In carrying out new programs to improve the technical equipment of the Armed Forces, infantry combat vehicles are given special attention. The appearance of new infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers on the Kurganets-25 platform and the T-15 infantry fighting vehicles on the Armata platform will undoubtedly have a significant impact on the new look of the Russian Ground Forces. At the same time, a new generation of technology is being created on the basis of proven samples, in particular the BMP-3.
The BMP-3, adopted by the Soviet Army in the 1987 year, became a revolutionary machine for its time. It was distinguished by increased maneuverability and firepower, as well as the possibility of firing from the water. The NATO military attaches, who first saw the new BMP in the 1990, were unpleasantly surprised - at that time this machine could rightly be considered the best in the world.
Despite the fact that more than 25 years have passed since the creation of the original design, the BMP-3 is still considered by Western military experts as one of the best in its class. Analysts of the American research corporation "RAND" (RAND) included it in the list of the four most powerful and common BMP in the world. In a recent RAND report on modern weapons, experts highlighted the increased firepower, maneuverability, buoyancy, and power density of the BMP-3.
Concern "Tractor Plants", which includes the largest Russian manufacturer of infantry fighting vehicles Kurganmashzavod, pays attention not only to the new family of armored vehicles on the Kurganets-25 platform. Currently, work is also being carried out to modernize the BMP-3 and to create on its basis a whole family of combat vehicles with various weapons. In this area of 2015, the year was quite fruitful, as the company introduced three new versions of the BMP-3.
At the “Army-2015” exhibition, the Vityaz BMP-3 was demonstrated for the first time, receiving the fire control system of the same name developed by NTC Elins. Thanks to the installation of this anti-jammed MSA, it was possible to reduce the preparation time of the shot and implement the principle “discovered earlier — shot earlier” positions and defeats low-flying targets.
The machine retains a weapon consisting of an 100-mm 2A70 cannon launcher, 30-mm 2A72 automatic cannon and an 7,62-mm PKTM machine gun paired with it. In the body of the machine are two more PKTM machine guns. The 2А70 cannon has 22 combat-ready shots in the conveyor of the loading mechanism, the 2А72 cannon has 500 projectiles. The LMS allows you to work in the automatic tracking of ground and air targets. At the same time, it is possible to automatically register system operation parameters and crew actions. The BMP-3 Vityaz is equipped with a set of optoelectronic equipment, which includes the sight of the PPB-2 gunner, the commanding day-and-night panorama sight Krechet with television, thermal imaging and rangefinder channels, the control channel of the anti-tank guided missiles (PTUR) Rassvet, digital two-plane stabilizer with automatic compensation of leads and built-in ballistic computer, built-in automatic target tracking (ASC). The use of ASC allows significantly - almost eight times compared with manual guidance - to improve the accuracy of target destruction and to provide electronic stabilization of the image displayed on the workplace screens.
A special feature of the Vityaz is the ability to install an external remote control weapon (VPDU), through which real-time target guidance is provided.
Certain changes have undergone and chassis. The BMP-3 Vityaz received a four-stroke UTD-29T multi-fuel engine with 500 horsepower, which provides the combat vehicle 18,7 with a total mass tonnes of power density at the level of 25 hp / t. The average speed of the "Vityaz" on a dirt road is about 45 kilometers per hour, and the maximum road speed is 70. The machine retains the buoyancy of the base model and can navigate in water at a speed of 10 kilometers per hour.
In general, the combat effectiveness of the "Vityaz" in comparison with the base model is significantly increased. The characteristics of firepower are mainly improved - integration into the design of the new LMS increases its capabilities, and the installation of the FADU is another step towards remote-controlled (or completely crewless) combat vehicles.
At the international exhibition Russia Arms Expo-2015, held in Nizhny Tagil from 9 to 12 in September, the Tractor Plants Concern presented two more versions of the BMP-3, which received the symbols "Derivation" and "Dragoon".
The main difference between the "Dragoon" was a significant change in the layout of the combat vehicle. The engine is brought forward, which allows to significantly increase the security of the crew and the landing, increase the volume of the troop compartment and simplify the leaving of the car by the soldiers. Instead of the standard seats, there are installed seats with pallets, which provide enhanced security during the detonation of mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Additional fuel tanks are placed behind the hull, which reduces fire risk. Two course machine guns PKTM removed from the body of the combat vehicle. A hinged ramp with an additional door is installed at the rear of the troop compartment, as a result of which the trooper can get out of the vehicle more quickly.
One of the main innovations of the “Dragoon” was the turret module of the Kurganmashzavod development, which retained the standard armament of the BMP-3. It is assumed that on its basis a remotely controlled combat module (SDM) with cannon armament will be developed, which will significantly increase the security of the crew. The “Dragon” combat module is linked to the Vityaz OMS. The use of an unpacked module will allow the crew to control it when leaving the car.
The target hit range of high-explosive fragmentation shells 3UOF17 and 3UOF19 is 7000 and 4000 meters, respectively. As in the base BMP-3, the enemy’s armored vehicles are supposed to be hit by an Xtg 3 XB and 10 Xnumx ATGM 3 3 23 and 3 XM (on an ATGM distance of up to eight ATGM units). 4000-mm twin gun 5500А30 capable of striking manpower and lightly armored targets of the enemy. The Dragoon is also equipped with a PKTM machine gun that is paired with the main armament. This machine gun version is not equipped with machine guns. Compared with the base BMP-2, it has partially changed the shape of the body. Dragun retained the Vityaz optoelectronic equipment. The gunner received the main ("Krechet") and duplicate (PPB-72) sights, and the commander - the main sight ("Krechet"). The machine is also equipped with VPDU.
The mass of "dragoon" increased to 21 tons. However, it is equipped with a UTD-32 multi-fuel engine with a gas turbine supercharging, the bench power of which reaches 816 horsepower. As a result, power density increased to 38 hp / t. According to this indicator, the Dragoon surpasses all foreign infantry fighting vehicles. For comparison: the specific power of the American BMP M2A3 "Bradley" (Bradley) is 19,74 hp / t, the newest German Puma (Puma) - 25,5 – 34,59 hp / t, French VBCI - 18,6 hp / t, British Warrior FV510 - 23,5 hp / t. Also, unlike the overwhelming majority of foreign infantry fighting vehicles, the Dragoon retained the buoyancy of the BMP-3 and the ability to force water barriers. The maximum speed of the “Dragoon” on the highway and on the water remained the same - 70 and 10 kilometers per hour, respectively.
A modification of the BMP-2015 was introduced to RAE 3, which received the designation “Derivation”. Its distinguishing feature was the installation of an AU-220М crewless combat module with an 57-mm automatic cannon. In February 2015, Rosoboronexport and the United Arab Emirates company Emirates Defense Technology (EDT) signed a memorandum of understanding. This document provides an opportunity for bilateral cooperation in equipping the Emirate Enigma combat vehicle (Enigma) with the AU-220М combat module.
The 57 caliber millimeter gun is distinguished by an increased effective range of aimed shooting, which reaches eight thousand meters. The maximum rate of fire is 80 – 100 in / min. The horizontal guidance angle ranges from -5 to + 60 degrees. PKTM serves as a pair of weapons. At the moment, the module is not equipped with ATGM, however, according to representatives of the Petrel Research Institute, where the AU-220M module was created, work on the adaptation of ATGM is already underway. As one of the proposed options is considered the latest "Cornet-D." The amount of ammunition 57-mm gun is 200 shots (including 80 units prepared for shooting). It can conduct firing at both land and sea, and at air targets (including UAVs). The power of the 57-mm anti-tank projectile is sufficient for the effective destruction of almost all modern BTR and BMP models.
The “Derivation” LMS includes the commander’s and gunner’s sights, a central computing system (CWS), a video transmission complex with a fiber-optic communication channel, topo-linkage and navigation complexes, communication and data transfer equipment, control mechanisms and firing. The commander of the BMP received a panoramic sight with television and thermal channels, as well as an integrated laser rangefinder. The gunner’s sight is similar to the commander’s, although there are no surveillance thermal and television channels. The DCC also performs the functions of a ballistic computer and a video processing device. There are no information about installing the FAD.
"Derivation" as the main component of the power plant received a four-stroke multi-fuel engine, UTD-29, naturally aspirated, with 500 horsepower. It provides the 19,3 tonnage vehicle with a tonnage of power density at the 25,9 hp / t level, which generally corresponds to the level of foreign combat vehicles. The layout compared with the BMP-3 is almost unchanged. For a more optimal location of the remote control equipment of the module, two course machine guns PKTM were dismantled. The crew of the car - two people, landing - 10 people. “Derivation” has maintained the speed of the BMP-3: on a dry dirt road - 45 kilometers per hour, the maximum on the highway - 70. The machine is able to move through the water and force water obstacles at speeds up to 10 kilometers per hour. Cruising on the highway is 600 kilometers, the car moves on a dirt road without refueling for at least 12 hours. “Derivation” can be used in various climatic conditions and with a temperature range from -40 to + 40 degrees Celsius, in mountainous areas at an altitude of up to three thousand meters above sea level, at relative humidity up to 98 percent at an ambient temperature + 25 degrees Celsius. As a result, this modification of the BMP-3 can be in demand in almost all climatic zones, including in the sands of the Middle East, in the jungles of South and Southeast Asia. These characteristics make “Derivation” very competitive. One of the main opponents in the Middle East is the Enigma BBM, which is also supposed to be equipped with AU-220M.
BMP-3 is in service with several countries in the region, its design has been repeatedly tested in the sands at high temperatures and has proven its performance.
Tractor Plants offers potential customers the BMP-3 modification, designated BMP-3M. It is distinguished by the installed new SODEMA sighting system with a thermal imaging camera and automatic target tracking, a commander’s observation device TKN-AI (the PKP-K panoramic sight can be installed instead), an upgraded ATGM loading mechanism (reduces loading time to 10 seconds). New OFS 3UOF19, ATGM 9M117M1, 30-mm armor-piercing projectile were introduced into the ammunition list. As a result, the firepower of the machine increases significantly. 3UOF19 / 3UOF19-1 shell provides a more effective destruction of enemy manpower at a distance of up to 7000 meters. ATGM 9M117M1 destroys enemy armored vehicles (including main combat Tanks) at distances up to 5000–5500 meters. An armor-piercing sub-caliber projectile has 80 percent more armor penetration compared to a standard tracer.
The BMP-3M can be equipped with the automatic gearbox APP-688 and the day-night device of the driver’s mechanic TVK-1B, which greatly increases maneuverability and ease of operation. The possibility of equipment BMP-3 information management system chassis IUSSh-688. It allows you to collect complete information about the functioning of the machine and display it on the display of the driver. IUSSH-688 is capable of generating voice messages and notifying of any problems or malfunctions, warning about the failure of important elements of the chassis. The BMP-3 can be equipped with the KBM-3М2Е air conditioner, which provides the crew and the landing with more comfortable conditions, including in hot climates. The installation of a diesel power unit provides power to the electrical equipment of the combat vehicle when the engine is off.
The security level of the BMP-3М is significantly increased compared to the base sample. Additional multi-layer armor, a dynamic protection system (DZ), armored screens and a lattice armor can be installed (which protects the vehicle from 50 – 55 percent of anti-tank grenades of the PG-7 type, released from the RPG-7 grenade launcher).
"Sprut-SDM1" - a universal soldier
"Tractor plants" continue to develop self-propelled anti-tank guns. The 2C25М Sprut-SDM1 sample is a deep modification of the Sprut-SD SPTP.
A distinctive characteristic of the Sprut-SDM1 SPTP is the installation of the 2-75-gun, the combat characteristics of which practically correspond to the characteristics of the tank-type XNUM-XNUM-MX-NUMX. It is allowed to use all types of projectiles intended for MBT T-2 and T-46. The 5А72М ammunition makes 90 shells, of which 2 is in mechanized packing and 75 is in additional. Standard ammunition includes 40 OFS, 22 armor-piercing sabot shells with a feathered core, 18 ATGM (can be replaced with 20 cumulative shells). The PKTM machine gun paired with a gun was installed as an additional weapon. It is planned to install a double-arm anti-aircraft gun with a similar machine gun on the roof of the fighting compartment Also, the Sprut-SDM14 is equipped with six smoke grenade launchers 6В. The gunner is equipped with the main sighting complex "Sosna-U" and a duplicate sight PDT.
The total mass of the new SPTP will be 18 tons. The Sprut-SDM1 chassis, based on the BMD-4M design, will be equipped with an information and control system. The engine is installed UTD-29 500 horsepower. The maximum SPTP speed is 70 kilometers per hour, the average speed on a dry dirt road is 45 – 50, and the maximum speed afloat with calm water is seven kilometers per hour. One of the main features of the Sprut-SDM1 is the possibility of firing afloat, which significantly increases the combat effectiveness. The range reaches 500 kilometers on the highway and 350 - on dry ground. Afloat car can move without refueling at least seven hours.
SPTP is transported by BTA aircraft and landing ships, is landed by landing and parachute with the crew inside the machine, without preparation overcomes water obstacles with sea excitement up to three points, is loaded into the landing craft after its mission. The unique maneuverability allows the wide use of the Sprut-SDM1 in the Airborne Forces, Marine Corps, units operating in low temperature mountainous terrain. At the same time, the SPTP firepower is at the level of T-90AM / T-90MS tanks, which allows it to effectively destroy enemy armored vehicles (including MBT) at a considerable distance (when using an ATGM - to 5000 m, when firing direct fire - at a distance of 2000 – 2500 m). The PTA substantially increases the combat effectiveness of the units to which it is attached.
At RAE 2015, a promising modular concept for the development of combat vehicles of the BMP-3 family was presented for the first time. It was based on the BMP-3 "Dragoon" chassis with the engine and transmission elements carried forward. At the request of the customer, it can be equipped with one of the three DBMS - the standard module "Dragoon" with 2А70 and 2А72, АУ-220М guns or the fighting compartment from Sprut-SDM1. The modules received the legend BM 100 + 30, BM 57 and BM 125, respectively. It is noteworthy that all of them are remotely controlled, which is another step towards the creation of a robotic BMP. Of particular interest is the ability to install BM 125 on the chassis "Draguna". As a result, an SPTP can be deployed in combat formations of the infantry unit on the BMP-3, which can effectively destroy armored vehicles with anti-tank shells. In the future, a self-propelled artillery gun of 120 caliber of millimeters can be created on the basis of the “Dragoon” by analogy with the 2X35 “Vienna”.
The concern demonstrated at the exhibition a combat compartment for the BMP-3 family of vehicles, which can be offered for installation instead of the Bakhcha module developed by the Tula Instrument Engineering Bureau. It contains the standard armament of the BMP-3. The fighting compartment provides all-round protection that exceeds the 4 level of the NATO standard STANAG 4569 (protection against 14,5 mm caliber bullets issued from the 200 m distance) and frontal protection in the 120 range of degrees (protection against 6-mm sub-caliber shells fired from 30 m). ATGM loading time reduced to 500 seconds. It is allowed to install an electronic assistant to the gunner, who collects and stores information about the current state of the combat compartment and its equipment, emergency situations, and the 12XNNXX and 2X70 gunners. The assistant allows you to prevent the launch of an ATGM in case of malfunctioning equipment or if the range is not measured correctly.
The RAE 2015 exhibition clearly showed that the design of the infantry fighting vehicles BMP-3 is not outdated. This technique can still be attributed to the most effective world class BMP models. Equipping the BMP-3 with new modules meets global trends and allows you to successfully perform any tasks on a modern battlefield. The implementation of the principle of remote control of weapons gradually brings the creation of robotic combat vehicles. Therefore, the BMP-3 will long remain in demand by the armed forces, both Russian and foreign.