Military Review

Joan of Arc - church PR-project to the glory of France

21
Study of stories as interesting as difficult. Not only is the content of the chronicles, diaries and memories subjective and inaccurate, but the documents may well carry false information. But it also happens that it is more profitable for a sovereign if this or that historical fact is interpreted differently than before. And then textbooks were copied, "myths were debunked." As a result, history sometimes becomes a gossip among the sciences and a tool for ideological manipulation. Americans, for example, sincerely believe that Hitler was defeated by the States, but what level of patriotism in the country. And if you remember the fruits of Eurocentrism ...



Jeanne Deva. That she could well be!

The details of the story of Joan of Arc are also commonly interpreted in different ways. But in the most popular version, Jeanne - a simple girl from a family of wealthy peasants leaves her native village, seeks to meet with the heir to the throne ... And becomes the commander of the army, aimed at saving Orleans in the most difficult years for France of the Hundred Years War. Of course, she is endowed with supernatural power: hears the voices of the Archangel Michael and Saints Margaret and Catherine. The spirits whispered prophecies to her, suggested how to save France. In the Middle Ages, no one had any doubts about this, and legends about miracles connected with the prophetic gift of the virgin enveloped her biography.

And the belief in the victory of the Maid of Orleans and the new-found, thanks to her, the faith in the king really inspired the troops and raised their fighting spirit so much that victories began to be accomplished one after another. British troops began to take their positions. And then Jeanne was betrayed, and she was captured, and then under a church court. Accused of heresy, witchcraft and other sins, which the judge decided to attribute to her, and now the virgin was burned alive at the stake. And in 1920, the Catholic Church suddenly decided to change her mind and canonized Jeanne.

Joan of Arc - church PR-project to the glory of France

Joan of Arc on the coronation of Charles VII. Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres, 1854.

But was it really so? How could a simple peasant woman meet with Charles VII? But even if she had been incredibly lucky to be accepted and listened to, how did Janet manage to gain such confidence that, in the absence of knowledge of the military affairs, she achieved that Charles VII appointed her to command the troops? Yes, in the Middle Ages, people relied almost entirely on scriptures, prophecies and legends, but the class borders were almost as strong as all the walls and fortifications that existed at that time. Something extraordinary had to happen in order for the lower class to be with the king. (As it was, for example, with Rasputin. And although it was no longer the 15 century, but 19, it was not so easy to enter the palace.)

There is no other way to explain events in the life of Jeanne, except for the presence of her paranormal abilities, we can not. There are no miraculous healings in any sources, but many of her contemporaries mentioned other unusual talents of Jeanne. First, the ability to hypnosis. Her voice influenced the warriors so much that they, without a shadow of a doubt, threw themselves into any battle. They didn’t feel pain: they fought furiously, even when mortally wounded. Secondly, Joan was a kind of prophet. Voices of spirits who guided her actions and actions that predicted the future, the maiden heard from childhood. Following their advice, Joan of Arc and her army won many battles without making mistakes. For example, the English had a considerable numerical advantage in the Battle of Pots: five thousand and a half thousand French. However, numerous invaders lost: they lost 2500 people, the rest fled or were captured. French losses were limited to a dozen! Even if we consider that the military in their reports often exaggerate the losses of the enemy and downplay their own, this victory can be explained only by a miracle.


The 1375 Bascinet - 1425 Weight 2268 France. (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

Another case, described by an eyewitness: the rider cursed foully when he saw the Maiden in armor, in response to which she prophesied his near death. And she overtook the rider. And once in the heat of battle, Jeanne warned her comrade in arms that he would be hit by a cannon shot if he did not move away. He departed, and in his stead a fateful position was taken by another knight. Of course, the cannonball immediately flew in and interrupted its existence.

It turns out that the virgin still managed to influence the heir to the throne, having such abilities. But even the most skilled magician will not be able to master the combat weapons at the proper level without long and hard workouts. And Jeanne the peasant very skillfully owned both a sword and a battle ax, although she had hardly been preparing for this since childhood. Virgo confidently kept in the saddle and knew how to wear armor. Contemporaries recalled that Jeanne participated and won in knightly tournaments. Virgo also knew very well how to play rings, a popular game among the nobility. Knowledge of Joan in the art of war, as well as in other sciences were very large. Other military leaders of that time, Marshal Gilles de Rais, for example, took part in the hostilities, but she made the decisions on her own, without their prompts. It is hard to believe that the voices in her head would have time to give her advice on the possession of weapons and tactics, especially since they are saints. There are other reasons to doubt that Joan of Arc was descended from the lower class. But it was profitable to pass her off as a peasant — it was a great way to inspire a people who were pretty much exhausted by the war.

Therefore, it is time to consider the version according to which the Virgin of Orleans was born from the unlawful union of Louis, the Duke of Orleans, and the French Queen Isabella of Bavaria. Isabella's marriage with Charles VI was a mistake. The king was sometimes overwhelmed by madness. Karl didn’t tolerate Isabella in a clear mind and almost openly lived in the palace of Saint-Paul with Odette de Shamdiver. The queen responded in kind, choosing Louis. It is possible that from the duke was the son of Isabella, the heir to the throne, later Charles VII. (Many sources claim that Karl himself did not believe that he was the legitimate son of the king.) But if Charles VII could still be passed off as the son of the French king, then Jeanne didn’t work: the couple were not together for too long.

And the king would not tolerate an illegitimate child near him. Therefore, the newborn was secretly sent to the village of Domremy, to the family of Jacques d'Arc and his wife Isabella, nee de Wooton. And Jacques d'Arc was not a poor farmer, and his ancestors were once knights. The family’s coat of arms is also older than the 15 century: “In an azure field, a golden bow and three crossed arrows with tips, two of which are bound with gold and equipped with silver feathers, and the third - from silver with gold feathers, with a silver head topped with a scarlet lion ". Jacques owned vast lands, was the headman of Domremy and the commander of the archers of the local militia. And his income per year exceeded five thousand francs.


Jeanne's house in Domremy. Now here is a museum.

Jeanne was raised as a boy. Maybe because of temper, or maybe because the family was used to raising boys (Jacques and Isabella had sons by that time). Much attention was paid to the training of martial arts, so Joan confidently kept both in the saddle and in the battle with swords. Virgo is well trained: her speech was slim and literate, not like that of ordinary peasants of that time.

So the appearance of the Maid of Orleans at the residence of her brother and what happened after is very similar to the detailed plan. As a result, the invaders were expelled, and Charles VII was approved on the throne and the fascinated. But Jeanne now became not just an unnecessary gear, but also a threat to power. After all, one of the enemies of the throne and rivals of the king could dig out facts that are advantageous for themselves and cast doubt on the legitimacy of the rule of Charles VII. And because the king decided to get rid of the heroine, giving it to the will of opponents, which Jeanne let enough blood ...


The death of Bertrand du Gesklena during the siege of Random in 1380 (British Library, London). The armor and weapons of the warriors who participated in the Hundred Years War are very well shown. Note that archers carry arrows in their belts.

But who could be the author of this plan and its performer? Feudal lords? They squabbled among themselves and did not have such a strong influence on society. There was no king in France ... So, only one organization remains - the church! The church suffered from war just like everyone else, but to a lesser extent. Who had the opportunity to freely walk on the roads that were full of bandits of bandits? Monks! Yes, and rob them, then it did not make sense. And who was literate enough to transmit information and influence popular opinion? Only church!

And so she took it up! Confessor Jeanne strengthened her in the plan to go to the Dauphin. There she was led to him and provided "informational support." Then, when Jeanne was recognized at court, who throughout the France promoted that Jeanne Deva appeared, and the king gave her an army? From the pulpit churches about this reported! True, in textbooks on the history of the Middle Ages, we previously reported that this “popular rumor” smashed. But ... to drag from the village to the village only to tell about Joan and the wonders she is? What if the robbers? Suddenly the British raid on the village? Who will protect the family and children, hijack cattle in the forest? No, the French men sat for themselves in their villages and did not stick their noses out of there. But on the other hand, they were going to church, and from the pulpit there they were announced about another miracle - and how could they not believe it?

Zhanna wanted an unusual sword ... and she immediately found it in the old chapel, and even with three crosses on the blade, and "popular rumor" immediately announced that it was not just a sword, but the legendary sword of Karl Martel, with which he had beaten the Arabs. This is what the “masses of the people” who were knowledgeable in history at that time in France, did they know and understand everything ?!


The sword is about 1400, probably Italian. Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Well, when did Jeanne become obstinate (another proof of her not being hammered and of a clear mind), where were the first voices that God turned away from Jeanne? In churches and cathedrals! And immediately everyone knew about it, although there was then no telephone, no telegraph, no newspapers, but the monks who went from the diocese to the diocese were abundant enough, just like the pigeons!


Sword 1400 Western Europe. Weight 1673 d. Length 102,24 cm. (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

Well, and who was the direct executor of this plan surrounded by Jeanne? Who supplied the church with information about miracles and prophecies, suggested the right decisions, or thought them up so that the “popular rumor” spread them around the country? Well, of course, Gilles de Rais is the only one of her surroundings who, after his victory, was caught in the torture chamber, and executed for the massacres of women and children! The prototype of the “Bluebeard” of the Brothers Grimm! One would like to say about his sacramental phrase: “He knew too much!”


Monument to Joan of Arc in Orleans.

There is also such a version that instead of Jeanne another woman was burned, and the maiden herself managed to escape, get married and even leave offspring. It could be, probably, and such.
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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. Riv
    Riv 29 September 2015 07: 24 New
    +1
    Well, it's all conspiracy theories. The church at that time was not that outside of politics, but tried to stay above it. If Jeanne was her "project", then why did the church close this project so harshly? Court, auto-da-fe - why such difficulties? They could strangle them in the cell and say that they ate too many mushrooms. Moreover, why burn another woman? How many witnesses remain, you cannot eliminate them all.

    On the other hand, it is worth remembering that schizophrenia is quite prone to progress. At first, Jeanne heard voices, talked with angels, and then she could well say that she was obsessed with this same angel. This was already a bell for the then priest. Another caveat: Jeanne was not tortured. At that time - just a miracle of mercy. But there are no miracles. The church tribunal needs evidence, and if the defendant is not tortured, then they are already above the roof. Jeanne obviously carried during the investigation such that it would simply be indecent for the priests not to listen.

    So honestly: everything was very simple. There was a girl with an initial stage of schiz. It was untwisted and used as a banner. Shiz progressed. But why is France clearly a crazy banner? And leaked it cynically.
    1. kalibr
      29 September 2015 07: 40 New
      +4
      Here you are also expressing quite sound judgments, except that the church was out of politics. Far from it! But It takes a long time to explain. Fortunately, all interrogation documents have survived. And there are many reasons that they did not torture. Even then, many believed that under torture a person would say anything! And then the girl ... That is, it was necessary to refine the project to the utmost! And Gilles de Retz was tortured even though he was a noble feudal lord. So it's not about the evidence. What was needed was a "moral advantage over the enemy." And about the initial degree of schiza - yes, most likely. True, I have my own, completely different version, but ... I will not voice it here yet. I'll go to Orleans and Rouen - then ...
      1. Riv
        Riv 29 September 2015 08: 33 New
        0
        Not "outside", but "above politics." The Church has always claimed to be the supreme judge in the disputes of kings. But where were the interests of the church affected during the Hundred Years War? What difference does it make to the parish priest who the feudal lord serves? No. Here, of course, the fact that a peaceful France brings more income could play a role, but then why not support the English dynasty? The British were winning, so it seems to be easier. Well, an English prince would sit on the throne of France - perhaps we would never have heard of Anglicanism.
        In general, the version of the church conspiracy is logically absurd. For the "church mafia" plans and results are somehow too small.
        1. kalibr
          29 September 2015 09: 40 New
          +1
          Everywhere, and in the church too, there are "clans" and their own interests. Someone was drawn to the British (that's right), someone was for national interests. It was not monolithic.
        2. jjj
          jjj 29 September 2015 09: 42 New
          0
          Quote: Riv
          There is also such a version that instead of Jeanne another woman was burned, and the maiden herself managed to escape, get married and even leave offspring. It could be, probably, and such.

          Especially when you consider that the Orleans maiden was royal blood
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 29 September 2015 07: 53 New
    +5
    French losses were limited to a dozen! Even taking into account that the military in their reports often exaggerate the losses of the enemy and downplay their own, this victory can be explained only by a miracle. In the battle of Rymnik, 25 thousand Russian-Austrian troops took part against 100 thousand Ottomans, the losses of the Russian-Austrian troops did not exceed 500 people killed ... The Turkish lost about 40 thousand ... And such miracles A.V. Suvorov constantly worked .. He said, where the deer will pass, there the Russian soldier will pass, oops and the Alps were overcome and the French were poured in along the way ... France, after the world war, needed heroes ... that's Jeanne and canonized ... every country should have heroes, we have A. Nevsky, D. Donskoy ... and others ... in France Jeanne d'Arc and let it be ..
  4. kvs207
    kvs207 29 September 2015 08: 36 New
    0
    Quote: parusnik
    Frenchmen limited to a dozen! Even taking into account that the military in their reports often exaggerate the losses of the enemy and downplay their own, this victory can be explained only by a miracle. 25 thousand Russian-Austrian troops took part in the battle at Rymnik, against 100 thousand Ottomans, the losses of the Russian-Austrian troops did not exceed 500 people killed .. The Turkish lost about 40 thousand ..

    You are comparing different times. So it is possible to bring the Battle of Stalingrad as an example. The troops in those days were not numerous and the basis was knightly cavalry, the number of which was small, in the order of hundreds of people.
    1. kalibr
      29 September 2015 09: 41 New
      0
      It is known how many British participated in the Battle of Pate ...
    2. parusnik
      parusnik 29 September 2015 10: 56 New
      +5
      You are comparing different times. ... And what bothers you ... With Pate, minimal losses, for his time, with Ramnik minimal losses, for his .. I’m not going to cite the battle of Stalingrad as an example .. By the way, you are aware that F.F.Ushakov canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church? .. and you know why? It is precisely for that, in the battles held under the leadership of F.F. Ushakov, the Russian sailors had minimal losses .. The author writes: this victory can only be explained by a miracle... based on your remark,The troops in those days were not numerous and the basis was knightly cavalry, the number of which was small, of the order of hundreds. And how can one explain the victory at Rymnik, with the aspect ratio: 25-000 and losses of 100-000, and even taking into account the fact that the rest simply fled ..
  5. Mantykora
    Mantykora 29 September 2015 10: 07 New
    +1
    Quote: Riv
    The Church at that time was not that it was outside of politics, but the Church tried to stay on top of it.

    The church owned lands, peasants, and most importantly information! Not only the peasants confessed, but also the mighty of this world! And you believe that owning such resources there is no temptation to get even more power ?! Moreover, education was also ecclesiastical, and people who could read, write, pass on knowledge from generation to generation were only at monasteries! Can you imagine how many people wanted to take this power away ?! Here, even if you do not want to (which is already unbelievable, for there were certainly ambitious people in the leadership of the church), you will take up politics in order to at least preserve what you already have!

    As for Jeanne, I advise you to read the "Order of Last Hope" cycle, which consists of four books:
    1. Novice
    2. Holy warrior
    3. French devil
    4. Saboteur

    There is about another "hit" in the past, but everything else, except for the fact of "hitting" is very realistic and the story of Jeanne's formation is at least more truthful than the noodles that are hung up for children at school and shown in movies. There, and about the real role of the church in the life of medieval Europe, and the stereotypes of the majority about the knights will also be destroyed.
    1. Glot
      Glot 29 September 2015 10: 33 New
      +2
      There, about another "hit" in the past .........


      All the same, history is best studied in historical works and not in science fiction books.
      Although of course it is possible the author of these books knows thoroughly and at the academic level about the time he writes about, but still ...
  6. unknown
    unknown 29 September 2015 10: 21 New
    0
    Robert Ambelain, "Dramas and Secrets of History", chapter "The Real Identity of Jeanne, the So-Called Dark"
    1. Glot
      Glot 29 September 2015 10: 29 New
      +2
      Robert Ambelin


      "Robert Ambelain (September 2, 1907, Paris - May 27, 1997, Paris) - French esotericist and occultist, specialist in magic, theurgy and astrology."

      Somehow ... I didn’t really believe everything that he writes ... what
  7. Mantykora
    Mantykora 29 September 2015 10: 43 New
    +1
    Quote: Glot
    All the same, history is best studied in historical works and not in science fiction books.

    I agree. But I did not say that this book should be used to study history, I just pointed out that there is more logic there than in the official history of Jeanne. Yes, and you first read it, I personally really liked it. Usually "I got it and I'm so cool I know everything better", but here it is more modest and more interesting. Yes, and ends well, a fairy tale after all. But as Pushkin said: "The tale is a lie, but there is a hint in it - a lesson for good fellows."
    1. Glot
      Glot 29 September 2015 11: 53 New
      0
      I agree. But I didn’t say that according to this book it is necessary to study history, I just pointed out that there is more logic there than in the official history of Jeanne


      Logic, such a thing, everyone has their own. )) For one, it may well be logical and correct that for the other it will be completely wrong and not logical.
      And the official story, it still relies on some sources, materials. Well, of course, some inconsistencies can theoretically be thought out, but, of course, based on known facts.

      Yes, and you read it first, I personally really liked it.


      Perhaps I will take your advice. Although I don’t really like science fiction, I rather rarely read it, when I’ll be completely loaded with something, and I need to get a little distracted by something easy. )) But now there are so many unread books on the line, and there is no time and no ... ((
    2. The comment was deleted.
  8. V.ic
    V.ic 29 September 2015 11: 08 New
    +1
    Still, and Voltaire to read the poem "Orleans Virgin."
    1. Turkir
      Turkir 29 September 2015 22: 09 New
      0
      "Orleans Virgin" Voltaire’s frivolous joke, according to his youth. They say that Voltaire later expressed regret that he allowed disrespectful comments about Jeanne.
      Judging by the translation, it is written not without talent.
  9. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 29 September 2015 12: 16 New
    +1
    It seems that Voltaire's poem is in the World Literature. I’ll read. The article is suggestive, I used to think about it, Thank you.
  10. Valery56
    Valery56 29 September 2015 13: 14 New
    +2
    There is a history of the people ... Any attempt to rewrite it sooner or later will lead to the likeness of the Maidan ...
  11. Pissarro
    Pissarro 29 September 2015 16: 41 New
    +2
    With all due respect to Jeanne, she was a symbol of liberation, a banner, and professionals commanded the troops. The task of the messenger of God, talking with the angels, was to inspire the troops exhausted by an endless war. In each battle near Jeanne there were several competent military leaders who consciously kept in the shadows
  12. unknown
    unknown 30 September 2015 09: 22 New
    0
    Robert Ambelain, historian, member of the French Academy. In his work on Jeanne, he draws attention to such details, by which traditional historians pass by. His version is more convincing than the generally accepted one.

    By the way, about traditional historians. My dean, who taught the history of the late Middle Ages and the New Age, as well as historiography, the most complex of the historical disciplines, during his lectures did not hesitate to use Chernyak's book Three Centuries of a Secret War. History, like the devil, is in the details.