Military Review

As England and France set up Russia under the German ram

50
As England and France set up Russia under the German ram

One of the main reasons for the failure of the Russian army in the 1915 campaign was that the Russian Empire had to fight one-on-one against the enemy. France and England sharply changed their strategy and decided to defend. They did nothing to help their ally, Russia. Their troops in the West European theater were largely inactive. Meanwhile, the Russian army, taking upon itself the blows of Germany and Austria-Hungary, gave England and France the necessary time for the accumulation of forces and means. This largely determined the outcome of the war, when Russia ended up in the camp of the losers.


Apparently, not only the factor of own interests, but also the decision of supranational structures based in France, England and the United States played a role here. The Russian Empire was not supposed to survive a world war. She was doomed, along with other monarchies, to defeat, destruction and dismemberment. Russia's successes in 1914 not only helped France and England out, but also alarmed them. Russia should not have won the war and become even stronger. Should not have been in the camp winners.

In London, Paris and Washington, they already knew that the war would be protracted, that only powers with large reserves could withstand it. The USA had a strong economy, and were only going to join the conflict when victory became apparent. England and France relied on huge colonial empires. Russia also had huge reserves and could be among the winners. It was necessary to deplete and bleed Russia. Therefore, at the 1915 year, the Allies did not plan any major operations at all. France and England sat behind a powerful system of fortifications, accumulated forces and resources, rebuilt the economy on a military footing. The commander-in-chief of the British forces in Europe, Field Marshal John French, said that in the West "it is only necessary to hold out until the Russians can finish the job." While the Russians screamed, fighting alone, the Allies saved up power.

Everything was thought out. In such a situation, Russia either suffered a terrible defeat and found itself on the verge of revolution and collapse (and the dissimilar forces, including the French and British secret services, were actively preparing the revolution in Russia), or so weakened that they could not claim their own piece of cake after the victory over the Central Powers . And the allies at this point created a well-equipped, powerful army. Britain and France planned to take part in the division of Russia or, while preserving the monarchy in Russia, “put it in its place” when it demands its share.

At the turn of 1914 and 1915. both coalitions realized that the calculation for a short-term war was fundamentally erroneous and that the struggle would last several years and would require huge material resources. The first in the Western European theater created a powerful positional defense of the Germans. They followed the retreat from r. Marne was able to quickly build fortified positions and during the “run to the sea” they used their engineering skills to secure the occupied areas of the area. The French and the British, who initially deliberately neglected the field defense, soon followed the Germans, burying themselves in the ground.

The instructions of the French commander Joffre of 26 in December 1914, 2 and 15 in January 1915 required allied forces to create such a strong defense that could parry the new attacks of the German forces and at the same time provide the Allies with the possibility of transition to offensive actions. The orders of the head of the German General Staff Falkenhain from 7 and 15 in January 1915 put forward to the German armies on the Western Front the task of "strengthening positions so that they could, if necessary, hold for a long time even with small forces against an offensive several times superior forces."

Thus, by the beginning of 1915, two continuous lines of trenches appeared along the entire Western Front, one against the other, interlaced with rows of wire barriers. Defensive positions began to improve rapidly, gradually being duplicated by the second and third lines with communications between the lines and strengthened by dugouts, strong shelters, and firing points. Fortifications began to be concreted. Particular attention was paid to the equipment of the first (advanced) position. It was erected in the form of two or three lines of trenches, one at a distance from the other on the 100-150. From the front, and sometimes from the flanks, it was covered with wire obstacles. Thus, powerful defensive systems appeared, the breakthrough of which required great efforts and resources.

Second positions were built on the main directions of possible enemy attacks, cut-off positions were built. Deep in the rear equipped fortified camps and rear defense lines in the form of one or two lines of points of resistance, covered with artificial obstacles. Fortified camps were created around Paris, Amiens, Calais, Dunkirk and other cities and fortresses, the rear defense zones along the rivers Oise, Urk, Ain, Somme, and others.

Paris and London quickly realized the convenience of their position. It became obvious that time was working for France and Britain. Industry can be relatively calmly transferred to the "military track", like the entire economy of the country, society. The experience of the first campaign showed the French and British that they lacked ammunition and heavy artillery. It became clear that this war would require completely different manpower costs. So, France had to call battle-ready men to the last man and attract even physically weak men and healthy women to work for defense, and then turn to the human resources of their overseas possessions. But it took time. No less seriously took this problem in England, which actually had to form a large land army (previously England cost fleet, small expeditionary forces and other people's "cannon fodder"). After attracting the human resources of the dominions and all colonies, England had to resort to compulsory military service for all British citizens (in January 1916 they introduced universal military service).

Therefore, the military-political leadership of Britain and France eagerly met the decision of the German High Command to stabilize the struggle in the West European theater and shift the brunt of operations to the East. The Germans were still hoping for a “quick war”: if they could not crush France with one powerful blow, it would come out with Russia. Britain and France understood that the war would drag on and, moving on to strategic defense, played up to Germany.

Secretary of War Herbert Kitchener noted that the war is just beginning in 1915, and this exhausting war will continue for at least three years. The British believed that action on the front must be abandoned before a significant increase in artillery means of combat. At the same time, the British planned to focus on operations in secondary theaters, deciding to undertake the Dardanelles expedition.

Britain and France on the western front planned to conduct only private offensive operations in Artois and Champagne. In the Middle East, they were going to conduct combat operations in order to prevent the invasion of Turkish troops in the colonial possessions of Britain and France. More actively, it was decided to act in the Balkan direction. The British decided to conduct an operation to capture the Black Sea straits and Constantinople.

Thus, the western "allies" of Russia and then betrayed Russia. In words, Britain and France promised to cede Constantinople and the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits to Russia so that it would continue to supply cannon fodder and not enter into a separate agreement with Germany. In fact, the British were going to preempt the Russians and seize this strategic area. London continued to implement its long-standing plan: to close the Russians from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, to consolidate its position in the Balkans, in the Mediterranean and in the Middle East.

At the same time, the Western powers, outlining the transition to strategic defense and intending to move Russia in the strait zone, demanded that the Russian high command take active offensive actions on the Eastern Front. Just up hypocrisy. Russia, in their opinion, was to bind the forces of the Central Powers and especially Germany, to prevent the new powerful German offensive of the Western Front. This created favorable conditions for England and France for the mobilization of industry, the population, the strengthening of the armed forces, the accumulation of forces and reserves for subsequent battles. “We,” Lloyd George later said, “gave Russia its fate.”

Unfortunately, in Russia fell for this offer. Instead of following the example of the Allies and actively preparing for defense, preserving ammunition, forming large reserves, the Russian Stavka planned to conduct as many as two (!) Strategic offensive operations: 1) operation to seize East Prussia as a springboard for a throw on Berlin; 2) invasion of Hungary through the Carpathians. All this required the expenditure of large forces and material resources. As a result, the Russian army was not ready to repel the powerful blow of the Austro-German forces and the Great Retreat began. By the time of the Gorlitsky breakthrough, the Russian army had practically no free reserves (only one building), and such a shortage of shells was discovered that a "shell hunger" began. In addition, there was not enough artillery, especially heavy, machine guns, rifles and ammunition.

Thus, the refusal of the Anglo-French command of decisive actions and the miscalculations of the Russian military-political leadership allowed the Germans to win the 1915 campaign of the year on the Eastern Front.
Author:
Articles from this series:
1915 Campaign
Military plans of the Entente and the Central Powers for 1915 year
Death of the 20 Russian Corps
"Rubber War" in the Carpathians
Battle for Prasnysh
Italian "jackal" enters the war
Battle of the Isonzo
Second Battle of the Isonzo
Germany turns east
Bosphorus bait for Russia
Gorlitsky breakthrough
The defeat of the 3 Army Radko-Dmitriev. The death of the 48 "Steel" division of General Kornilov
Departure of Russian armies from Galicia. Loss of Przemysl and Lviv
The great retreat of the Russian army
The fall of Warsaw
Fall of the Newgeorg Fortress
The great retreat of the Russian army was the harbinger of the 1917 disaster of the year.
1915 Campaign of the Year on the Caucasus Front
Solution of the “Christian Question” in Turkey during the First World War
Battle for van
Alashkert operation
Hamadan operation
Sventsian breakthrough
Completion of the 1915 campaign of the year on the Russian front: the battle for Lutsk and Chartoryisk. Operation on the river. Strypa
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  1. dFG
    dFG 24 September 2015 06: 17 New
    +19
    The article as a training manual for Russian leaders is relevant both in the distant 1915 and in the recent 1991, as well as in our time.
    1. Azzzwer
      Azzzwer 25 September 2015 14: 04 New
      0
      Only the whole question is that neither in the distant 1915 nor the present, the interests of Russia did not interest its leaders and are not interested. Only private narrow corporate interests, for which ordinary people paid, and possibly will be paid again.
  2. Same lech
    Same lech 24 September 2015 06: 29 New
    +15
    The article as a training manual for Russian leaders is relevant both in the distant 1915 and in the recent 1991, as well as in our time.


    Absolutely.

    You can never trust the Anglo-Saxons no matter how they swore friendship and cooperation with us.
    After that, RUSSIA was always on the edge of the abyss.
    1. Yars
      Yars 24 September 2015 10: 38 New
      +5
      Quote: The same Lech
      The article as a training manual for Russian leaders is relevant both in the distant 1915 and in the recent 1991, as well as in our time.


      Absolutely.

      You can never trust the Anglo-Saxons no matter how they swore friendship and cooperation with us.
      After that, RUSSIA was always on the edge of the abyss.

      everything is right, but the states always waited for where the events would turn, and only then they supposedly intervened in helping, it was the same in the Second World War and they are behind all the conflicts!
    2. Azzzwer
      Azzzwer 25 September 2015 14: 06 New
      -1
      Quote: The same Lech
      can not be trusted

      blah blah blah, again and again weep in three pines.
  3. valokordin
    valokordin 24 September 2015 07: 22 New
    +13
    The author or namesake or great-great-grandson of General Samsonov, who shot himself in East Prussia in 14, after the heroic death of his army, blames the failures of tsarist Russia on the allies. You should not do this, although all the vileness of their behavior is obvious. In terms of human resources and natural resources, Russia surpassed Germany. The reason for the military failures is the economic and cultural backwardness of Russia under the leadership of the great martyr St. Nicholas 2 and his corrupt bourgeois-feudal elite. The same people under the leadership of the AUCPB, Stalin almost single-handedly defeated Europe led by Nazi Germany. And now the same class elite is pushing the country into the abyss, while making fantastic profits, and the people are poor, although the enemy is at the gates.
    1. Yars
      Yars 24 September 2015 10: 52 New
      +2
      The reason for the military failure is the economic and cultural backwardness of Russia under the leadership of the great martyr St. Nicholas-2 and his corrupt bourgeois-feudal elite.

      Russia's economic and cultural backwardness ?! I think you are raving, you should read stories! You hike another liberal who is trying by all means to impose the opinion that "Russia is dirty and unwashed."
      And now the same class elite is pushing the country into the abyss, while making fantastic profits, and the people are poor, although the enemy is at the gates.

      Watch carefully for world events! Russia is pushed into the abyss just by the very same “allies” which you justify in your comment !!! And as you see, the president successfully defends the interests of Russia, Crimea and is the result of this successful policy, the fact that the war in Ukraine did not spill over its borders throughout Europe (and the idea of ​​the "allies" was just that), the merit of the correct policy of the country's leadership! You are another liberal who denigrates Russia and at the same time blocks the West, or rather its atrocities !!!
      1. 97110
        97110 24 September 2015 11: 54 New
        +7
        Quote: YARS
        Watch carefully for world events! Russia is pushed into the abyss just by the very same “allies” which you justify in your comment !!!

        His eyes were bloodshot, and he rushed to crush the enemies of his greatness. Or holiness? He did not find in the words of valokordin the slightest justification of the allies. But quite justified dissatisfaction with the work of the Russian elite. And do not puff out your cheeks about the innovativeness and power of RI. Asked ... whether the country. Just profiled. Seeing nothing, puffing up from the consciousness of their own God's chosen people, they climbed into two losing wars in a row. Not seeing enemies, revered by their friends, commanding, in pursuit of enemy (Anglo-Saxon) interests, RIA on the principle of "women give birth to new ones." They achieved the complete extermination of themselves beloved by the trusted people. What do you defend commanders and commanders who failed to cope with the upbringing of personnel? History has long dug them on the sidelines, leaving fraudsters the opportunity to crank makli with titles and emblems. You are the next monarchist who imagines himself to be noble (excellency? Lightest? Holiest?). We do not agree on the role of gray cattle, which are not people at all. Do not hope this will not return.
        1. Fight cat
          Fight cat 24 September 2015 16: 57 New
          +6
          Mr. license plate you have an oddity, like any communism that believes that a monarchist can only be an imaginary nobleman (incidentally, this is bad) by a count or a prince! who has his own slaves, serf, serfs, emphasize the necessary !!! Look at the history of how the Tsarist Army fought and how civilized Europeans, the ratio of losses to the German troops, you are very surprised to have a shell shortage of ammunition (about the Stalinist saga with a lack of ammunition and stupid orders to send troops to attack without cartridges, the faithful Stalinists are silent !!) under the command " stupid tsarist generals "who defeated the German troops over and over even in retreat managed to defeat the vaunted Hochdauche. They sacrificed the army of Samosonov because otherwise, at that time, France would have been defeated and, unlike you, the Tsar still saw it ahead, much further, because the Russian coalition could not stand the coalition blow of two empires. Sacrificing a piece on a chessboard, he placed a check, but the revolutionary terrorists, who acted in the interests of Germany, the USA, Great Britain, Japan and bank houses, Masonic lodges, broke everything! After all, the Bolsheviks signed the infamous Brest Peace, thanks to which, Germany, fluttered for another six months! soldier
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 24 September 2015 17: 33 New
            0
            Quote: Fighting Cat
            Look at the history of how the Tsarist Army fought and how civilized Europeans, the ratio of losses to German troops, you will be very surprised to have a shell shortage of ammunition

            And hto did it? smile
            Whose fault was this famine caused by? Who placed the bulk of the chemical industry in Poland and the Baltic states, so that in 1915 the production of the same sulfuric acid fell 10 times? Who from year to year ordered almost only shrapnel for 3 "? Who destroyed the gun factories by arranging an annual leapfrog with the types of ordered guns? Who so wisely developed the industry that not one of the factories could help Tula with the production of machine guns (machine tools lacked precision )? Who delayed the solution of the issue of the Tsaritsyno Vickers factory so much that it was completed by the Bolsheviks (like the Kovrov machine gun)? Who issued loans for the development of the automotive industry only in 1916?
            Who so wisely developed the railways and issued orders to the factories that their capacity was enough to maintain the viability of the railway only until 1916 (at the beginning of 1917 only half of the steam locomotives and 40% of freight cars were operational, which was half the minimum requirements)?
            Quote: Fighting Cat
            under the command of "stupid tsarist generals" who defeated the German troops over and over even in the retreat managed to defeat the vaunted hohdoche

            Only for some reason, with all these victories, the front line rolled back farther east. But only a third of the German army was against us, a maximum of half.
            Quote: Fighting Cat
            After all, the Bolsheviks signed the infamous Brest Peace, thanks to which, Germany, fluttered for another six months!

            Yeah ... but without this world, the Russian army would easily have kept the front against the Germans. smile
            Come on, comrade. The Brest peace is a consequence of February, when bourgeois parties intoxicated by permissiveness, in the wake of revolutionary fervor, with a couple of strokes of a pen canceled subordination in the army and introduced committees. Not the Bolsheviks, no - they slammed this revolution. And all sorts of Lviv, Guchkov, Chkheidze and Kerensky were driving there (the latter, by the way, was sitting immediately in the Council and the Provisional Government - and it was he who dragged Order No. 1 through the VP).
            1. timyr
              timyr 24 September 2015 18: 10 New
              -2
              Well, clearly according to the fighting cat, the Communities did it
            2. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 24 September 2015 21: 59 New
              +3
              And it is strange that when referring to the defeat of the 2th army of Samsonov, no one writes about the chief of the 1th army, General Rennenkampfe. But the Bolsheviks banged him precisely for the betrayal of Samsonov.
        2. Shishiga
          Shishiga 24 September 2015 17: 21 New
          +1

          †††
          How rejoices abroad
          And howls of happiness howling,
          That we knelt down.
          And we knelt
          Pray before the battle ...
          Nikolai ZINOVIEV, Krasnodar

          IN KINDERGARTEN
          Butterflies flutter over a flower bed
          And the sky is pouring blue.
          Sandboxes play in the shade
          Soldiers of the Third World.
          Nikolai ZINOVIEV, Krasnodar

          Eccentric
          The old man collects the bottles
          And - an eccentric - does not let go
          It only scratches thoughtfully in the back of the head.
          I thought: old man -.
          But he asked: "For what?" - with quiet flattery.
          And he answered with his toothless mouth:
          “Fill with incendiary mixture -
          You will need a lot of them later. ”
          Nikolai ZINOVIEV, Krasnodar

          VISION
          A soldier comes down the hill
          With family meeting ahead.
          Medal for the capture of New York
          I see on his chest.
          I see: his daughter Tanka
          He drives two geese to the river,
          Where from the tower of the NATO tank
          Son Fedka catches crucians.
          Nikolai ZINOVIEV, Krasnodar
        3. Azzzwer
          Azzzwer 25 September 2015 14: 19 New
          +1
          Quote: 97110
          History has long dug them on the sidelines, leaving fraudsters the opportunity to crank makli with titles and emblems. You are the next monarchist who imagines himself to be noble (excellency? Lightest? Holiest?). We do not agree on the role of gray cattle, which are not people at all. Do not hope this will not return.

          so, m and x and t and !!!!
      2. Kalmar
        Kalmar 24 September 2015 13: 12 New
        +1
        Russia's economic and cultural backwardness ?! I think you are raving

        We will not talk about cultural backwardness - the issue is very controversial. As for the economic, this is an objective fact: in the beginning of the XXth century, the Republic of Ingushetia was very far behind the leading European powers (France, England, Germany) in the economy. RI, in fact, was mainly engaged in the production and export of raw materials and low-yield products, and complex industrial products were purchased abroad. By the way, are there no analogies with the current state of affairs?

        The same "allies" are pushing Russia into the abyss

        Not without it. And the fact that they are doing this for the umpteenth time suggests that we have not learned how to conduct a competent foreign policy. Well, or that the interests of the people who determine this very policy are very contrary to the interests of the country and its population.

        President successfully defends Russia's interests

        Those. 15 years of a raw materials appendage policy, sanctions, loss of the South Stream, attempts to bend under the Chinese (I mean the Power of Siberia) - does it “successfully protect interests”? Well I do not know...

        the fact that the war in Ukraine did not spill over its borders throughout Europe (and the idea of ​​the "allies" was just that) is also a merit of the correct policy of the country's leadership

        The Allies did not need war across Europe (for now, anyway). They needed a hot spot - they got it, and Russia helps maintain its temperature at the proper level. And Crimea has successfully fulfilled the function of a Trojan horse - it is still a very long time to rake up the consequences of its accession.
      3. Interface
        Interface 24 September 2015 17: 33 New
        0
        Russia's economic and cultural backwardness ?! I think you are raving, you should read stories! You hike another liberal who is trying by all means to impose the opinion that "Russia is dirty and unwashed."


        Sir, what a mess. Silver cocoa.
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      4. BDRM 667
        BDRM 667 24 September 2015 23: 06 New
        0
        Quote: YARS
        You are another liberal who denigrates Russia and at the same time blocks the West, or rather its atrocities !!!


        What brings you today, bloody diarrhea?

        All of you are liberals, all of someone, pushing somewhere ...

        What do you start up with a “half-turn” as a nymph girl who pinched the erogenous zone?
        1. Yars
          Yars 27 September 2015 13: 49 New
          0
          Quote: BDRM 667
          What brings you today, bloody diarrhea?

          bloody diarrhea in your brain
      5. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter 24 September 2015 23: 21 New
        0
        Quote: YARS
        You are another liberal who denigrates Russia and at the same time blocks the West, or rather its atrocities !!!

        Oopsss. a Western zealot who is hiding from conscription in other people's “Khatyn” puts labels on everyone here, calls for vigilance and clever geopolitics, instead of taking an automatic machine and defending freedom and independence on the side of the LDNR.
        You know, dear friend, would you call for vigilance there or leave the partisans against the parasite, but no, the child is sitting at the computer and broadcasts how we should live, whom we should love and who we should rob.
        We here will figure it out without you, enlightened, Chi, anyway?
        And then I saw you so healthy, they don’t want to work, then give them benefits, then they’re sedentary work, so that clumsy fingers poke at Claudia, and we will rake for you on the outskirts of the gauno, damn it!
        1. Yars
          Yars 27 September 2015 14: 00 New
          0
          Quote: Stroporez
          Oopsss. a Western zealot who is hiding from conscription in other people's “Khatyn” puts labels on everyone here, calls for vigilance and clever geopolitics, instead of taking an automatic machine and defending freedom and independence on the side of the LDNR.

          I’m not hiding from the call, if it’s so smart, why does the computer freeze? Another couch general ?! Come play on the front endured liberal.
          I’m not going to fight for LDNR, since both of them are currently controlled by Ukrainian oligarchs and fairy tales are told to people. The head of the LPR, Plotnitsky himself was from western Ukraine, his parents lived there until recently, until they brought the first dead guy to the village from the east, the black Land Cruiser arrived in Kiev rooms and took his parents to a safe place. Ukraine is controlled today
          structures that flooded the Ukrainian information space with the myth that Russia supplies weapons and military to LDNR, and in Russia, like you Judas, they also spread disinfection about supposedly Russian troops there, now you have switched to Syria, saying that “bloody Putin” introduced troops, but as you can see, it’s not entirely possible for you .....

          Quote: Stroporez
          You know, dear friend, if you were there, in a flood of everyone, you called for vigilance or you went to the partisans against the parasite

          liberal is my friend! In western Ukraine, it’s hard to explain something to someone, because the brain is washed with liberal shit, so what are you shitting around here!
          Quote: Stroporez
          We here will figure it out without you, enlightened, Chi, anyway?

          You have already made out the liberals of Judah! Will you tell your wife what to understand?
          Quote: Stroporez
          And then I saw you so healthy, they don’t want to work, then give them benefits, then they’re sedentary work, so that clumsy fingers poke at Claudia, and we will rake for you on the outskirts of the gauno, damn it!

          you did not see a damn thing besides your keyboard! He rakes on the outskirts, I can’t laugh, can you seriously be a troll?
      6. The comment was deleted.
      7. BDRM 667
        BDRM 667 24 September 2015 23: 31 New
        +1
        Quote: YARS
        You hike another liberal who is trying by all means to impose the opinion that "Russia is dirty and unwashed."

        Here you have the word "liberal" like it!
        They poked it, like a stigma, to everyone who can, in different topics, on different issues ...

        Unique Galician ...
        1. Yars
          Yars 27 September 2015 14: 01 New
          0
          why did I get that from Galicia? Mania to invent?
      8. Azzzwer
        Azzzwer 25 September 2015 14: 10 New
        +1
        Quote: YARS
        The very same "allies" are pushing Russia into the abyss

        Russia was pushed into the abyss by its corrupt elite.
    2. Rastas
      Rastas 24 September 2015 21: 27 New
      -1
      It is clear that the Allies were going to use Russia as cannon fodder, but why would they wish Russia to be defeated in the 15th? This also meant that after Russia emerged from the war, the entire German blow would fall on France and England. Therefore, they really needed Russia to continue to fight. Then the author indicates that the goal of England and France was the destruction of Russia. And why, if the whole industry was already in their hands and was planted on French loans? At the head of France and England did not stand.
    3. Azzzwer
      Azzzwer 25 September 2015 14: 08 New
      0
      Quote: valokordin
      the same class elite

      the only true conclusion.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 24 September 2015 07: 40 New
    +9
    The Russian empire was not supposed to survive the world war. She was condemned, along with other monarchies, to defeat, destruction and dismemberment...That is why she was dragged in ... by shots in Sarajevo ... They understood Russia, she would certainly fit in with the Serbs .. Moreover, European countries carefully avoided provocations between their countries, and if there were incidents .. they were solved .. And the most interesting, it was Serbia that received significant territorial increments in the form of Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia and so on ... after the PMV ... Europe said to the Croats, Slovenes ... when they turned, they say, support our independence, figs ... only as part of a united kingdom Serbs and Croats .. Later, in the 90s, Europe acted differently .. remembered and granted the “will” to the aforementioned .. Fear Danians bringing gifts ...
  5. Erg
    Erg 24 September 2015 08: 40 New
    +11
    Thanks to the author for the excursion. But still, I believe that both in the first world and in the second, the winner was the same ... I liked the phrase - "Surprisingly, all the enemies of England went to war against Russia."
  6. knn54
    knn54 24 September 2015 09: 05 New
    +5
    For many centuries, EVERYTHING has been done so that Germany and Russia do not become allies.
    UK received gold, but Russia got nothing at all; UK missed into the Black Sea two German cruisers.
    Germany had virtually no plan for a war with Russia, ONLY with France ...
    1. anip
      anip 24 September 2015 09: 46 New
      +3
      Quote: knn54
      For many centuries, EVERYTHING has been done so that Germany and Russia do not become allies

      This is yes.

      Quote: knn54
      Germany had virtually no plan for a war with Russia, ONLY with France ...

      But this is not so.
  7. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 24 September 2015 09: 10 New
    +7
    “France and England dramatically changed their strategy and decided to defend. They did nothing
    to help your ally - Russia. Their troops in the West European theater are mostly
    were inactive "///


    And if you look at the history of the 1st World War?
    1915 year. Western front.

    Battle of Ypres. Chemical attack of the Germans.

    Battle of Artois (spring). The offensive of the Anglo-French forces by more than 30 infantry divisions and 9
    cavalry corps. The battle lasted 6 weeks, the loss of the Entente - 130 thousand people.

    The second battle of Artois (autumn). The offensive of the Anglo-French forces by forces of 67 divisions.
    The Anglo-French lost 200 thousand people killed and wounded, the Germans - 140 thousand people.

    Thus, the author’s thesis about the inaction of the Allies is not true.
    There were heavy battles with heavy losses on both sides.
    1. 97110
      97110 24 September 2015 12: 05 New
      +5
      Quote: voyaka uh
      There were heavy battles with heavy losses on both sides.

      But the front line did not change. And the corpses of the fallen in the battles you listed decorated the neutral strip for years. Apparently, they were diehard fighters, titans. Or atlantes. Or suicides? Is there a link to the photographs of 10 English corpses lying in regular rows, like their unfortunate German machine guns? Terrifying fact, described many times. So that we are imbued with the terrible suffering of our allies.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 24 September 2015 13: 48 New
        +3
        "But the front line did not change" ///

        And if it didn’t change, then the battle does not count? World War I
        and stood out in history as positional. There were already machine guns, artillery became
        long-range and rapid-fire, but there were no tanks yet. All offensive
        choked with heavy losses for the advancing.
        Only since 1917, when the British used tanks immediately in large numbers,
        (Battle of Cambrai) front began to move.
    2. Fight cat
      Fight cat 24 September 2015 16: 25 New
      +1
      I fully support you colleague, the author of the article didn’t even have a clue that if the German army had captured France, Russia would literally in a year have come a full Arctic fox. since all the military might of Germany would appeal to the Russian Empire !!! and then we would lose Moscow a second time !!! quite possibly they could not have won because of the subversive activities of the "terrorist-revolutionaries" !!! and the USSR, and so by the will of Emperor Nicholas II, the unborn Sovdepia was saved !!! wink
    3. Awaz
      Awaz 24 September 2015 18: 53 New
      0
      but you better look at what was happening on the German eastern front and in general on the fronts where Russia fought at that time. It is worth recalling that the length of the front line in the German western direction was not that it was two or maybe five times less than one of Russia in its western and southwestern direction.
      I will not even rummage now, but there are statements by the same British politicians that they withdrew most of their troops from France, after Russia entered the war to strengthen their overseas territories and the island itself. The French also threw the same trick, sending part of the troops to their overseas territories.
      In general, Russia and Germany didn’t have any conflicts. Russia had problems with Austria - Hungary, but with adequate power in the Republic of Ingushetia, war could have been dispensed with ... Nikolashka and especially his wife killed the country. Although she was already breathing at last. Everything went to the destruction of the empire.
  8. Dimon-chik-79
    Dimon-chik-79 24 September 2015 09: 42 New
    +5
    This article seems to be dedicated to the event with the exhumation of the remains of the royal family and subsequent examination. What would we once again appreciate the role of Emperor Nicholas II in the collapse of a great power with huge casualties in the First World Civil War accompanied by the bloody terror of the Russian population from 17 to 39. I can’t understand how, for what, for what deeds, accomplishments, he was counted among the saints? For martyrdom? A huge number of children, women, old people died a martyrdom, in the end he doomed his family to destroy this "holy man". And still, year after year, the cry for the "great" Nicholas II does not cease.
    Neither the French nor the British are guilty of the fall of the Russian Empire, and the one who was directly responsible for the entire Russian state.
    1. Erg
      Erg 24 September 2015 09: 57 New
      +7
      Well, yes ... Gaddafi, here, too, "ruined" his country. And Hussein ... It's good to live in a fictional world. good
      1. Dimon-chik-79
        Dimon-chik-79 24 September 2015 10: 14 New
        +2
        In a row, can we compare the scale of Libya or even Iraq with the Russian Empire, they are not comparable. The trouble with these countries is that they were on the path of a bulldozer called the United States. They themselves were not able to resist the plans of the coalition and there was no counterbalancing force at that time. So all the same, Gaddafi or Madafi would have had one result at that time.
        1. Basil50
          Basil50 24 September 2015 10: 53 New
          +4
          The trouble of these * countries is that their leaders flirted with the democrats of Europe and the USA. They hoped to gain something and did not notice how they became addicted, and then unnecessary.
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. Erg
          Erg 24 September 2015 11: 08 New
          +2
          And yet, look for materials on Russia at the beginning of the century, about the "revolution". You will find a lot of interesting things, and maybe change your view on this topic. I specifically do not give you sources that I believe in order not to “exert pressure”. hi
          1. Basil50
            Basil50 24 September 2015 11: 14 New
            -2
            Unfortunately, tsarist RUSSIA is among * these * countries.
          2. The comment was deleted.
    2. 97110
      97110 24 September 2015 12: 07 New
      -1
      Quote: Dimon-chik-79
      Neither the French nor the British are guilty of the fall of the Russian Empire, and the one who was directly responsible for the entire Russian state

      A plus.
      1. Shishiga
        Shishiga 24 September 2015 17: 29 New
        +1
        However " - "
    3. Fight cat
      Fight cat 24 September 2015 16: 32 New
      0
      and what did you attach the Tsarskiy’s standard to the avatar ??? am Yes, if not for the decision of Tsar Nicholas II, a burgher with the name of Hans would have sat in your place !!! Yes, he sent a whole army to certain death, such is the fate of soldiers to die in the name of the bright future of others !!!! Stalin sent a militia to slaughter to stop German tanks near Moscow, and Nikolai forced the enemy to disperse his forces !!! look at the ratio of losses you will be greatly surprised, but civilized Europeans have suffered losses more than the tsarist army, in relation to the enemy! By order of the tsar, he saved all of Russia, not Europe ... If Germany, together with Austria-Hungary, defeated France, then for us Hitler would appear to be a dandelion of God after William II soldier
  9. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 24 September 2015 10: 01 New
    +1
    Unrealizable military plans sinned all the general staff of the participants in the WWII. But due to geographical, climatic and especially economic circumstances, Russia's defeat was inevitable! The whole policy of the tsarist government led to this. Unfortunately, the country's economy remained largely feudal. The development of national capitalism was greatly inhibited by the oligarchic elite, who preferred to give industry over to world capital (especially French) than to develop domestic production. And here is the result ... Article plus, although it is said that the fighting on the Western Front was not conducted at all incorrectly.
    1. 97110
      97110 24 September 2015 12: 17 New
      +1
      Quote: JääKorppi
      how to develop domestic production

      I will bring one very characteristic fact to the development of your thought. In Rostov-on-Don there was a factory "Red Don", from 1857 until the renaming of the Pastukhov factory. I really don’t know what the owner of the projectile shell came up with. But in 1916, a lockout was announced, the plant was closed, Pastukhov went abroad. Well, what kind of unlimited autocracy in the country is it, if the authorities are completely toothless. There are also facts, but this one is closer to me - he worked at the "Red Don".
    2. Fight cat
      Fight cat 24 September 2015 16: 35 New
      0
      Mr. Dunno, you’ll at least learn a story at the time the WWI began; foreign capital owned only 12% of the RI industry. unlike the same French, where American and British capital was about 40%. hi
      1. Awaz
        Awaz 24 September 2015 18: 57 New
        0
        can you give more details ? But I know just the numbers that a little more than 10 percent was Russian capital and the rest is foreign.
  10. Dan Slav
    Dan Slav 24 September 2015 10: 56 New
    +1
    Unfortunately, of the true Russian authorities, only Stalin can be remembered.
    Well, Alexander III. While the Russian tsar is fishing, Europe may wait.
    Parsley yet. But they are mostly covered up.
    The rest one way or another played or are playing according to the scripts of their masters. They are dependent people and the country with them only sinks to the bottom, dangles in isolation, is not respected, and people are interrupted as they can. In short, thieves are thieves. Simple or patriotic - no difference.
  11. Basil50
    Basil50 24 September 2015 11: 11 New
    +3
    Well, about treachery and treachery, politics is replaced by intrigue or simply selfish interests, and there are many striking examples. In RUSSIA, too, all of this was enough, but the tasks of destroying countries and peoples have never been set. Already that relations with Turkey were complicated, and that did not go beyond a civilized framework, or in Central Asia. But in the west, exploits in the * field * of genocide and other things are many, and this does not in the least diminish self-conceit and desire to teach, or even destroy, those who are objectionable. Bribery and treachery is the main tool * of the West *.
  12. Erg
    Erg 24 September 2015 11: 13 New
    -2
    The only "trouble" of Nicholas is that he is not Stalin. There would be no "revolution".
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 24 September 2015 11: 34 New
      +1
      Tsarist RUSSIA was building a * caste * society, irresponsible * upper * and for all responsible * lower classes *. Also, the king is illiterate but with ambition. I read something about his development of foreign loans, it was when * import * plants and entire cities and regions were given away. I read in French journalism that the RUSSIAN HOUSING in France was also * percent * in the credit of the royal house. The French commanded the corps as zouaves or other colonial formations. Moreover, the royal * house * considered RUSSIA property, along with the population.
      1. Fight cat
        Fight cat 24 September 2015 16: 38 New
        -1
        oh, you are all illiterate, 12% at the beginning of the WWI was the share of foreign capital in the RI industry. and for your information, before the start of the WWI, the price-generator on the market was the Nizhny Novgorod Fair, which dictated all the basic prices for the year, the USSR or the current Russian Federation could boast of this ??? hi
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Das Boot
      Das Boot 24 September 2015 12: 04 New
      +1
      Quote: Erg
      Nikolai’s "trouble" is that he is not Stalin. There would be no "revolution".

      pdsh logic ...
      1. dmb
        dmb 24 September 2015 12: 46 New
        +2
        But I think there is logic. Previously, three bearded profiles were depicted on posters, but now there will be one with a beard (I Terrible), one with a mustache (I. Stalin) and one simply with rare hairs without signs of facial hair. This simply follows from the wise comments of a number of illiterate members of the public.
      2. Erg
        Erg 24 September 2015 16: 17 New
        -1
        The minus is not mine. And what about the phrase - this is not logic. This is black humor. hi
    4. Awaz
      Awaz 24 September 2015 19: 01 New
      +1
      well, you don’t know the details. The same Stalinist triples grew out of the Stolypin reform, when the punitive detachments, at first simply stabbing dissatisfied peasants with bayonets, decided to give it legal status and field courts were created from the officers of these punitive detachments, which also passed sentences soon. The difference from the Stalinist triples was that these officers were not lawyers at all, and yet they killed a little less people ...
  13. Das Boot
    Das Boot 24 September 2015 11: 30 New
    0
    Thus, the refusal of the Anglo-French command of decisive actions and the miscalculations of the Russian military-political leadership allowed the Germans to win the 1915 campaign of the year on the Eastern Front.

    You can, of course, blame the Allies for everything, yes. However, if we take the purely technical side of the matter (the notorious “weapons hunger”), it is enough to study in passing the defense order situation, which Vice Admiral Rusin took to London. The first eleven points concerned artillery, small arms and their ammunition, and then EVERYTHING, from barbed wire and plantar leather, boots and cloth to telephones, bicycles and trucks. In addition, Russia could place orders for weapons and ammunition, for example, in the United States [only with permission, and only at those firms indicated by the English government through the Morgan Banking House. It is easy to guess the wonders of pricing in such conditions.
  14. Belousov
    Belousov 24 September 2015 14: 48 New
    0
    There is a combination of reasons. Yes, there was an economic and technical backwardness, there was a frankly corrupt elite (it’s enough to remember how ships were bought at exorbitant prices, and when they arrived at a foreign shipyard they openly said, set a price 3 times more expensive, we’ll cut it all) and other internal problems. But the action of foreign agents cannot be overlooked. Unfortunately they were, are and will be with us. The question is how well they will be neutralized, first of all, by the constant work of the leadership for the good of the country, and not by Vasilyeva’s editions. If everything is going well in the country, then no agents of influence will help the staff to rock the boat.
    1. Das Boot
      Das Boot 24 September 2015 16: 24 New
      +1
      Quote: Belousov
      The question is how well they will be neutralized, first of all, by the constant work of the leadership for the good of the country, and not by Vasilyeva’s editions.

      I see a stretch in parallel with modernity. We are talking about the realities of a hundred years ago, without the Gogol-Shchedrinsky "steal" and "dyraki / road." She was not ready for the continental war in the Republic of Ingushetia either technologically or in terms of resources. I mean that none of the defendants was not ready. It was just a different degree not ready. However, in the end, for well-known reasons, more than the rest of Russia and Germany went
  15. Prometey
    Prometey 24 September 2015 16: 30 New
    +2
    As a rule, A. Samsonov has good articles. But I did not even read this one. It turns out that in the defeats of 1915, some sinister world backstage was dreaming again, dreaming of the crushing of the Russian Empire. So they left one on one royal army against the Bosh. Sorry, but when they got into this war, didn’t you think that you might have to fight alone at all? Well, the Russian army could not already fight one on one with a more or less serious opponent - the Russian-Japanese war has already demonstrated this all. Only with a significant numerical superiority - no more. That is the whole reason.
    1. Das Boot
      Das Boot 24 September 2015 17: 13 New
      +1
      Quote: Prometey
      daydreaming about the crushing of the Russian Empire. So they left one on one royal army against the Bosh.

      Well, on the whole, the Entente in the Russian army put an end to it sooner in the spring of 1917, when it suggested that the Mikado place 200 thousand for some profits. contingent in Europe) The article refers us to 1915, when, in fact,
      Quote: Prometey
      sinister world backstage
      has not yet sent comrade Lenin in a sealed carriage. laughing