Military Review

Banner savers

Banner savers

The tragic August of 1915, which became one of the most difficult months of the Great War for the Russian army - “the month of mass surrender”, as the well-known military historian A.A. Kersnovsky would later call it - was marked not only by severe defeats, but also by glorious feats. One of these exploits, somewhat sweetened by the bitterness of the inglorious surrender of Novogeorgievsk, was made by pilots of this fortress.

The Novorogievskaya fortress, located in 30 km from Warsaw, at the confluence of the Vistula and Nareva rivers, was left by the retreating Russian army to the mercy of fate. For some unknown reason, the North-Western Front command did not evacuate the garrison of this stronghold in time, leaving the Germans advancing around 90 thousand fighters from the militia infantry units. According to Kersnovsky, “having locked the whole huge crowd into the doomed fortress, the headquarters of the North-Western Front gave Hindenburg an entire army and presented the Germans with the keys of the fortress on a golden platter”. Not surprisingly, Novogeorgievsk survived only the 10 days of the German siege and 7 / 20 August capitulated. The commandant of the fortress, General N.P. Bobyr, ran to the enemy, the garrison, following the orders of his superior, surrendered to captivity ... The only consolation was the salvation of the banners of the garrison, which were evacuated by the Russian pilots before the fall of the fortress.

This event happened the day before the surrender of the New Georgievsk fortress. Military pilot Konstantin Konstantinovich Vakulovsky volunteered to save the banners of military units, secret documents and orders of the officers of the garrison. "6 August 1915, when the further abandonment of the vehicles in the besieged Novogeorgiyevsk became dangerous and an order of departure was received, Second Lieutenant Vakulovsky, together with an observer officer, offered the fort's chief of staff to take the fortress standards, as well as George's crosses, and after that oath promises to take all measures to destroy standards with him in the event of a flight failure, they received permission, ”the official document says. On the same day, taking advantage of the heavy fog, the pilots loaded the relics on the airplanes and went off to a risky flight almost blindly. The pilots had to fly around 300 km (of which 200 was over enemy territory) in order to get to the location of their units. And they succeeded! Under enemy fire, airplanes reached Bialystok.

In addition to KK Vakulovsky, the chief of the serf squadron, captain Yu.M. Kozmin, lieutenant BS Mrachkovsky, staff captain B. Svistunov, and infantrymen responsible for secret documents - ensign G .Tisvenko and the captain of the General Staff Radzin. For this feat, all participants of the flight were presented to the awards - the Order of St. George of the 4 degree and the St. George arms. As noted in the order for awarding Konstantin Vakulovsky, “despite the extremely difficult weather for the flight, fierce enemy fire on flying airplanes and a further dangerous path, when, due to heavy fog, it was necessary to fly from time to time at an altitude of 15-20 meters, being subjected to enemy rifle fire , the pilot after a five-hour flight, reached the location of our troops, surrendering the serfs to the headquarters of the front armies ".

Unfortunately, we do not have information about all the heroes who took part in salvation of the honor of the Novogeorgiy fortress, but the biographies of some hero pilots are known and worthy of bringing them below.

Yuri Mikhailovich Kozmin, commander of the squadron of the Novoyeorge Fortress, was born 21 December 1883 in the Penza province. Having graduated from the Nicholas Engineering School (1904), he, preferring to the flight engineer of the sapper flight business, decided to continue his studies at the Officer Aeronautical School. Having passed the exam, Kozmin was assigned to the 10 aeronautic company. In 1913 he served as a junior officer of the Brest-Litovsk fortress aviation detachment, in 1914 he led the 19 th corps squadron, and then he was sent to Novogeorgievskuyu fortress. As noted in the order for awarding staff captain Kozmin with St. George weapons “consisting in the 10 aeronautical company of the 33 aviation squad, on the night of 6 August 1915, having received an order from the commandant of the New George Fortress about the departure, he, as the property manager the air detachment, had to destroy all the spare vehicles and motors, workshops, cars, etc., which he carried out under the gaps of the enemy heavy shells, and only after that he and the observer officer flew out of the besieged fortress. The ascent was carried out under heavy fire of the enemy who was shooting at the rising vehicles; at that time, forts exploded and warehouses of firearms burned; despite this and the extremely difficult flight conditions due to heavy fog, gusty winds and shelling by the enemy on the way, he reached the disposition of our troops, rescued the officer and the apparatus, and delivered information about the besieged fortress ”. In December, Yu.M.Kuzmin's 1915 was transferred to the 7 aeronautic company. The pilot 23 died on May 1916 of the year from injuries received during an accident while making a training flight.

Konstantin Konstantinovich Vakulovsky, was born on October 28, 1894 in Vladikavkaz. After graduating from the cadet corps, he entered the Nikolaev Military Engineering School, from which he graduated with the rank of second lieutenant on July 20 / August 2, 1914, the day after Germany declared war on Russia. The young officer was identified as an adjutant in the mine company of the garrison of Novogeorgievskaya fortress. Here lieutenant Vakulovsky, visiting aviation courses with an aviation detachment in the fortress, mastered the specialties of an observer pilot and pilot. In April 1915, he was enlisted in the squadron, and on June 13, he was appointed military pilot of the Russian Imperial Army. For the salvation of the banners and documents of the young officer was awarded the Order of St. George 4th degree.

In the future, K. Vakulovsky, who enjoyed the personal protection of the Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich, successfully continued his service in aviation. For successful reconnaissance under the fire of the enemy in April 1916, he received a golden St. George weapon; in the spring of 1917, for attacking an enemy airfield, he earned the Order of St. Anne 2 Degree with swords; twice he was shot down, several times Vakulovsky was wounded. During the war years, Vakulovsky shot down five enemy airplanes. Noting the exploits of the pilot, the bosses in one of the award orders stated: "Without a doubt, this is one of our best pilots." The October Revolution Konstantin Vakulovsky met with the rank of colonel. Because of the resistance of the Bolsheviks, the hero pilot was arrested and miraculously escaped execution. Like his boss, Yu.M. Kozmin, Vakulovsky died a year later in a plane crash.

Boris Stanislavovich Mrachkovsky - an observer pilot of the Novogeorgievsky detachment - was born on October 4 1888 of the year in a bourgeois family in Kolpino, in the Tsarskoye Selo district of the St. Petersburg province. After graduating from 1910, the Military Topographical School, Mrachkovsky entered the service as a junior officer of the 4 Company of the Life Guards Pavlovsky Regiment. Having learned to be an observer pilot, lieutenant Mrachkovsky served with 1915 in the Novorgeyevsk fortress aviation squad. For participation in the salvation of the banners of the fortress, Boris Mrachkovsky was awarded the St. George weapons. As noted in the order, he was honored with this award because “on August 6 on 1915, when the order was issued for the departure of the entire detachment, he, along with the pilot, Second Lieutenant Vakulovsky, received serf standards, after the oath they gave, they would rather die and destroy shrines, rather than give the enemy, rose from the besieged fortress Novogeorgievsk, among the gaps of enemy shells and, despite the extremely difficult conditions for further flight, when due to fog had to fly very low, being fired at the enemy, Neely given word and saved their assigned banners, passing them in front of the headquarters. " Unfortunately, there are no details about the further fate of this pilot, but it is known that in 1917 he continued to serve in the 35 corps aviation squad, earning the Order of St. Anne 4, 3 and 2 with the swords, St. Stanislaus with swords and bow.

Boris Ivanovich Svistunov was born into a family of hereditary nobles in Moscow province. After receiving a military education in the Elisavetgrad Cavalry School, he was released to the Life Guards Horse Grenadier Regiment. Inspired by aviation, Svistunov graduated from a military aviation school in December 1914 and was appointed a military pilot of the 33 corps aviation squadron. Like Vakulovsky, Boris Svistunov was awarded the Order of St. George 4 degree because “6 August 1915, having received an order to fly out of Novogeorgievsk fortress, despite the fact that the given device was not tested and the flight conditions incredibly difficult because of the fog and shelling by the enemy not only on the way, but also by heavy artillery at the airfield, he, exhausted by two previous sorties, due to a malfunction of the apparatus, rose for the third time and, overcoming all obstacles, reached the same day a few hours later our locations Oi, thus rescuing the device and the best squad mechanics, and rising from the first aviation detachment, his example of selflessness and composure helped to further the success of the flight of the whole detachment. " Unfortunately, there is no information about the future fate of B.I. Svistunov. It is only known that in the 1917 year, he served as a captain and served as a training officer at the Military Aviation School.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 27 September 2015 07: 20 New
    Another heroic page of WWI ... could have made a good film .. But no one ..
    1. python2a
      python2a 27 September 2015 14: 43 New
      Unfortunately, they shoot movies with plots sucked from their fingers that are far from the present heroic past of our compatriots.
      1. Vend
        Vend 28 September 2015 10: 08 New
        Quote: parusnik
        Another heroic page of WWI ... could have made a good film .. But no one ..

        Quote: python2a
        Unfortunately, they shoot movies with plots sucked from their fingers that are far from the present heroic past of our compatriots.

        All right. But it just so happened that the pages of the First World War were a negative for us. Now Russia has almost reconciled with its history until the 1917 year. These articles will lead to the creation of films, books.
  2. Georg Shep
    Georg Shep 27 September 2015 10: 00 New
    Glory to the heroes! Despite failures and defeats they fought with dignity and did not drop the honor of the Russian army.
  3. moskowit
    moskowit 27 September 2015 10: 31 New
    At the end of the 1944 year and at the beginning of the 1945 year, bloody battles were fought under the Modlin fortress (Novogeorgievskaya). My father took part in them. I quote myself from my notes:
    "The 96 Brest Rifle Corps advanced in the direction of the fortified city of Modlin, which was taken on 18 on January, now it is the city of Nowy Dwur Mazowiecki. This city is notable for the fortress. Modlin Fortress was built on the orders of Napoleon by French engineers in 1807-1812. In 1834 By the order of Nicholas I, it was significantly expanded and renamed Novogeorgievsk, and during the First World War the garrison of the fortress strongly resisted the Germans, holding down considerable forces, and the fortress fought both in 1939 and 1945. and the division in the capture of Modlin, evidenced by the assignment to one of the rifle regiments of the division, the honorary name of “Novogeorgievsky.” 562 rifle Novogeorgievsky regiment. Order of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief No. 226 from 18 January 1945 of the year. On January 2, they stormed the city of Psashnysh (Prasnysh), the city and Modlin Fortress (Novogeorgievsk) - important communications centers and strongholds of the German defense ...
    ... Today, on 18 of January, at 20 hours, the capital of our Motherland, Moscow, on behalf of the Motherland, salutes to valiant troops ... twenty artillery salvoes of two hundred twenty-four guns ... "
  4. Free wind
    Free wind 27 September 2015 14: 20 New
    Correctly done that this reptile, the king, was shot. For 90000 people in the garrison, there were 35000 rifles and 50000 rounds of ammunition, one cartridge for two people or one and a half cartridges per rifle. Here is such an excellent supply and command, this is the second year of the war.
  5. The centurion
    The centurion 27 September 2015 14: 20 New
    In the shameful history of the 2's delivery of not weak Russian fortresses in 1915, there is at least one more worthy page.
    "... The Russian army was drowning in its own blood, it was swept up by demoralization and panic. Because of this, only three days, from 15 to 17 of August, two strongest Russian fortresses fell - Kovno and Novogeorgiyevsk. Commandant Kovno, General Grigoriev, simply escaped from his fortress (in his words, "for reinforcements"), and the commander of Novogeorgievsk, General Bobyr, after the first skirmishes, ran to the enemy, surrendered to him as a prisoner, and, already in captivity, ordered the entire garrison to surrender. In Kovno, the Germans took 20 000 prisoners and 450 serfs guns, and in Novogeorgievsk - 83 000 captive s, including 23 2100 generals and officers, 1200 (!!!) guns, and over 1 000 000 shells. Only four officers (Fedorenko, Stefanov, Baer and Berg), remaining faithful to the oath, and left the castle, breaking loose environment through 18 days have crept through the rear of the enemy to their ".
    Curiously, from the officers 4-patriots, two Germans.
  6. Koliamba_TV
    Koliamba_TV 27 September 2015 17: 24 New
    According to Kersnovsky, “having locked this whole huge crowd into a doomed fortress, the headquarters of the North-Western Front gave Hindenburg an entire army

    It is a pity that there were many such misses during the WWII, respectively, and the soldier was lost unmeasured.
  7. Sergey-8848
    Sergey-8848 27 September 2015 18: 13 New
    If an English progressive journalist surveyed, it would sound like this:
    In Bolshevik terms, it is a war that will inevitably lead to the victory of the proletariat (i.e., to the world revolution).
    In a Menshevik style, it’s a war that, under these prevailing conditions, will still play the ultimate victory (that is, a world revolution).
    In Trotskyist style, a war that will cover the whole world, but will lead to victory in the shortest possible way.
    A summary of all articles is for the benefit of the UK.
  8. Nagaibak
    Nagaibak 27 September 2015 19: 23 New
    The Orenburg Cossacks also saved their banners in the 1st World War.
    “In August, a major operation began in East Prussia, during which the 1st Russian Army of General P.K. Rennenkampf and the 2nd Army of General A.V. Samsonov were forced to retreat beyond the Vistula on the 7th of August 8-8 the German army of General von Pritwitz. But in the end, due to inconsistency in the actions of the Russian commanders, the recovered German troops defeated the Russian armies in parts. During the retreat of the Russians from East Prussia, the 2nd governor of the Nagoya was surrounded by the Orenburg Cossack regiment. In the battle, the regiment lost half of their personnel and all the horses, but retained the banner that was taken out of the encirclement by a group of Cossacks led by senior officer A. Prochankin. For this feat, the Cossacks received St. George Crosses of the 4th degree. "