September 21 celebrates the Day of Military Glory of Russia - Victory Day of the Russian regiments led by Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy over the troops of the temnik of the Golden Horde Mamaia in the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380 year. It was established by Federal Law No. 32-FZ of March 13 of 1995 of the Year “On Days of Military Glory and Memorable Dates of Russia”.
It is worth noting that the battle itself on the Kulikovo Field took place 8 in the old style, that is, 16 of September - in a new, but officially, the Day of Military Glory is celebrated on 21 of September. These are the costs of transferring dates from the old to the new. When setting the date, the rule was not taken into account: when translating 14 dates of a century, 8 days are added to the old style. They added according to the rules of the Russian Orthodox Church 13 days (according to church chronology, when transferring dates from the old style to the new century, 13 days are always added, regardless of the century when it happened). Because of these inconsistencies in the calendars, it turns out that the correct calendar anniversary of the battle falls on September 16, and the state and Orthodox celebration remains on September 21.
The crisis of the Horde empire. The confrontation of Mamaia and Dmitry
In the period that preceded the Kulikov Battle, the Horde Empire was in a stage of destruction. In Russia, this time called the "Great Zamyatnya." For two decades in the Horde, 25 khans changed. The dynastic crisis caused by intra-elite struggle contributed to the political and military weakening of the Horde. It was commonplace that there were two kings in the Horde at once, and sometimes more. In the Horde the grandee Mamai, who did not belong to the royal family (Chingizid), became the most powerful man. The kings with him turned into puppets, which Mamai changed at their discretion. In Russia, this situation was realized very clearly. The khan, on whose behalf Mamai ruled, could have been scornfully called "Mamayev the king", it was explicitly said that Mamai "seated the king of his friend in Ordha." The sovereignty of temnik is especially emphasized in the following chronicle characteristics: "... the king did not own anything, but he kept Mamai in any old history"; "To some one, they have a loosening of the Tsar, but all of them are to Prince Mamai." It was noted that Temnik Mamai "beat many kings and princes and set himself a king according to his will."
Thus, for more than a decade, the government of the Horde was in a crisis state by 1374: the kings most often did not have real power, it belonged to the usurper, and those who showed self-will quickly died. That is, the Horde empire, of which Russia was a part, quickly moved toward its collapse. And the Islamization of the Horde only aggravated this process. At the same time, Mamai was hostile to Moscow, the recently strengthened military-political center of Russia. Dmitry Ivanovich successfully fought with Tver, Lithuania, arbitrarily built an impregnable stone Kremlin. In response, Mamai tried to transfer the great reign to Mikhail of Tver.
As a result, Moscow decided, apparently, in response to a monetary "request", to break and not to comply with the illegal, unreliable in terms of supporting the Grand Duke and also not controlling the entire territory of the Horde vassal relations ruler. In fact, Moscow did not oppose the “tsar”, but the “usurper” Mamaia.
In the 1370 year, when Mamai issued a label for the great reign of Vladimirskoye to Michael of Tver, Dmitry gathered troops and openly did not obey the requirements of the ambassador who came with Mikhail from the Horde: “I don’t eat the label; the path is clear. " As a result, Mamai conceded, in exchange for tribute. In 1374, temnik Mamai again tried to influence Dmitry through Mikhail Tversky, giving him a second label. Dmitry organized a campaign of the united forces of North-Eastern Russia, as well as Smolyan, to Tver. Michael recognized himself as Dmitriy's younger brother, that is, a subordinate prince.
In 1376, Dmitry sent the squad, led by Dmitry Bobrok, to Volga Bulgaria, which was controlled by Mamaia. The voivode took over from the mom's henchmen and put the Russian customs officers. In the same year, Dmitry went far beyond the Oka, "being careful of the Tatar ratification." In 1377, the Moscow-Suzdal army under the command of Prince Ivan Dmitrievich, due to neglect of discipline, was destroyed by the khan Arab-shah. Horde ravaged Nizhny Novgorod. In 1378, Mamai sent 5 tumens (cavalry corps) led by Begic to Moscow, but they suffered a severe defeat on the river Vozhe. Russian troops commanded by Dmitry Ivanovich. The fact that the Horde four princes and Begich himself (all the leaders of the Horde corps) were killed in the battle says that the Horde troops were seriously defeated. The victorious battle of Voge became the dress rehearsal for the Kulikovo battle.
Mamai, angry with the willfulness of Moscow, decided to organize a large-scale campaign against Russia. He did not give rest to the laurels of Batu Khan. He "ascended in his mind with great pride, he wanted to capture the whole Russian land as the second king Batu." Therefore, he did not confine himself to collecting his troops (he controlled the western part of the Horde), detachments of princes and nobles subject to him, but "rati hired besomemen and Armenians, fryes, Circassians, Yases and Burtases". That is, Mamai raised the militia of subordinate tribes in the Volga region, in the Caucasus, hired Italians (fryas). With the Genoese, who nestled in the Crimea, Mamai had a good relationship. In addition, Mamai entered into an alliance with the Polish-Lithuanian ruler Jagiello and Prince of Ryazan Oleg. The lands of Ryazan had just been ravaged by the troops of Mamai and he could not refuse.
In the summer, a huge army of Mamai (his number from various sources determined from 60 to 300 thousand soldiers) crossed the Volga and approached the mouth of Voronezh. Having received the news of the impending invasion, the Moscow Prince Dmitry was on the alert and was preparing for a confrontation. Dmitry Ivanovich began "to collect a lot of armies and a great force, connecting with the Russian princes and the local princes who were under him." A “strong watchman” was sent to the steppe, which followed the movement of the enemy.
In Moscow at this time were collected significant forces. The gathering of all forces was appointed in Kolomna, from there it was easy to cover any place on the southern boundary. Moscow gathered a huge army. The chronicles report 200 thousand people and even "400 thousand horse and foot warriors". It is clear that these figures are greatly overestimated. Later researchers (E. A. Razin and others), having counted the total number of the population of the Russian principalities, taking into account the principle of manning troops and other factors, believed that 50 — 60 thousands of soldiers had gathered under Dmitry's banners.
In Kolomna, Dmitry Ivanovich reviewed the troops, divided it into five regiments, and appointed a governor. The Russian army from Kolomna passed along the Oka, to the mouth of the river Lopasni. Here they were in a hurry "all the war residuals." 30 August Russian army crossed the Oka and moved to the Don. September 5 Russians came to the Don, to the mouth of the river Nepryadva. In the village of Chernov, a military council was held, at which they decided to move to the other side of the Don. September 6 on the five bridges began crossing the Don. On the night of September 7, the last Russian regiments crossed the Don River and destroyed bridges behind them so that no one would think about retreat.
On the morning of September 7, the Russian regiments went to Kulikovo Field, between Don and Nepryadva. Russian governors built shelves for the battle. Ahead was a strong guard regiment of Seeds Melik, who had already entered combat contact with the advanced forces of the enemy. Mamay was already on the Gusyny ford, in 8-9 km from the mouth of the Nepryadva. Melik sent messengers to Prince Dmitry, so that our regiments would have time to "keep silent so that the vile ones would not preempt them."
In the center stood a large regiment and the entire court of the Moscow prince rose. They were commanded by the Moscow okolnichy Timofey Vel'yaminov. Before the beginning of the battle, Dmitry Donskoy, dressed in the clothes and armor of a simple warrior, stood in the ranks of the warriors, exchanging clothes with his favorite Mikhail Brenok (Bryanka). At the same time, Dmitry stood in the first line. On the wings were a regiment of the right hand under the command of the Lithuanian Prince Andrei Olgerdovich and the regiment of the left hand of the princes Vasily Yaroslavsky and Theodore Molozhsky. In front of the big regiment was the advanced regiment of princes Simeon Obolensky and Ivan Tarusa. An ambush regiment led by Vladimir Andreevich and Dmitry Mikhailovich Bobrok-Volynsky was set up in the forest up the Don. These were selected warriors with the best governors of the Russian land. According to the traditional version, the ambush regiment stood in an oak grove next to the regiment of the left hand, but, in “Zadonshchina” it is said about the strike of the ambush regiment with the right hand.
On the morning of September 8 there was a strong fog, "the darkness is great over the whole earth, like darkness." When the hours to 11 in the morning the fog cleared, Dmitry Ivanovich "commanded his regiments to perform, and suddenly the Tatar force went from the hills." The Russian and Horde formations, bristling with spears, turned against each other, "and there was no place where they would part ... And it was terrible to see two great forces converging on bloodshed, to be soon killed ...".
According to “The Tale of Mamayev’s Battle” (other sources do not report it), the battle began with the traditional fight of the best fighters. The famous Chelubey (Temir-Bey, Temir-Murza) fight with Alexander Peresvet took place. Two warriors "hit hard, so loud and hard that the earth shook and both fell to the ground dead." After that, around the 12 clock, the shelves “stepped down”.
The terrain conditions did not allow the commanders of Mamai to use their favorite tactics — flank grapples and strikes. I had to attack in the forehead when the power is breaking power. “And there was a strong battle, and cutting evil, and blood flowed like water, and the dead fell countless from both sides ... everywhere a lot of dead lay, and horses could not walk on the dead. Not only weapons they killed, but also died under horse legs, from the cramped greatness of the great ... "
The main blow of the troops Mamaia fell on the center and the left flank of the Russian army. In the center and on the left flank there was a “foot Russian great army”, city regiments and militia peasants. The losses of the infantry were enormous. According to the chronicler, the infantry, "lay mowed like hay." Horde could somewhat press a large regiment, but he withstood. The regiment of the right hand not only withstood, but was ready to attack. But seeing that the left flank and center were being crowded, Andrei Olgerdovich did not break the line. Seeing that the Russian center survived, the Horde sent reinforcements to their right flank. “And here the foot army, like a tree, broke, and how the hay was cut, and it was scary to see it, and the Tatars began to prevail.” The regiment of the left hand began to push back to Nepryadva. The Horde cavalry had already triumphed and began to bypass the left flank of a large regiment.
And at that critical moment an ambush regiment hit. More hot Vladimir Serpukhovskoy offered to strike earlier, but the wise governor Bobrok kept him. Only at 3 one o'clock in the afternoon, when the wind blew in the direction of the Horde, and the entire Horde army got involved in the battle and Mamaia did not have large reserves, Bobrok said: "The prince, the hour has come!" flank and rear of the enemy. That part of the Horde army, which was in the depths of the Russian system, was destroyed, the rest of the Horde were driven back to Red Hill, the place of the headquarters of Mamai. This was the beginning of a general Horde pogrom. The rest of the Russian regiments, having raised their spirits, drove the enemy along the whole front.
Many Horde people were killed during the persecution. According to various estimates, the army of Mamai lost from half to three-quarters of its composition. Mamai escaped with her bodyguards. But that was his end. Taking advantage of his defeat, Mamaia on the Kalka River finished off Khan Tokhtamysh from the Blue Horde. Mamai fled to the Crimea, hoping to hide from the Genoese, but he was killed there.
The great Prince of Moscow and Vladimir Dmitry Ivanovich was found among the heaps of the dead. He was severely beaten, barely breathing. Eight days stood by the Russian army beyond the Don, "on the bones." Expensive price went to this victory of Russia. The Russian army lost from one third to one half of all the soldiers.
Jagiello, given that the Russians made up most of his army (the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russian consisted of three-quarters of the Russian lands), did not dare to fight in battle with Dmitry Donskoy and turned back. According to the chronicler: “Prince Yagailo with all his strength Lithuanian ran back with great speed. Then he did not see either the prince of the great, neither his ratification, nor his weapon, but he was afraid of the name and trembling. ”
The victory of Moscow was great, but the Horde was still a mighty empire. The time for changing the political center in the North has not yet come. Therefore, already in 1382, the city of Tokhtamysh easily came to Moscow and, because of internal turmoil in the city, took a fortress. Dmitry at this time was trying to collect troops. Many Russian cities and villages were subjected to defeat. Tokhtamysh left "with innumerable wealth and innumerable full back home." Dmitry Donskoy defeated his rivals, made Moscow the most powerful center of North-Eastern Russia, but he had to recognize dependence on the Horde.
Kulikov battle in the light of the myth of the invasion of the "Mongol-Tatars"
Taking into account recent research (including in the field of genetics), it is obvious that there are no “Mongolo-Tatars” in Russia of the 13th — 15th centuries. did not have. This is a myth invented by foreigners who rewrote history humanity and Russia to their advantage. The Romanov dynasty, representatives of which were mostly oriented towards the West, European culture, accepted this myth by rejecting the “Asian” (Scythian, Hyperborean) roots of the Russian state. In this historical myth, the center of humanity, of all achievements and benefits, is Europe (West). And Russia is a wild, semi-Asian suburb of Europe, which all borrowed from the West or the East.
Mongols in Russia in large numbers then was not! The Mongols are Mongoloids. And Russian and modern "Tatars" (Bulgars- "Volgari") are Europoids. Neither in Kiev, nor in the Vladimir-Suzdal, nor in the Ryazan lands of that era did they find the skulls of the Mongoloids. But there thundered bloody and brutal battles. People died in the thousands. If numerous Mongolian tumens were passed through Russia, then traces would remain both in archaeological excavations and the genetics of the local population. And they are not! Although Mongoloid dominant, overwhelming. Of course, Western Russophobes and their township hangers-on in the Ukraine, Ukraine would like to see in the Moskals a mixture of Asians and Finno-Ugrians. But genetic studies show that Russians are typical Europoids. And in the Russian burials of the time of the “Mongolian” Horde lie Caucasians.
Mongoloid in Russia appeared only in the XVI-XVII centuries. together with the service Tatars, who themselves being originally Caucasians, acquired it on the eastern frontiers. They served without women and married local women. In addition, it is obvious that no Mongolians could overcome the distance from Mongolia to Ryazan, despite the beautiful stories about interchangeable hardy Mongolian horses. Therefore, countless novels, paintings, and then films about the terrible "Mongolian" horsemen in the vast Russian land - all this is a myth.
Mongolia is still a sparsely populated, undeveloped corner of the world community. It used to be even worse. All the empires that dominated the planet militarily always had a powerful industrial base. Modern USA - the world economic leader. Germany, which unleashed two world wars, possessed a powerful industry and a "dark Teutonic genius." The British Empire created the largest colonial empire and was the “workshop of the world”. Napoleon crushed a large part of Europe. The invincible phalanx of Alexander the Great relied on a strong industrial base, which was created by his father Philip.
How did the wild Mongols, who lived almost in primitive conditions, captured almost half the world? The then leading powers - China, Khorezm, Russia - were crushed by themselves, they ruined the Caucasus, half of Europe, crushed Persia and Ottoman Turks. They talk about the Mongolian iron discipline, the organization of the army, excellent archers. However, iron discipline was in all armies. The decimal organization of the army — ten, hundred, one thousand, ten thousand (darkness tumen), has been characteristic of the Russian army since ancient times. Russian complex bow was much more powerful and better, not only Mongolian simple bow, but also English. In Mongolia of that time, there simply was no production base that could arm and support a large and powerful army. Steppe savages living in cattle breeding, hunters in mountain forests, simply could not become metallurgists, professional warriors for one generation. It takes centuries.
There was no "Mongol" invasion. But the invasion itself was, there were battles, burned cities. Who fought? The answer is simple. According to the Russian concept of history (its representatives are Lomonosov, Tatishchev, Klassen, Veltman, Ilovaisky, Lyubavsky, Petukhov and many others.) Russia did not appear out of nowhere "out of the swamps" and under the guidance of "German princes" (Vikings), but was direct successor to Sarmatia, Scythia and Hyperborea. Huge forest-steppe spaces from the Northern Black Sea region through the Volga region and the Southern Urals to Altai, the Sayans and Mongolia (right up to the Pacific Ocean and North China), which were inhabited by the “Mongols”, were inhabited by Europoids. They were known by the names of Aryans, Scythians, Sarmatians, Juns (“red-haired devils”), Huns (Huns), Dinlins, etc.
Long before the last wave of the Aryans, who in 2 thousand BC. er left the Northern Black Sea region to Persia and India, the Indo-Europeoids, mastered the forest-steppe zone from the Carpathians to the Sayans and beyond, influenced the folding of Chinese and Japanese civilizations. They led a semi-nomadic way of life, moved on oxen, and knew how to cultivate the land. It was in the southern Russian forests that the horse was tamed. Throughout Scythia, many burial mounds with carts, weapons, and rich utensils remained. It was these people who became famous as the great warriors who created the great powers and crushed their opponents. Huge generations of “Scythians” -Europeoids, who were in the early Middle Ages the military elite of Transbaikalia, Khakassia and Mongolia (hence the legend of the Russian Federation and the blue-eyed Temuchin-Genghis Khan), and were the only military force that could conquer China, Central Asia and other lands. Only the "Scythians" had a production base that allowed them to equip powerful armies.
Later, these Caucasians dissolved in the Mongoloid mass (the dominant Mongoloid genes). So after the Civil War in Russia, thousands of Russians fled to China. But they are not there now. In the second, third generation, all became Chinese. Some of these Indo-Europeans gave birth to the Turks, who retained in their legends the memory of the blond, blue-eyed giant ancestors. But in the thirteenth century they dominated Eurasia.
These Europeans came to Russia. Anthropologically, genetically, partly and culturally, these "Scythians" were no different from the Polovtsy, the Volgary Bulgars and the Rus of Kiev and Ryazan. All of them were representatives of one huge cultural and linguistic community, descendants of Great Scythia, and before that Hyberborea (the world of the Aryans). Outwardly, they could differ only in the type of clothing ("Scythian Siberian animal style"), the dialect of the Russian language - like Great Russians from Little Russians-Ukrainians, and the fact that they were pagans worshiping the Father-Heaven and Mother-Earth, sacred fire. Therefore, the Christian chroniclers called them "rotten," that is, pagans.
In fact, the war with the “Mongol Tatars” is an internal conflict. Russia of the XIII century was in crisis, falling apart, which the West began to devour. The West (with its center in Rome) has almost “digested” the western part of the Russo superethnos in Central Europe, and the offensive on the eastern branch of the Russo superethnos began. Fragmented, mired in feuds Russia was doomed to death. The "Scythians" brought military discipline and royal power ("totalitarianism") to Russia and rejected the West, pogroming a number of Western European kingdoms. So, Baty and Alexander Yaroslavich (Nevsky) acted almost united front against the West. That is why the “Scythians” of the Horde quickly found a common language with the princes and boyars of Russia, became related, framed, married to both sides of their daughters. Russia and the Horde became a single organism.
Only the Islamization of the Horde, the process apparently managed and aimed at the destruction of the Horde empire (Tartary) from within, its internal crisis, led to a serious conflict. A new, healthier and passionate center, Moscow, appeared in the empire. The Kulikovo battle was part of the transition process of the control center from Sarai and Moscow. Finally, this process was completed under Ivan the Terrible, when Moscow was subordinated to the Kazan, Astrakhan and Siberian Khanates. That is, the empire was revived (as it was already more than once in the past), like a Phoenix bird, but in a new look and with the center in Moscow.