Military Review

"Crankshaft" did not work

40
The Pentagon made plans for the mass destruction of the population of the USSR


Sole possession of nuclear weaponsmultiplied by the power of first-class strategic aviation, became for Washington a kind of dizziness from success.

American journalist Arnold Brophy in his book The Air Force (“Air Force”) emphasized: “Aviation supported every offensive operation by American troops. In the war against Japan, she, using the most powerful modern weapon, managed to put the enemy on her knees, although his army remained efficient, and the country was unoccupied. ”

Nuclear Pincher


Let us leave disputes out of the article, which brought Japan to its knees - the atomic bombardment of its cities or, nevertheless, the defeat of the Kwantung Army by Soviet troops. But the thesis of the use of nuclear weapons by bombers to break the enemy’s ability to resist, after which it remains to accept its surrender, pretty much turned the head of some of the American military.

"Crankshaft" did not workThe Pentagon launched nuclear planning against the USSR very quickly. In the first half of 1946, four versions of the first American plan for an atomic war against the USSR, called Pincher (“Pincher”), fell on the maps and explanatory notes to them. Based on the successful experience of strategic bombing of Germany and Japan, he envisaged the conduct of a total air war against our country. According to the Pincher plan, bombers with atomic and conventional bombs on board were supposed to attack the Soviet Union from advanced air bases in the British Isles, Egypt and India. Industrial areas, centers of the military industry (primarily aviation and tank), large railway junctions, ports.

However, Pincher was not officially approved and proved to be a kind of touchstone in planning a war against the USSR. The next such plan was Boiler (Kipilnik, 1948), which took into account some reduction in the total US military resources and provided for the need for ground defense operations in Europe to deter Soviet forces at the Rhine line.

According to the plan, Boiler was not only allowed, but was also considered as an important factor for achieving the goals of the war, the massive death of the population and the destruction of political and administrative centers. However, in this regard, as early as October 1945, the committee of the chiefs of staff of the US armed forces presented to the government a document that contained ideas on the impact of nuclear weapons on the development of military strategy. In particular, it pointed out the desirability of the use by the United States of nuclear weapons against major industrial centers of a potential adversary in order to break the resilience of its population.

The development of the approaches reflected in the plans of Pincher and Boiler was the Crankshaft (“Crankshaft”), which also focused on the destruction of the population. However, on reflection, the staff officers issued an analytical report in 1949, in which they concluded that by destroying 30 – 40 percent of the Soviet industry in the first “preventive” strike, the US still could not overcome the Soviet people's will to defend. On the contrary, such a blow, despite the horrific consequences, will only rally them.

The successful test of 1949 in the year of the Soviet nuclear weapons pretty much discouraged the American establishment. We did not expect such a quick return from our atomic project.

"Fat Man" hand-built


It must be said that the year of completion of work on one plan or another did not at all signify the start of a war against the USSR Thus, the Dropshot (“Short strike”, 1949) was based on the hypothetical possibility of a military clash with the Soviet Union only in the 1957 year. According to this plan, it was planned for the USSR to drop 30 atomic bombs during the first 300-day phase of the air offensive (the earlier Charioteer, Ariar, which appeared in the middle of 1948, provided for a smaller number for this phase — 133 bombs against 70 cities, from eight of them were intended for Moscow and seven for Leningrad).

In fact, at the time of these plans, America’s nuclear arsenals were limited. Therefore, the plans focused on their growth in the following years, which only from 1948 began to pick up high rates. If in the 1946 year, the US military had nine nuclear bombs with a total power of 180 kilotons, in 1947-m XonMX on 13-kilotons, in 260-megatons, and in 1948-megatons The first mass-produced American atomic bombs Mk-III (the type of Fat Man plutonium Fat Man dropped on Nagasaki) were hand-made items. In Los Alamos, one such bomb was assembled by a team of 50 people for two days, moreover, it could be in combat condition for 1,25 hours, after which it had to be disassembled to replace the batteries, ensuring the operation of the fuses. Yes, and Urchin neutron fuses had to be changed frequently on these bombs because of the short half-life of polonium-1949 used in the fuses. The upgraded model Mk-IV, which the Americans themselves describe as the first truly fully functional, appeared only in the 170 year. By the way, on board the bomber the bomb case was separate from the nuclear charge, which was installed just before the dumping.

It is obvious that all the gossip about the possibility of the United States to unleash large-scale nuclear aggression against the USSR immediately after the end of World War II is groundless, but the growth of the American potential (taking into account qualitative improvement) in the future posed a serious danger. The Soviet Union entered the nuclear race with only five RDS-1 atomic bombs in the Arzamas-16 special storage facility, which was almost 60 times smaller than the Americans, this is the data for the beginning of 1950. After five years, the number of Soviet warheads increased to 200, and the gap with the States was reduced to elevenfold. And by the beginning of 70's, the Soviet Union had the opportunity to launch a preemptive nuclear strike on the US that would destroy about 70 percent of their industrial potential and about 9 / 10 combat strength of the armed forces. Thus, strategic parity was achieved - the “equilibrium of fear”.
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  1. shishkin7676
    shishkin7676 26 September 2015 06: 40 New
    -80
    The United States could not help the USSR in 1941, it could give Hitler the Soviet Union to destroy in 1944, it could take advantage in 50 years ... the first bombs weighed up to 5 tons, and used tens of kg of plutonium or uranium, now 250 grams is enough. With a capacity of 200kt. when in the USSR they created a huge large-caliber mortar, in the USA they made a charge in 155mm caliber. Under a missile defense treaty, the United States put anti-missile defense in the steppes where the Minutemen were stationed. In short, the USSR was fine with everyone, scary, but no competition, just like Korea.
    1. B.T.V.
      B.T.V. 26 September 2015 06: 53 New
      +13
      Quote: shishkin7676
      The USA could not help the USSR in 1941, in 1944 they could let Hitler destroy the USSR,


      Excuse me, what sources do you judge about this ?!
      1. Major_Vortex
        Major_Vortex 26 September 2015 07: 00 New
        +12
        Quote: B.T.W.
        Quote: shishkin7676
        The USA could not help the USSR in 1941, in 1944 they could let Hitler destroy the USSR,


        Excuse me, what sources do you judge about this ?!


        On Do /// de said so. Where else could there be such "reliable" information.
        1. Aleksandr72
          Aleksandr72 26 September 2015 15: 40 New
          +19
          Yes, okay, you have a person - shishkin7676 is clearly a craving for an alternative story, and preferably one where the Soviet Union is destined to not exist as a state at all. And yes, America is the navel of the Earth and the arbiter of the destinies of the world, in the sense - I want a "empire of evil" to exist - and the "uncompetitive" USSR lives and lives, though behind the "iron curtain" - well, just big North Korea, I don’t want to - and everything, there is no Union. It doesn’t matter that the USSR has collapsed a bunch of villains, torn to power in national apartments, completely ignoring the opinion of the majority of the people on this matter.
          And the fact that Hitler, if the United States wanted it in 1944, could destroy the USSR - well, this is a doctor, a psychiatrist, that is. This is from the category - if my grandmother had ... then you yourself know, you can not continue. Germany in 1941 did not win and could not defeat the USSR, even with the development of events most favorable for Hitler. By the way, US assistance to the Soviet Union in 1941 was greatly exaggerated by some citizens who were very superficially familiar with history. More or less significant deliveries under Lend-Lease from the United States went only in 1942. I won’t go further into the topic, so as not to raise another srach on the site.
          I have the honor
          1. Scraptor
            Scraptor 28 September 2015 21: 45 New
            0
            The familiar "7676", this already ... The Kwantung army can be left behind the scenes but not Detachment 731, which it guarded, and which the USSR went to. This is also to the fact that nuclear weapons are not the only type of WMD.
            By the way, if it were not for the Soviet offensive, then in a few weeks the United States would have knelt down, and what the Soviet troops went to Harbin, then ensured the security of the USSR in the first post-war years from American nuclear blackmail / strike.
          2. Sober
            Sober 30 October 2015 00: 10 New
            +1
            Honor with you! I’ll add only: a lot of people view history through their hatred of someone or something. And therefore such "facts" appear
      2. vasiliysxx
        vasiliysxx 26 September 2015 07: 08 New
        +7
        Yes, this is an eyewitness.
      3. zombiunian
        zombiunian 26 September 2015 14: 11 New
        +3
        they’re analyzing on Twitter, such analytegs))))))
      4. The comment was deleted.
      5. siberalt
        siberalt 26 September 2015 15: 05 New
        +3
        It’s not worth it to react to each "boobs." They are still learning. laughing
      6. Darwin
        Darwin 26 September 2015 16: 25 New
        +3
        I read komenty of this type, it seems that he read the rezuna.
    2. vovanpain
      vovanpain 26 September 2015 07: 32 New
      +20
      Yes, in history you are strong Mr. Shishkin7676 excuse me with Russian letters, we are Russian. You really tell me please, dear, How could Hitler destroy the USSR if he kicked him abroad and went to liberate Europe in 1944. You’re a bad historian, would you on rambler would be a huge success in history. All the best to you.
      1. Sober
        Sober 30 October 2015 00: 12 New
        0
        Why do ads?
    3. bubla5
      bubla5 26 September 2015 07: 41 New
      +9
      And what was the help in 41, then it did not exist at all, and in 44, the USSR personally dealt with fascism and without the help of these foreign citizens, yes, study history
      1. Erg
        Erg 26 September 2015 13: 41 New
        +2
        The “Allies” in terms of Lend-Lease supplied the USSR with significant amounts of assistance. Very significant. True, this did not stop them from helping Germany ...
        1. SIvan
          SIvan 27 September 2015 16: 57 New
          +2
          There were no supplies in the early months of the war, when it was not clear whether the blitzkrieg would succeed.

          Here, even Wikipedia does not lie.
          Allied supplies were very unevenly distributed over the years of the war. In 1941-1942 contingent liabilities are not constantly fulfilled, the situation returned to normal only in the second half of 1943. Of England’s promised 800 aircraft and 1000 tanks, which the USSR was supposed to receive in October-December 1941, 669 aircraft and 487 tanks arrived. From October 1941 to June 30, 1942, the United States sent 545 aircraft, 783 tanks to the USSR, more than 3 times less than promised, as well as 16502 trucks, i.e. 5 times less than planned
    4. Tektor
      Tektor 26 September 2015 12: 50 New
      +4
      The USA ... could take advantage in their 50s ..
      The states did not have decisive superiority. Only the presence of the atomic bomb did not allow the Red Army to conquer all of Europe up to Giblartar. The Red Army was the most combat-ready force, and Zhukov suggested that Stalin land in Alaska and move deeper into North America. There were too few bombs in the states to inflict strategic damage on the Union, here we must pay tribute to our air defense forces: few bombers could reach their targets. Stalin decided not to fight with the states. It was a controversial decision that critically influenced the course of history.
    5. vetrov
      vetrov 26 September 2015 14: 20 New
      +4
      Bullshit from an alternative story development. Especially touching as possible by Hitler in 1944!
    6. fennekRUS
      fennekRUS 26 September 2015 22: 38 New
      +4
      Quote: shishkin7676
      now 250 grams is enough. with a power of 200kt

      Excuse me, have you ever heard of the concept of "critical mass"? Even for California it is 2 kg. To school, read the textbook!
      1. AID.S
        AID.S 27 September 2015 22: 46 New
        +3
        In the recently discovered talker-276, an uncontrolled reaction begins when a critical mass of two hundred grams is reached. :-)
    7. SIvan
      SIvan 27 September 2015 13: 27 New
      +3
      Quote: shiskin7676
      when in the USSR they created a huge large-caliber mortar, in the USA they made a charge in 155mm caliber.

      Not 155mm, but 280mm, with a towed gun weighing 70 tons, not self-propelled. There is a difference.


      Quote: shiskin7676
      The United States could not help the USSR in 1941, it could give Hitler the Soviet Union to destroy in 1944, it could take advantage in 50 years ... the first bombs weighed up to 5 tons and used tens of kg of plutonium or uranium, now 250 grams is enough. With a power of 200kt

      In the 50s they could not. There were already Soviet MiG-15 fighter jets, which, incidentally, showed themselves perfectly in the skies of Korea. And in the US, the strategic bomber was the idiotic and slow B-36.
      He had 6 piston and 4 jet engines. Even with all engines running, he developed only 685 km / h. And without reactive - generally 380 km / h.

      The B-36 engine system (6 screw and 4 jet engines) was nicknamed “Six Turn, Four Burn”. Due to frequent fires and general insecurity from the crew, this formula was redone to “Two are spinning, two are burning, two are smoking, two are kidding, and two more are gone somewhere” (eng. Two turning, two burning, two smoking, two joking, and two more unaccounted for)
      1. Malkor
        Malkor 27 September 2015 23: 48 New
        0
        we must honestly say shishkin ye ... en. His opinion is trash. sometimes it’s so pathetic that the Internet does not give the hero’s face a comment.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 28 September 2015 21: 49 New
          +1
          you do not have enough comments?
    8. nemets
      nemets 25 October 2015 20: 35 New
      0
      the first Lend-Lease deliveries began in October 1942, and as for the lag :), it is still unknown who the army was behind. The first cruise missiles were created in the USSR in the 60s 10 years before the Tomahawks. Learn history, not "liberals" listen.
  2. ImPerts
    ImPerts 26 September 2015 07: 32 New
    +6
    He is not only an eyewitness, he is the invisible hand of the market, which directs and defines civilization processes.
  3. ia-ai00
    ia-ai00 26 September 2015 08: 09 New
    +4
    And this state, the USA, is trying to put the “pink glasses" on the whole WORLD, saying that they are white and fluffy, for Peace and Democracy, and Russia is the aggressor ... am angry
    I’m not talking about the genocide of the Native American Indians, the nuclear bombing in Japan, the war in Vietnam, etc., etc., the “exploits” of the “peacekeepers” are a million. am
  4. Gray 43
    Gray 43 26 September 2015 08: 18 New
    +3
    Shtatnikov, hike, still wants to try Russia "on the tooth", ignorance of the world history of wars does not save from the consequences
  5. ia-ai00
    ia-ai00 26 September 2015 09: 36 New
    +4
    shishkin7676 RU
    The USA could not help the USSR in 1941, could in 1944 let Hitler destroy the USSR,

    Yes, you "old man", rave! belay
  6. uzer 13
    uzer 13 26 September 2015 09: 51 New
    +4
    Little has changed since then. Our overseas partners understand only the language of force. The idea of ​​destroying Russia still remains relevant to them and has not been removed from the agenda.
  7. v.yegorov
    v.yegorov 26 September 2015 09: 54 New
    +1
    It seems that the “crankshaft” has turned over, again, on a stake it is wet, start all over again.
  8. Irbenwolf
    Irbenwolf 26 September 2015 10: 39 New
    +11
    For nuclear weapons, Uncle Joseph generally needs to cast a monument from platinum to its full height, and next to it is the same, but from gold to Uncle Lavrentiy. If not for these two, the fate of Yugoslavia would have been repeated a long time ago.
  9. CT-55_11-9009
    CT-55_11-9009 26 September 2015 12: 58 New
    +1
    Quote: bubla5
    And what was the help in 41, then it did not exist at all, and in 44, the USSR personally dealt with fascism and without the help of these foreign citizens, yes, study history


    So there was help. Lend-lease is called. The stew and the aircraft then helped most of all (some pilots did not get down until the end of the war with Cobra). The rest was either obsolete weapons, or very small lots of good.
    1. zubkoff46
      zubkoff46 26 September 2015 21: 50 New
      +1
      Let's be fair: and gunpowder, gasoline, techmass, leather, communications, fabrics, medicines, cars, tanks, armored personnel carriers, rails, steam locomotives, ships ... We experienced a huge shortage of everything and everything. Although not so, but they helped us and this help was very necessary.
    2. dudinets
      dudinets 26 September 2015 22: 00 New
      0
      Well, no - except for stew (by the way with a large share of soybeans) and aero cobras, good Sherman tanks, excellent jeeps and Studebakers, explosives and strategic raw materials were supplied. in response received gold and the defeat of the Kwantung army.
      we would have won, of course, without a land lease, but would have paid with the lives of many Soviet citizens. Stalin chose to pay in gold.
  10. Erg
    Erg 26 September 2015 13: 54 New
    -4
    The author does not disclose the topic. The fact is that the nuclei appeared in us thanks to the "care" of the same Americans. Only not those fighting hawks who are ready to bury the whole world, but those who have real power (roughly speaking, bankers). A "random" leak, and the USSR received nuclear technology. I guess that many will turn their fingers at the temple, but “up there” has its own logic. We needed a confrontation. The dollar needs war. Money is power. The USSR was still to serve the "common cause."
  11. SeregaBoss
    SeregaBoss 26 September 2015 13: 56 New
    +6
    I read an article on another resource, they wrote there: the Americans had enough charges, but the USSR had powerful air defense, and a preliminary calculation showed that more than 50% of the planes would not reach the target, and about 80% would simply not return from the mission. Here they scratched their turnips and .... here we also tested our IDs.
    The vile nation itself will rot, God forbid, wait for this holiday!
    1. Erg
      Erg 26 September 2015 14: 05 New
      +4
      There is not quite a nation. There are a bunch of freaks from different countries who consider themselves mistress of the world. I’m afraid that they will be banned for “extremism,” but I think that banal shooting could solve the problem. On the conscience of demons many many millions of lives. hi
      1. sabakina
        sabakina 26 September 2015 15: 55 New
        +2
        There is no such nation as an American!
        All who could not prove themselves in Europe as a person sailed there.
        And you noticed that only we answer the question "who are you", we say RUSSIAN! Everyone has the ending "..net", and here we are, Russian.
        Someone jokes, saying "I do not ask whose you are, I ask who you are" ...
        I would answer: "I am the son of the Russian land!"
        1. Bashibuzuk
          Bashibuzuk 26 September 2015 19: 44 New
          0
          Not everyone...
          Yakut, Mongol, NganasAN, SaAM .... rusich.
          At only in Russia.
          And all sorts of Bororo, Iroquois and Tuskarora can also be called.
          .
          But amers have a concept - 100 percent. Sinonin is a self-made man, a self-made man.
          .
          But the nation, as it was not, never will be. At them. By type - Russian!
  12. Old26
    Old26 26 September 2015 16: 51 New
    +2
    Quote: CT-55_11-9009
    So there was help. Lend-lease is called. The stew and the aircraft then helped most of all (some pilots did not get down until the end of the war with Cobra). The rest was either obsolete weapons, or very small lots of good.

    You are not quite right. The assistance was significant, especially in the years 1942-1943. Besides aviation there was much more, and not just stew. And starting in 1943, the volume of assistance compared to the volume of aid issued by us, of course, was already not so significant. But nonetheless. Almost all of the artillery of the Soviet Army during the war was on the American Studebakers. Significant were the deliveries of other vehicles. Naval supplies were very significant. So do not overestimate, and underestimate Lend-Lease deliveries.
    Stew also played a role ...
    1. B.T.V.
      B.T.V. 26 September 2015 17: 16 New
      +2
      Quote: Old26
      Significant were the deliveries of other vehicles. Naval supplies were very significant. So do not overestimate, and underestimate Lend-Lease deliveries.
      Stew also played a role ...


      Just do not forget that this was not humanitarian aid.
  13. Old26
    Old26 26 September 2015 21: 34 New
    0
    Quote: B.T.W.
    Just do not forget that this was not humanitarian aid.

    And no one claims that it was a humanitarian aid. But help in the most difficult period was considerable
  14. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 27 September 2015 11: 22 New
    +1
    The combat readiness of the US nuclear potential in the initial period is greatly exaggerated in the following statements. Really could - would surely have rushed. And they thought that we would lose Europe for sure, that Hokkaido would be “disconnected” from Japan, that ALL Korea would be communist, and that the mattress would have the prospect of sitting behind a puddle and expecting an invasion of Alaska. And they didn’t. Moreover, the Korean War showed that the B-29 is no longer super-strength, but a target for MiGs. And then there was a “template break". Nuclear bombs are good when only you have them, and you have the opportunity to use them without opposition.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 8 October 2015 17: 12 New
      0
      The Americans were frankly afraid of Stalin.
      When he died, and Khrushchev declared a "thaw" in
      internal life and foreign policy of the USSR,
      all plans for an atomic strike on the USSR were laid
      under the cloth. A general decision was made to support
      "moderate communist" Khrushchev in the reforms,
      and not try to destroy the USSR. Ie returned
      American policy 20-30 years in relation
      to the communist USSR.
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