landing ships. In addition, the gunners demanded that the designers abandoned the fixed felling, as on the self-propelled guns of the military period, and equipped the novelty with a mobile tower, which provided circular fire and a large elevation angle of the barrel. To achieve the fulfillment of all these requirements and without over-burdening the new SPG, it was possible in only one way: to abandon counter-armor and dispense with anti-bullet. What was done. However, at that time only main battle tanks were equipped with counter-armor, and the rest of the combat tracked vehicles did not, believing that even the thickest armor would not save the anti-tank missiles of the new generation. Yes, and go on the same battlefield with tanks, new cars are also not going, which means that the armor could save a lot of weight.

Self-propelled veteran

The first two prototypes of the new self-propelled howitzers were ready by the end of 1968, and went to the test. Soon, they were joined by four more samples, but all six were mercilessly criticized by the military for the excessive gas content of the fighting compartment. But the chassis of the new self-propelled gun, the basis for which was the chassis of the Krug air defense system, turned out to be above all praise. Which is not surprising, because by that time it had been running around at various ranges for five years and had got rid of most of the “childhood diseases”.

They tried to solve the problem of gas contamination by changing the howitzers loading scheme and finalizing the bolt, but in the end they decided not to over-complicate and managed to refine the ventilation system, install a more powerful ejector on the barrel and use new sleeves. A year later, in 1970, the refined samples of the new self-propelled howitzer entered state tests, earning the highest marks. As a result, in 1971, the self-propelled divisional howitzer of 152 caliber mm 2C3 “Acacia” was adopted by the Soviet army. In accordance with the concept of tactical nuclear strikes that prevailed in those years (and, to be sure, keep up with the United States, which endowed its own vehicle, the M109 self-propelled howitzer), tactical nuclear projectiles were also introduced into the Acacia ammunition nomenclature. But to shoot them in practice, ACS 2C3, fortunately, was not possible.

But the usual ammunition, among which were the classic high-explosive fragmentation, and cluster, and active-reactive, and armor-piercing, and lighting, "Acacia" over the next forty-odd years, they shot down into their heads. The first combat use of the new howitzers was in Afghanistan, where the 40 Army had at least three self-propelled divisions with self-propelled guns in the 50. “Acacias” were used both to support motorized riflemen who participated in assault operations, and even to support road convoys going through the Salang Pass. Then it became clear that the anti-bullet armor to protect the crews of SAU from the fire of large-caliber machine guns such as DShK or KPVT is not enough. But they did not redo the car, and the gunners came out of the situation, covering the self-propelled guns with used trucks and boxes filled with sand from under the ammunition.

At the same time, Soviet self-propelled howitzers received a baptism of combat even further south - on the fronts of the Iran-Iraq war. The Iraqi forces, armed with Soviet weapons, were using the modernized 2C3, which were put into service in 1975, with might and main. New "Acacia" along with 122-millimeter regimental self-propelled howitzers 2C1 "Gvozdika" formed the basis of Iraqi artillery groups. In the Iraqi army, they were used up to Operation Desert Storm, but significantly less efficiently than in the Soviet one: the difference in crew training and command and control skills affected.

Column of self-propelled artillery mounts (ACS) "Msta-S" during the final rehearsal of the Victory Parade on Red Square. Photo: Alexey Dityakin / TASS

Acacia was noted in all conflicts in the post-Soviet space, starting from Transnistria and Abkhazia, including both anti-terrorist campaigns in Chechnya and the operation to force Georgia to peace and ending with the armed conflict between Ukraine and Novorossia. And the Ukrainian military used the least effective self-propelled howitzers - apparently, due to the lack of combat experience and the desire to fight. Nevertheless, it was the self-propelled howitzers 2C3 that were in service with the Armed Forces of Ukraine that were used to bombard the residential quarters of Donetsk and Lugansk.

Reliability, mobility, power

For more than forty years of history "Acacia" this self-propelled three times modernized. For the first time - in the 1975 year, when the 2C3M modification appeared with a new mechanized stacking of drum-type ammunition, which made it possible to increase the ammunition to 46 shots, and an improved fighting compartment. The next modification, 2C3М1, appeared in 1987 year and was distinguished by a new radio station and gunner's sight, as well as equipment for receiving command information from the machine of a senior battery officer. In addition, this modification was able to fire guided missiles "Krasnopol", which make it possible to hit targets at speeds up to 35 km / h.

The third modification, which received the index 2C3М2, appeared after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The command of the Russian army was not going to abandon the so well-proven self-propelled howitzer, but it did not make sense to use the previous modifications: they were getting old too quickly. As a result, in the Russian version of 2006, an automated guidance and fire control system “Mekhanizator-M”, smoke protection systems and improved habitability of the combat compartment appeared.

But on the whole, the layout and construction of Acacia turned out to be so successful that in all four decades they did not require major alterations. On all modifications - 4000 units were released during this time - a place in front to the left is given under the control department, where the driver is located, and to the right of it is a B-59 diesel engine with 520 horsepower. (which, with the weight of the ACS in 27,5 tons, gives the power density in 19 "horses" per ton). Such load-bearing capacity allows Acacia to move along the highway at a speed of 60 km / h, and over rough terrain - 25 – 30 km / h, to overcome gradients up to 30 degrees and three-meter ditches, as well as fords up to a meter deep.

The rest of the self-propelled gun - the central and aft compartments, as well as the tower - is occupied by the fighting compartment, which houses the D-22 howitzer and three crew members: gunner, loader and commander. The three of them, using a semi-automatic vertical wedge gate and drum piling, provide a firing rate of up to 3,5 shot per minute. However, such a fire will not be possible for a long time due to thermal limitations: without a break, the 2 – 3 ACS can launch 30 shells in 10 minutes, or make 75 shots in an hour, after which the barrel needs to cool. Since “Acacia” can fire at direct fire (at a distance of up to 4 km) and from closed positions (up to 24 km when firing an active projectile), the self-propelled gun is equipped with a self-digging system that allows it to prepare an artillery trench in 20 – 30 minutes .

Today, the 40-year-old Akaciy service is gradually coming to an end. At the beginning of the 1990-s of the Ministry of Defense began their gradual replacement with more modern self-propelled guns 2C19 "Msta-S", and now it’s about equipping self-propelled artillery with the newest type of self-propelled howitzers - Coalition-SV. For the first time they were shown to the public at the Victory Parade this year.

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  1. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 26 September 2015 07: 12 New
    a very reliable machine! I believe that after modernization it will be in demand in the arms market.
  2. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 26 September 2015 07: 53 New
    I hope that "Acacia" will not be stupidly cut into metal, and for a long time they will be stored at storage bases. Everything happens in our troubled world soldier
    1. Aleksandr72
      Aleksandr72 26 September 2015 15: 04 New
      To send to remelting such a number of self-propelled guns, albeit to a large extent already obsolete, but still suitable for their intended use, at least irrationally. Especially now, in the not so simple international environment for Russia and its allies.
      Below I give figures on the number of self-propelled guns "Acacia" and other "flowers" from the artillery "flowerbed", adopted by the Soviet Army at about the same time.
      Russian Ground Forces:
      In service: 400 - 122 mm 2C1 Gvozdika, 800 - 152,4 mm 2C3 Acacia, 150 - 152,4 mm 2C5 Hyacinth
      Storage: 1800 - 122 mm 2C1 Gvozdika, 1950 - 152,4 mm 2C3 Acacia, 800 - 152,4 mm 2C5 Hyacinth
      95 - 122 mm 2С.1 “Carnation”, 18 - 152,4 mm 2С.3 “Acacia”
      For 100% the reliability of the numbers, especially where there is more than one zero, I will not traditionally warrant my head, but these figures are from the official report of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation on the state of the Russian army for 2014.
      PS By the way, I would not vouch for the combat readiness and technical condition of self-propelled guns that are in long-term storage (i.e. conservation).
      I have the honor.
      1. Karabanov
        Karabanov 27 September 2015 20: 09 New
        Quote: Aleksandr72
        I give figures on the number of self-propelled guns "Acacia" and other "flowers" from the artillery "flowerbed", adopted by the Soviet Army at about the same time

        You can also add 2C7 "Peony", a caliber of 203 mm. As far as I know, parts with these self-propelled guns were disbanded in the late 90s. According to Wikipedia, for 2013. storing them 300 pcs.
  3. Tatarname
    Tatarname 26 September 2015 07: 59 New
    Soviet weapons are a real Quality Mark.
  4. X
    X Y Z 26 September 2015 08: 05 New
    Well now they’re unlikely to be cut. More ancient equipment is also stored in warehouses, and the international situation does not lead to excessive optimism.
  5. Professor
    Professor 26 September 2015 08: 25 New
    In addition, our gunners, unlike their American counterparts, have already managed to test the howitzer in battle: it was the main means of artillery support for motorized rifles of the 40th Army, who fought in Afghanistan.

    M109 managed to fight long before Afghanistan, namely during the Doomsday War in 1973. M109A1 entered service with the IDF in 1975 and since then has been constantly involved in all conflicts.
    1. Zaurbek
      Zaurbek 26 September 2015 08: 32 New
      Did your American colleagues use it or your staff?
      1. Professor
        Professor 26 September 2015 08: 39 New
        Quote: Zaurbek
        Did your American colleagues use it or your staff?

        Not a single American soldier has ever fought for Israel.

        The military parade in Jerusalem in 1973.
        1. svp67
          svp67 27 September 2015 17: 41 New
          Quote: Professor
          No American soldier ever fought for Israel

          What about vacationers?
          1. Professor
            Professor 27 September 2015 20: 09 New
            Quote: svp67
            What about vacationers?

            And they were not there.
    2. Zaurbek
      Zaurbek 26 September 2015 08: 32 New
      Did your American colleagues use it or your staff?
      1. padded jacket
        padded jacket 26 September 2015 17: 14 New
        Quote: Zaurbek
        Did your American colleagues use it or your staff?

        The army of the Israeli regime did not officially have soldiers from other armies, but there were Jewish volunteers who had previously served or had just left the armies of other countries. For example, in 1948, during the aggression of Jews against Palestine, they had 3500 "volunteers" from other countries.
        Alexander Shulman
        Foreign Volunteers in the Israeli Army

        About 3500 volunteers from 43 countries then arrived in Israel and took direct part in the hostilities as part of the IDF units and formations. According to the countries of origin, the volunteers were divided as follows: approximately 1 volunteers arrived from the USA, 000 from Canada, 250 from South Africa, 700 from the UK, 600 from North Africa, and 250 from Latin America, France and Belgium. There were also small groups of volunteers from Australia, Rhodesia, Sweden.
        So officially Israel did everything by itself, but in fact was engaged in copying and “technology theft”, which we see, for example, on the example of “Kfir” copy of the Mirage with the American engine or the “Lavi” of the F-16 fuselage with the American engine and wings from the same " Kfira. "
    3. cosmos111
      cosmos111 26 September 2015 10: 10 New
      Quote: Professor
      M109 managed to fight long before Afghanistan, namely during the Doomsday War in the 1973 year. M109A1 entered the arsenal of IDF in 1975 and has since been constantly involved in all conflicts

      The M109 self-propelled guns did not allow the adoption of the Tsakhal, the more advanced and better protected 155-mm self-propelled guns “Slammer” TIG 2000 howitzer, two prototypes were presented at the Merkava General Purpose Vehicle in the 1983 year ...

      1. Professor
        Professor 26 September 2015 10: 33 New
        Quote: cosmos111
        The M109 self-propelled guns did not allow the adoption of the Tsakhal, the more advanced and better protected 155-mm self-propelled guns “Slammer” TIG 2000 howitzer, two prototypes were presented at the Merkava General Purpose Vehicle in the 1983 year ...

        Same story as with Lavi. "Free" deliveries ruined the project. By the way, the M109 self-propelled guns were not very reliable and required constant repair and maintenance. The techies didn't like them.
      2. Webcelerator
        Webcelerator 26 September 2015 17: 41 New
        Figase charaban ....
  6. holgert
    holgert 26 September 2015 09: 51 New
    Today, any technique that can cause damage to the enemy is important, and "Acacia" "does it to this day well !!!!! The flag is in her hands !!!
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. gjv
      gjv 26 September 2015 11: 05 New
      Quote: holgert
      Today, any technique that can cause damage to the enemy is important, and the Acacia still does it!

      Syria, Latakia, Aug 23. 2015 year at 0:37 and 2:21, as well as in the video, T-55 and T-72 are noticeable.
      1. Aqela
        Aqela 18 October 2015 11: 45 New
        It seems like there is still a BTR-82A?
  7. Arkan
    Arkan 26 September 2015 10: 39 New
    He served on the Nona, during training firing, saw the Acacia at work !!!!
    1. armata37
      armata37 26 September 2015 16: 21 New
      What NONE did you serve? I'm on 2b16, which is not self-propelled, but clung to the Urals
  8. kvs207
    kvs207 26 September 2015 11: 25 New
    The elder brother of a friend, he served on such a GSVG in ser. 70's. Only positive feedback. He told a lot of things and it caused pride for the Soviet military equipment.
  9. LMaksim
    LMaksim 26 September 2015 11: 41 New
    There is no limit to perfection. It’s time already to put automatic loaders on our self-propelled guns. Armor protection can be strengthened to a level that allows at least in the frontal projection to withstand the impact of large-caliber bullets. For self-defense, do not forget about the good old FCT.
    1. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr 26 September 2015 17: 29 New
      Quote: LMaksim
      It’s time already to put automatic loaders on our self-propelled guns.

      It is said that as if everyone already had machines, only we were behind.
      Who are the machines, can you list?
      1. Forest
        Forest 26 September 2015 18: 18 New
        Of the caterpillars - except for Palladin, Chinese (EMPIP, PZL-45) and Palmaria. The rest are modern all with charging systems.
        1. cosmos111
          cosmos111 26 September 2015 19: 03 New
          Quote: Forest
          . The rest are modern with charging systems.

          K9 Thunder / Samsung Thunder Korean SPG
        2. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr 26 September 2015 19: 27 New
          Quote: Forest
          Of the caterpillars - except for Palladin, Chinese (EMPIP, PZL-45) and Palmaria. The rest are modern all with charging systems.

          The German PzH 2000 seems to be considered modern, but it is a semiautomatic device. That is, the projectile is automatically charged, and the cap (not even a sleeve) is charged by the loader, after which it manually closes the shutter.
          Our MSTA-s differs from it in that it does not have a cap, but a sleeve, which, again, is charged manually (a shell automatically).
          By the way, similar systems were used on our heavy tanks.
          German DONAR - positioned as an automatic, but I do not know how widespread it is in the army.
          If I am wrong, correct.

          More specifically, what are the most common modern self-propelled guns?
          1. Forest
            Forest 27 September 2015 11: 22 New
            As you can see in the video above, the Korean has a machine gun. China puts a copy of the Msta machine gun on a new self-propelled gun. The remaining semiautomatic devices. And DONAR until the division is recruited with testing machines - somewhere from 5 to 10.
            1. Bad_gr
              Bad_gr 27 September 2015 11: 58 New
              Quote: Forest
              As we see in the video above - the Korean has an automatic machine ....

              Is not a fact:
              that we saw the shell being fed into the tray by the manipulator, the shell was fed into the cannon with a rammer - we saw, but who put the cartridge into the tray - no.
              It is very possible that this is done by the hands of the loader (like most)
              Quote: Forest
              China puts a copy of the Msta machine gun on a new self-propelled gun.

              At MCT - semi-automatic:
              the shell is fed automatically, and the sleeve is placed in the tray with the hands of the loader.

              Or I'm wrong ?
              1. Forest
                Forest 27 September 2015 14: 39 New
                In Msta, yes, the projectile is delivered mechanically, and the charging one lays it on the tray and the rammer sends a shot. The video is good here. The Chinese seem to be (judging by the advertisement) instead of the loader pushing the tower another mechanism, but the ammunition and rammer itself is a copy of ours.
                1. Bad_gr
                  Bad_gr 27 September 2015 22: 51 New
                  And here is how the Paladin has (cap loading)
                  1. The comment was deleted.
                2. Somad
                  Somad 29 September 2015 22: 02 New
                  This is an old video that shows the development of the charging standard in case of a fault in the AZ. In general, on the “Mste” the projectile is automatically charged (fed from the BC and recharged), and the charge is semi-automatic (the loader takes from the BC, stacks on the tray and refills AZ) ...
      2. goose
        goose 28 September 2015 11: 07 New
        Quote: Bad_gr
        It is said that as if everyone already had machines, only we were behind.
        Who are the machines, can you list?

        From mass only PZH-2000, and even then conditionally. 99% of the world’s self-propelled guns do not yet have a AZ
  10. Denis DV
    Denis DV 26 September 2015 12: 40 New
    My grandfather would have liked it, he rolled his horse-drawn cannons two wars good
  11. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 26 September 2015 13: 18 New
    Saw Acacia at work. Wow When the battery is working - unforgettable sensations, especially sound ones. It solved its tasks whether it was worth reinforcing armor on it (well, not on it, so on modern analogs) - it is not very clear. It will not be able to withstand a direct hit of a projectile during a counter-battery duel, the armor should protect against fragments of close explosions, increasing the stability of self-propelled guns from enemy artillery fire. Under heavy machine guns self-propelled guns fell in Afghanistan, these were special conditions. You do not need to go to tank attacks on self-propelled guns, she has other tasks.
  12. Mikros
    Mikros 26 September 2015 13: 32 New
    Studying at the university, he visited the military department (he visited, because our fathers-commanders didn’t stand up too much, and the demand from us was so-so wassat However, the special spirits at the university were also connected with the military commissar, though with manufacturing, not application))))) So, in the hangar we had this miracle of arms thought. The first time he saw the “Acacia" came in a light shock. Firstly, a thick trunk, as if walking along the avenue was possible. Secondly, an incredible size muzzle brake. And looking inside, I was surprised at the amount of free space, especially with the driver. Even I, with my big size, felt very free there. In the fighting compartment, the truth was more crowded.
  13. Type 63
    Type 63 26 September 2015 17: 25 New
    M109 was tested in Vietnam, so nonsense is written at the beginning of the article
  14. Webcelerator
    Webcelerator 26 September 2015 17: 38 New
    "In addition, this modification was able to fire guided missiles" Krasnopol ", which make it possible to hit targets at speeds up to 35 km / h." - shield, I'm sorry?
    Is it target speed or what?
    Journalists are such journalists ....
    1. Vladimir 1964
      Vladimir 1964 26 September 2015 18: 08 New
      Quote: Webcelerator
      Is it target speed or what?
      Journalists are such journalists ....

      Goals, of course goals, Dear.

      So. yes
  15. runway
    runway 26 September 2015 18: 01 New
    A little time will pass, and as has already happened more than once, the opinion of the use of artillery in battle will change again.
    Replace all artillery with “Coalition” - recalls the recent reforms in the Armed Forces with the transition to a brigade basis .... In artillery, by the way, these “pirouettes” survived more easily than other types and types of aircraft, because After the 90s, brigades formed the basis of army and front-line kits. By that time, reactive and anti-tank regiments in terms of personnel were already comparable with the divisions of a special period ....
    There is no point in equipping artillery units and units of regiments and divisions with systems like the Coalition.
    With all the advantages of the uniformity of the use of artillery systems in all aircraft, no one has canceled the economic feasibility of using a model of weapons. Even with the current widespread use of aircraft, regiments and divisions will not (and in the near future) will not be able to conduct reconnaissance to a depth of more than 20 km. Yes, higher headquarters are attracting artillery (PAGs and DAGs) to perform priority tasks. But as practice shows, large-artillery itself constantly experiences "information hunger" for reliably explored enemy targets.
    Therefore, even the transition to a single caliber of 152 mm, it may well be premature. The use of explosives of increased power brings the effectiveness of the use of 122 mm of ammunition to 152 mm ....
    You can long list the advantages of dividing artillery into "sets", and they are very significant!
    He served on both towed and self-propelled weapons (including the Acacias and Carnations). Today, being a supporter of the transfer of the military armies to self-propelled artillery, I perfectly understand those leaders who were supporters of towed artillery. It is simpler and cheaper. Then the artillery battery could be 12 guns! And then, as in the song: "... And hundreds of thousands of batteries, for the tears of our mothers, for our Motherland, fire! Fire! ...".
    1. goose
      goose 28 September 2015 11: 13 New
      For local conflicts, most often towed artillery is better, but a rammer with a caliber of 120+ mm should stand on it
  16. fedotow
    fedotow 26 September 2015 19: 43 New
    Perhaps it is wrong to compare. Acacia is a typical howitzer of a divisional, or even regimental level. She is twice as light, smaller and cheaper than the "older sisters."
    Msta and Coalition - howitzer guns - are huge and expensive. And Hyacinth - the gun - really has some features of monstroidity.
  17. INF
    INF 26 September 2015 22: 14 New
    This thing needs to be upgraded to the transition to a standard (universal) chassis, this will be a plus. Savings and versatility.
    1. goose
      goose 28 September 2015 11: 14 New
      The chassis was made just universal, and it drove well, up to 65 km / h. On this basis it was necessary to create an armored personnel carrier, such as MTLB.
  18. Technologist
    Technologist 27 September 2015 14: 56 New
    Quote: Aleksandr72
    PS .............. By the way, I would not vouch for the combat readiness and technical condition of self-propelled guns that are in long-term storage (i.e. conservation) ......... ......

    That’s true, such machines are potential scrap metal, dealt with cars that were being mothballed: dried-up wiring, dried and burnt seals and rubber seals, crumbled plastic, and, of course, the help of local ensigns in “facilitating” the construction ... In general, bring in order to such a machine is very, very difficult.
  19. RoadRunner
    RoadRunner 27 September 2015 15: 45 New
    He served as a mechanic on this machine - he also visited the role of a loader (both from a tower and from the ground).
    Someone wrote that they do not have a loader - does she have it, what are you talking about? Not always a worker - but there is.
    And in the service she will stay for another 15-20 years - in our team, instead of acacias, there should have been 2C19,
    however, instead they received 2C3M2. And the old 2С3 / 2С3М1 was sent for "conservation" - but that’s absolutely firewood.
  20. AlexA
    AlexA 27 September 2015 19: 40 New
    The self-propelled guns with automatic loading in the early 80s were adopted by the Swedes. I forgot, however, the index. Ours made similar to this Swede Mstu.