Military Review

The war is still a woman's face, or the life of farm girls from the Upper Don

The people of the older pre-war generation, which, unfortunately, remain less and less, have lived together with the whole country a difficult and difficult life. The fate of each of them can write a book.

The war is still a woman's face, or the life of farm girls from the Upper Don

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Zoya and her four younger orphan sisters

Often older people say with sadness: how quickly life flew by - did not have time to look back. But the oldest resident of the village of Kazan Zoya Semenovna Makushkina, who recently turned 87 years, looking back at the past century, said: “How long life goes on.”

After all, the difficult childhood and youth of the people of her generation left an imprint on the rest of their lives.

Zoya Semenovna 17 was born on February 1928 of the year in the Kazanskaya Lopatina farm in a Cossack family. At the beginning of the 30s, a collective farm was created in Lopatin. Simultaneously with the process of collectivization, the process of rasskazachivanie continued. His father, Semyon Firsovich Akimtsev, in 1933, was taken by the relevant authorities, and he did not return from prison.

Five daughters mother had to raise one.

When there was less than two months before the start of World War II, the mother died, and the girls were left orphans. The two elder sisters by this time were already adults and had time to get married. But Zoe together with Shura (five years older than her) and Katya (one year younger) stayed in their parents' house.

At first, they wanted to give the underage girls to the orphanage, but their elder relatives defended them. Before the war, Zoe managed to finish 6 classes, but then it was not up to school. Sisters had to work hard both on the collective farm and at home. They did everything they could say, but it was especially difficult to barefoot spikelets in the field barefoot. In their garden, girls planted beetroot, pumpkin, potatoes and other vegetables; Acorns and berries were gathered in the forest.

Themselves milked the cow, and the milk with chicken eggs was handed over to the collective farm. It became especially difficult when hostilities reached the Upper Don. And although Kazan Lopatin is located far from the shore of the Don, which became a kind of water border between the Soviet and fascist troops, but there already was well heard artillery cannon. Well, at least the shells did not reach Lopatin. From another stanitsa, Kazan, meanwhile, in the hamlets, refugees with nodes of things began to stretch.

“Our aunt lived in the village of Kazan. And the sisters and I once went to the village to help her drag as many things as possible into the farm, ”says Z. S. Makushkina. - On the way, we suddenly saw how an airplane was flying towards us at a low altitude. We stopped, our mouths open, because we didn’t see military equipment so closely. And from the plane in our direction and the bullets fell down. But, thank God, everything is by! When he flew over us, we managed to notice black fascist crosses on the wings. Further around Kazan saw trenches with our soldiers. ”

One day the girls came to the house of the aunt, and he burned down. They learned from their neighbors that at night, Italian sabotage groups were crossing the Don to Kazan and set fire to buildings.

In the middle of 1943, when the enemy was driven away from the west to the west, life slowly began to return to a peaceful course. Zoe begged permission from the sisters to continue going to school. In the fall, students spent most of their time on sunflower harvesting.

It was hungry, so I had to look for eggs of wild birds in the forest. In the 44 year, our heroine graduated from the 7 class of the Lopatinsky school and transferred to the 8 class of the Kazan school.

But in the stanitsa school of public work, there was no less. “We worked at the Mutilin collective farm, sowed and drove there,” Zoya Semyonovna recalls. - And so they worked almost until the winter. They even lived practically on the fields in the farm Lipovsky. There we were fed. Oh, how hard it was with frozen, crooked hands to cut off the sunflower caps, because there were no combine harvesters then. ”

But, despite the difficulties of life, mood, according to Z.S. Makushkina, it was cheerful. Especially as the war rolled farther and westward, getting closer to victory. And they went to work in the field, and the cows were driven into the meadow with songs.

In 1947, Zoya Akimtseva graduated from 10 classes at the Kazan School. The following year, she took a job as a nurse in a Kazan hospital. But after a year and a half, her relatives helped her to settle down at the Kazan weather station. More Zoya Semenovna did not change jobs. She worked as a meteorologist until her retirement, and then for several more years she replaced young female employees.

In 1953, Zoya Semyonovna married Nikolay Makushkin, who with her parents moved to Kazan. Zoya Semyonovna lives with her daughter in her declining years. Z. S. Makushkina deservedly earned the title “Veteran of Labor”.

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I, Matryona Danilovna Schepeleva, appeal to you

“I, Matryona Danilovna Shchepeleva, was born 17 March 1917, in the farm Puzanovsky in a poor peasant family. I don’t remember my father because he soon died in a civil war. Mom was left alone, and we, the children, had five: one son and four daughters. I am the smallest. I do not even know how she could all of us, because such burdens lay on her shoulders.

We survived both hunger and cold. There was a time when we were fed on algae roots, which we got from the water, sometimes very cold; fed on cakes baked from some herbs. Sometimes, on holidays, mom baked them from rye flour. We waited every bit so much, and mother gave everything to us, and her legs were swollen from hunger.

I remember one case. In my opinion, it was at Easter. A church father drove up to our yard. I do not know what the conversation was about, but my mother had to give him all the Easter buns. And we so wanted to eat them. Through the window we saw how the priest gave away the food of his horse we had taken. And this feeling of injustice remained with me for the rest of my life. We survived.

Soon the Soviet government gave the opportunity to learn. I went to the school of the Kazan village. We, the farm children, were placed in a boarding school, which was located in the farm Kukuyevsky. The main thing was that we were fed there. And we got an education at school. I finished 7 classes. And I, as the most competent, was put to work as a clerk on a collective farm.

I had to work on a dairy farm. I remember how we took milk to the separator in the farm Solontsy. We wore cans together, but for me, a fifteen-year-old girl, it was very difficult to lift them.

Once, when we put a can of milk for heating in a large kettle with boiling water, I put my foot on the edge of the boiler, and my foot found itself in boiling water. I removed the stocking with the skin.

Soon we had a daughter. She didn’t have time to grow up as the second one was born. It was a formidable 1941 year. The Nazis reached the right bank of the Don and began to bomb the village. Shells exploded near the house. I hid in the nursery of the barn with the baby in my arms. I thought the shell would not find me there. Well, at least the older daughter had been taken to another farm to her grandmother before. The next day, I was evacuated with the child to the farm Grebennikovsky.

As soon as we arrived there, we were informed that the shell had fallen directly into our house in Kazan. We have nothing left, everything burned to the ground. The farm had to work on the farm, on the current, wherever it was sent. How could we women helped our army. When the Germans were expelled from our area, we again returned to Kazan.

Our family was sheltered by a kind woman named Olga. She gave us one room in her house. There was another war. Needed food assistance to the front. And again there was work on the farm, on the collective farm garden. They handed over milk to the state from private households. So were the difficult years of the war.

And after the war, life began to improve. We were able to buy a small outhouse. We had a light radio. Of course, there was still not enough, but it was calm at heart. People were kind to each other. Gradually everything was settled both in the country and in the household.

I lived a long life. I have already turned 98 years. I have a grandson and two granddaughters, six great-grandchildren. I really want them to always live under a peaceful sky, but they knew and remembered that our people had to go through during the war, did not forget about the exploits of the soldiers who defeated fascism. ”

* * *

Anna Ivanovna: a simple teacher gave her cobbieur a drink of water

Among these people is a resident of the Kazan village of Anna Ivanovna Rekunkova. She was born in 1926 in the Yasinovka farms, Vyoshensky district, in a Cossack family. From early childhood, life's adversities fell on Anya.

In 1930, the so-called rasskazyvanie began - repression against the Cossacks, who were considered middle peasants before the revolution. Ani's father was sent to Siberia, from where he never returned, and her mother miraculously escaped this fate.

There were good people who could tell that she urgently needed to get a divorce from the "counter". The young Cossack did just that, left alone with a four-year-old daughter in a devastated farm. In order to somehow survive, she moved to live with her parents in Vyoshenskaya. There she went to work in a tuberculosis dispensary, where she worked as a nurse until she retired.

Her daughter Anya went to Voshenskaya school in 33 year. Mom married again and created a new family. Anin's stepfather became her own father. Soon, Anya had a sister in 1935, and a brother in 38. By the beginning of World War II, Anya was a high school student.

She learned about the German attack from a radio message. It seemed that the fighting in the west of the country would not reach the Don villages and farmsteads. But almost a year after the start of the war the Germans came to the Upper Don.

Once, Anya went to the store for sugar and saw how a German plane was diving into Vyoshenskaya in broad daylight. The vulture, flying around the village, flew along the street and began to drop bombs. Anya barely managed to reach the house. Since then, air strikes, artillery shelling have become commonplace. As Anna Ivanovna recalls, the bombings became daily, often had to sit in the cellar.

War is war, but training sessions went on as usual. Already at school desk, Anna decided on the choice of profession. When she began to study in the 9 classroom, a representative from the Vyoshensk Pedagogical School came to them and invited the willing students to go to them to study as a teacher. Among several students who accepted this offer was Anya. This is how she became a student at a pedagogical school.

When the Germans came close to the Don, it was not up to study. Anya, along with her mother and younger sister and brother, took a cow, calf, grub, and on two bulls provided by the leskhoz went to relatives in the Ushakovsky farm. There, my mother got a job at a local mill, and Anya helped her with everything: she nursed the younger ones, managed the cow, and did other difficult daily chores.

Of course, there was a lot of work, but as Anna Ivanovna recalls today, they only thought about one thing - to eat. It is impossible for us, living in times of food abundance, to fully understand the feeling of hunger that haunted people during the war years.

As time went. Soon there was a break at the front. The Red Army drove the enemy to the west. Prisoners appeared in the Don farms and stanitsas. “Once I went to the well to get some water and saw a convoy of prisoners being driven. In my opinion, these were Italians, Anna Ivanovna recalls. They asked for a drink. I gave them a bucket of water. They were very exhausted. Then I saw a lot of corpses of captured soldiers lying along the road. ”

With the departure of the front to the west, classes in the pedagogical school were resumed. Anya continued to learn the basics of pedagogical skills, and in the summer, together with other students, they worked on the collective farm fields, where they collected spikelets, on the plots of the leshoz, where they planted pine trees. Even with the bug-bug, students had a chance to make war. Insect pests were collected manually, piled into large pits, where they were burned. “In general, they drove all the work,” recalls Anna Ivanovna.

So in study and work, the most difficult years flew by. In the first post-war 1946, Anna Ivanovna graduated from the Pedagogical School. Even in those days it was not easy to get a teacher in a large settlement. In Vyoshenskaya and nearby places were not. It soon became known that they required teachers in the village of Meshkovskaya in the neighboring area. Anna Ivanovna with other graduates - young teachers on foot went to Meshkovskaya.

Already on the spot it turned out that a primary school teacher was required in the neighboring (now non-existent) Kalmykovsky farm. In this farm, Anna Ivanovna not only began her teaching career, but also soon married Peter Gerasimovich Rekankov, who worked as a bailiff in Meshkovskaya.

It was at the initiative of Pyotr Gerasimovich that the young Rekunkov family soon moved to the village of Kazan. Here they settled in the bought old hen at the intersection of Timiryazev and M. Gorky streets. In this good house, which is already 200 years old, Anna Ivanovna still lives safely. Here, in Verkhnedonsky district, in A.I. Rekunkova had a long pedagogical career.

Being a primary school teacher by profession, she managed to work in evening school for more than 40 years of teaching experience, replacing German language and biology teachers if necessary. The biggest time - 27 years - she worked in the Popovskaya school. For many students, parents, fellow teachers, Anna Ivanovna became a model teacher.

She took the example of the youngest daughter, Galina, who also devoted herself to activities in the field of pedagogy. A.I. Rekunkova earned a lot of honorary awards - the medal "Labor Veteran", "For Valiant Labor", the badge "Winner of Socialist Competition".

But its main awards, perhaps, can be considered the respect of parents and colleagues, the love of students. In Anna Ivanovna’s long life there were many hard and joyful days. She felt on herself and wartime, and the post-war difficulties of restoring the national economy, sincerely rejoiced in the victorious May of 45 and the post-war achievements of our country. What is patriotism, A.I. Rekunkova, like all the people of her generation, knows not only verbally; therefore, she brought up the best civic feelings of her students from her personal example.

* * *
Galina's international debt

Nurse Galina Nikolaevna Korshunova to fulfill the international duty in Afghanistan went voluntarily. Finishing Kazan High School in 1978, Galya Goncharova didn’t think that in a few years she would have to participate in a real fierce war. The girl chose a very necessary and, at first glance, peaceful profession of a nurse. After the tenth grade, she entered the Rostov Medical School at the Regional Clinical Hospital No. XXUMX.

Galina mastered the medical specialty not only in theory but also in practice: she worked as a nurse in the hospital, and continued her studies at the evening department. After graduating from college in 1981, she continued to work as a nurse in the regional hospital.

Soon Galina moved to the district military hospital number XXUMX, in the Department of Traumatology. The wounded were regularly brought there from Afghanistan: soldiers of the limited military contingent of the Soviet Army in the territory of this country. Therefore, even in the Don land, Galina began to take an active part in providing medical care to wounded soldiers - "Afghans".

In 1985, Galina, as an experienced nurse, received an invitation from the recruiting office to go to Afghanistan to work in a field hospital. She, conscious of her medical and civic duty, accepted this proposal.

And in November of the same year, at the age of 25, Galina Nikolaevna flew to Kabul by plane with a transfer in Tashkent. A few days later, with a group of health workers, she arrived in the town of Pul-e-Khumri, next to which was located our military hospital.

“We flew to Kunduz by helicopter, and then drove along mountain roads as part of a military convoy,” recalls Galina Nikolaevna. - On the spot they were assigned to the surgical department I was used to. The hospital itself, outbuildings and living quarters for personnel, made of modular structures, were located in a separate area behind barbed wire. ”

Here, in a closed area, everything was necessary in order not to go beyond the borders of our town. Worked in shifts on 12 hours: from 8 to 20 hours, and after a day of rest from 20 hours to 8 in the morning. Wounded soldiers in the hospital were given first aid, then sent to Kabul, if the injury was serious, they were forwarded to the Union. The wounded were brought practically from the battlefield, and often there were many of them.

At first it was scary, and then familiar.

“I worked in this hospital for two years. Occasionally it was possible to travel unofficially to local market places - ducans. There we had to communicate with the locals, who were outwardly very friendly, especially to us - women. And what they had in their hearts, what they did under the cover of night, one can only guess. What else is remembered in Afghanistan? The heat, dust storms, majestic mountains surrounding the lowland where the hospital was located, periodic earthquake aftershocks. ”

At the end of the business trip, Galina returned safely to her former place of work in a Rostov hospital. But, as she noted, everywhere is good, but at home is better. Therefore, having married Yury Vasilyevich Korshunov in 1989, Galina Nikolaevna returned to the village of Kazan. Since then, she has been working as a nurse in the surgical department of the central district hospital. G.N. Korshunova, not being a soldier, in 1988 was awarded the medal "to the Soldier-internationalist from the grateful Afghan people." Last year, she was awarded the commemorative medal "In memory of the 25 anniversary of the end of hostilities in Afghanistan."
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 21 September 2015 07: 26 New
    Yeah .. my grandmother, and 9 souls of children is small, less small .. remained in the occupation ..
  2. Black
    Black 21 September 2015 11: 42 New
    Horse villages, as well as grass-roots, seized the dashing full. Bow to you, my people.
  3. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 21 September 2015 12: 59 New
    Honor and Glory to you! and our memory is so much to survive.
  4. holgert
    holgert 21 September 2015 13: 20 New
    .... the episode about the priest was very revealing ...
    1. anip
      anip 22 September 2015 05: 39 New
      Quote: holgert
      ... the episode about the priest was very revealing ...

      Yeah, it would seem, from where the people during the revolution and after, had hatred for the priests.
      By the way, the current priests are also practically no different.
    2. RUSIVAN
      RUSIVAN 23 September 2015 01: 21 New
      And what did he show you ...?
  5. bya965
    bya965 21 September 2015 19: 12 New
    Everything is scary could not read, my relatives grabbed everything in full.
    We Cossacks know who did this, we will not remember the old, but if, then the whole world will turn over.
    Russians will help.
    My father ate once a hunger bar once, thought butter.
    It was a terrible time. Stalin revived the Cossack units in 1936. Khrushchev hated all my ancestors.

    The village Slaschevskaya, the farm of Dolgov or Dolgovsky. Surname Blinkov, near the farm where the surname came from. Fedorov Russian, Fedorkov Cossack.
  6. Sofia
    Sofia 21 September 2015 19: 36 New
    Polina, you write very well! Read and almost cried.