The X-59MK2 guided missile modernization project

In the course of deep modernization, weapons or military equipment can not only receive new opportunities, but also change their appearance. A great demonstration of this is the new, upgraded version of the X-59МКХNUMX air-to-surface guided missile, presented at the recent MAKS-2 cabin. This development GosMKB "Rainbow" them. AND I. The Bereznyak, which is part of the Tactical Missile Weapons Corporation, is a further development of an existing product, but it is very different from it and can even be considered a completely new product.


The proposed guided missile, apparently, does not yet have its own name, which is why the designation “Modernization option” was present on the information stand aviation Kh-59MK2 guided missile. ” Nevertheless, the basic and modernized X-59MK2 missiles are seriously different from each other both externally and in the layout of the internal volumes of the hull. At the same time, the manufacturer is not in a hurry to assign its own unique index to a newer development.

The new version of the X-59MK2 rocket is designed to destroy various enemy ground targets. The possibility of attacking targets that do not have a contrast with the surrounding background and do not differ from it in the radar, thermal imaging and optical ranges. At the same time, the rocket needs pre-explored coordinates of the target and information signs of its location. The carriers of the new rocket may be various existing and prospective tactical level aircraft. To use the upgraded X-59МК2 rocket, the carrier aircraft must have appropriate devices for transportation and launch. weapons, as well as a modified complex of electronic equipment.


General view of the updated X-59MK2 rocket. Photo by Saidpvo.livejournal.com


The appearance of the new product immediately catches the eye: the upgraded X-59MK2 is seriously different from the base rocket, both in the outlines of the hull and in the aerodynamic layout. In order to improve the characteristics of the updated weapon has a seriously redesigned body with a different layout of units. Processing of the structure allowed reducing the dimensions of the product, as well as reducing its visibility for radar detection devices.

The updated X-59MK2 rocket has a large elongation body with a total length of 4,2 m. Unlike its predecessors, the new ammunition has a body with a close to rectangular section and rounded corners. The head fairing of the rocket got a complex shape formed by the conjugation of several straight and curved surfaces. When this fairing has a pronounced horizontal ribs in the middle part. On the bottom panel of the fairing there is a window, probably given under the air intake of the main engine.

The cross-section and dimensions of the body, given by the head fairing, almost do not change throughout its length. However, in the central part of the hull, a characteristic recess is provided to accommodate the wing consoles in the folded position. To improve flight performance, the X-59MK2 rocket in the updated version is equipped with a folding wing with a span of 2,45 m. When transporting the product, the planes are laid along the body, and during launch they are folded forward.

In the tail part of the body, rounded corners pass into wide bevelled surfaces. In these parts of the hull are attached X-shaped folding wheels. To reduce the size of the rocket, the rudders are made of two parts and can be folded along the walls of the hull. With folded wing consoles and rudders, the maximum cross-section of the rocket fits into a square of size 40х40, see. The starting weight of the product does not exceed 770 kg. These features facilitate the storage of the rocket, as well as provide the possibility of its use as part of the armament complex of promising aircraft with internal load carriers.

Rocket X-59MK2 in the basic version has a different aerodynamic configuration. Recall, it is equipped with a cylindrical body with a hemispherical head fairing, small stabilizers in the nose and swept wings with rudders in the tail.


Layout rocket with folded consoles. Photo M. Zherdev / Bmpd.livejournal.com


The updated X-59MK2 rocket receives a guidance system based on the corresponding units of the base product. The combination of the homing head includes a strapdown inertial navigation system, an optical-electronic system, and an instrument for receiving signals from satellite navigation systems. Due to this, a rocket can attack targets that do not stand out from the background of surrounding objects, using only known coordinates of an enemy object for pointing. The guidance system of the new missile operates on the “launched-forgotten” principle and does not need additional commands after launch.

According to the developer, the new rocket can be launched by a carrier aircraft at altitudes from 200 m to 11 km with flight speed from 0,5 to 0,9 M. During launch, the target must be within the sector of the forward hemisphere 90 ° wide. After dropping from the carrier, the rocket automatically drops to and moves to the target at the lowest possible height within 50-300 m. The combined guidance system allows you to destroy targets with a circular deviation of no more than 3-5 m.

The X-59MK2 missile can carry two types of warheads. Depending on the type of target, a high-explosive penetrating or cluster warhead weighing up to 310 kg can be used. Such equipment allows you to attack and successfully destroy various ground targets, both point and area.

In the rear part of the hull of the upgraded rocket is placed a small-sized turbojet engine. An important innovation of the updated project X-59MK2 was the change in the design of the power plant. In the basic design, the engine is placed in a separate fairing suspended under the rocket body, which negatively affects the dimensions of the product. The upgraded ammunition received a built-in engine located in the tail section of the hull, which made it possible to bring the dimensions of the entire rocket to the minimum possible. In the central part of the body is the fuel tank, the filling neck of which is brought to the port side.

The turbojet engine used allows the new rocket to reach speeds of up to 750-1000 km / h. The supply of fuel is enough to deliver the warhead to a distance of 290 km. It should be noted that the actual flight range can be significantly higher. It is quite possible that in the future foreign customers will be offered an export version of the new rocket, and in this case, the manufacturer should take into account the restrictions imposed by the Rocket Technology Control Regime. This international treaty prohibits the export of missiles with a range of more than 300 km. Thus, the range of no more than 290 km can refer only to the export version X-59МК2, and the missiles for the Russian Air Force will be able to fly a greater distance.


The tail of the rocket. Photo by Saidpvo.livejournal.com


It is easy to see that the new domestic air-to-surface guided missile has a number of characteristic features characteristic of foreign weapons in recent years. The specific design of the body, aimed at reducing radar visibility, as well as a number of measures to reduce the dimensions in the transport position, allow us to consider the updated X-59MK2 the Russian response to foreign AGM-158 JASSM, Taurus KEPD-150 / 350, etc. Sometimes you hear that in this direction the Russian industry has lagged behind foreign. In this case, the upgraded X-59MK2 rocket is of great importance for the development of domestic aviation weapons.

According to the developer, the updated X-59MK2 guided missile can replenish the range of weapons of several types of aircraft. Already existing Su-30MK, Su-34, Su-35, MiG-29K, MiG-35, etc. aircraft. may use the proposed rocket after appropriate modifications of onboard avionics equipment and installation of AKU-58 aviation ejection devices. "A promising aviation complex - a promising multi-role fighter" (PAK-PMI) will be able to use the proposed rocket with ejection devices UVKU-50 installed in the internal cargo compartments.

To date, the Raduga GosMKB, which is part of KTRV, has shown only a model of a promising aircraft missile to destroy ground targets. The current state and prospects of the project have not yet been clarified. Probably, in the future tests of the new weapon will take place, after which it will be recommended for adoption. However, while the updated X-59MK2 is only an exhibition sample, attracting the attention of specialists and interested the public.


On the materials of the sites:
http://ktrv.ru/
http://bastion-karpenko.ru/
http://bmpd.livejournal.com/
http://saidpvo.livejournal.com/
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  1. Zaurbek 21 September 2015 08: 21 New
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    This device is very important for our air force. And there are more square missiles in the bomb bay than round ones. The missile will allow tactical aviation to fulfill the role of "Strategists" and in non-nuclear performance.
    1. Magic archer 21 September 2015 08: 47 New
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      The outline of the rocket speaks of the use of stealth technologies. If it is still multifunctional (anti-radar, with apples, etc.), then this missile needs the Air Force as air. It weighs. Finally, it fits into a ton and the product can be used even with light carriers, for example, 25 or Mig-29. hi
      1. Falcon 21 September 2015 10: 28 New
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        Quote: Magic Archer
        The rocket contours indicate the use of stealth technology.

        It just doesn't seem to. Stealth should scatter the locator signal. A rectangular section reflects it better than a round one. Stealth needs chopped forms.


        Quote: Magic Archer
        If it is still to be made multifunctional (anti-radar, with apples, etc.), then this missile is needed by the Air Force as air. Weight is good.


        To the point, you can’t argue. drinks
        1. goose 21 September 2015 12: 25 New
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          So I did not understand how this rectangular shape will help stealth in Taurus and X-59MK2? There is a pure adaptation to the media.
          If you made an inexpensive engine, in terms of mass returns like the Tomahawk, this is just fine. And in terms of energy, even ours seem to have a slight advantage.
        2. opus 21 September 2015 13: 03 New
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          Quote: Falcon
          Stealth should scatter the locator signal.

          1.not in the direction of the locator
          2.or absorb
          3. Or not reflect
          =======================
          from the lower hemisphere (ground radar), ceteris paribus (area) of the cross section), the trapezoid with the base to the ground will have more EPR


          Quote: Falcon
          Stealth needs chopped forms.

          Yeah
          same as the most inconspicuous bomber


          and UAV


          right?
          1. Falcon 21 September 2015 13: 27 New
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            Quote: opus
            1.not in the direction of the locator
            2.or absorb
            3. Or not reflect

            yep

            Quote: opus
            Yeah
            same as the most inconspicuous bomber

            Quote: opus
            and UAV


            Do not put a finger in your mouth! drinks
            Where do you always have so much information at hand?
            All right of course, I meant it


            The main thing, of course, is not chopped forms, but dispersion
            1. opus 21 September 2015 14: 05 New
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              Quote: Falcon
              Do not put a finger in your mouth!

              I don’t need a finger in my mouth belay

              Quote: Falcon
              Where do you always have so much information at hand?


              An older child magistrates, writes work, earns points .... Dad needs help.
              And the topic is interesting ..

              Quote: Falcon
              meant it

              By the way, the person who drew the lines (red, yellow, blue and oh pink) ... in my opinion does not petrify the topic.

              from this angle (from this hemisphere), aircraft do not even count on stealth ...
              TC imagine that this way it will irradiate the radar .... you need to be Pssaki
              let him draw here:



              and will analyze



              Quote: Falcon
              The main thing, of course, is not chopped forms, but dispersion

              Backscatter Chart (DOR)

              and it is VERY STRONGLY dependent on the elevation angle (angle of approach of the target) and on the angle of approach

              and RLH (Radar characteristics of objects of complex spatial configuration), static and necessarily dynamic.

              = dynamic range of EPR values
              1. Falcon 21 September 2015 14: 33 New
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                Quote: opus
                I don’t need a finger in my mouth

                In a figurative sense.

                Quote: opus
                By the way, the person who drew the lines (red, yellow, blue and oh pink) ... in my opinion does not petrify the topic.

                from this angle (from this hemisphere), aircraft do not even count on stealth ...
                TC imagine that this way it will irradiate the radar .... you need to be Pssaki
                let him draw here:

                Quote: opus
                and it is VERY STRONGLY dependent on the elevation angle (angle of approach of the target) and on the angle of approach

                and RLH (Radar characteristics of objects of complex spatial configuration), static and necessarily dynamic.

                = dynamic range of EPR values


                So what's the point?

                + 15 is a counter course, and -15 after it?
                What are the numerical values ​​of the EPR in the diagram?
                1. opus 21 September 2015 15: 16 New
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                  Quote: Falcon
                  So what's the point?

                  in DOR
                  Quote: Falcon
                  + 15 is a counter course, and -15 after it?


                  This is a sector, after it is not considered at all

                  Target elevation angle - the angle between the horizon of the weapon (in approximation it can be considered as a radar beam aimed at the aircraft) and the target line (a straight line passing through the point of departure and the target). A target above the horizon of the weapon and a target below this horizon may be negative.


                  Weapon horizon - a horizontal plane passing through the point of departure of a bullet, shell or other ammunition (SAM).
                  The flight path of a bullet (projectile, etc.) twice crosses the horizon of the weapon: at the point of departure and at the point of impact.

                  SAM "Tor-M2":Partiality of the radiation pattern (8 parials by 4 degrees each in elevation plane with electronic partial scanning, overlapping elevation angle 0 – 32 or 32 – 64 degrees) provides target designation of the guidance station of the complex with the necessary accuracy ...

                  Quote: Falcon
                  What are the numerical values ​​of the EPR in the diagram?

                  EPR –63,4 dB ..- 4,2 dB.

                  (-40, -20 along the Y axis)
                  1. Falcon 21 September 2015 15: 49 New
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                    Quote: opus
                    EPR –63,4 dB ..- 4,2 dB.

                    (-40, -20 along the Y axis)


                    And how to translate this into familiar meters?
                    1. opus 21 September 2015 16: 40 New
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                      Quote: Falcon
                      And how to translate this into familiar meters?


                      Through power (basic radar equation)


                      or rather, through the power flux density of the incident and reflected waves



                      A decibel is a logarithmic unit of levels, attenuation, and gain.
                      10lg (A / A0)



                      The EPR has nothing to do with square meters and has no energy characteristic, which determines the magnitude of the power of the received radar of the reflected signal.
                      The EPR / 1 m2 ratio is expressed in decibels.

                      For the receiving antenna of the radar, not the area is important, but dB

                      ======================
                      if interested here (30 days you can indulge for free)


                      3D ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATION SYSTEM FEKO
                      1. Falcon 21 September 2015 18: 36 New
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                        Quote: opus
                        rather, through the power flux density of the incident and reflected waves



                        A decibel is a logarithmic unit of levels, attenuation, and gain.
                        10lg (A / A0)


                        It turns out "sigma" - this is the EPR.

                        and we consider the ratio of capacities according to the formula

                        where is x decibels?

                        Then there is no distance from the radar to the target?
                      2. opus 21 September 2015 21: 17 New
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                        Quote: Falcon
                        where is x decibels?

                        Then there is no distance from the radar to the target?

                        Power or power flux density, depending on the distance (D), ceteris paribus



                      3. Falcon 21 September 2015 21: 21 New
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                        Quote: opus
                        Power or power flux density, depending on the distance (D), ceteris paribus


                        It is clear that they depend.

                        But on the DOR diagram, when calculating the decibels, should the range be indicated?
                      4. opus 21 September 2015 23: 39 New
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                        Quote: Falcon
                        But on the DOR diagram, when calculating the decibels, should the range be indicated?

                        So dB, this is the power ratio
                        Quote: opus
                        10lg (A / A0)

                        so or
                        Quote: Falcon
                        and we consider the ratio of capacities according to the formula


                        A power
                        Quote: Falcon
                        Power or power flux density, depending on the distance (D), ceteris paribus


                        Why indicate it? it is implicitly expressed in terms of Power (h / s dB)
                        And specifically for that B-2B diagram, there the range is the same, the angles change. These values ​​were obtained by mathematical modeling (Green's vector theorem, ray Fresnel formulas, Kirchhoff method.) At a wavelength of 3,2 cm and linear vertical polarization.

                        A real scattering object of an arbitrarily complex spatial configuration can be represented as a set of surfaces (S1 + S2 + S3 + ..._, which bound an arbitrary homogeneous and isotropic region u, inside which an arbitrary distribution of excitation sources is defined. In the general case, the field sources are both electric currents and charges, and magnetic currents and charges. All fields are stationary and harmonic with a time dependence of the form exp (-i wt)
                        , w is the circular frequency

                        Conclusions:
                        Evaluation of the dispersing properties of the B2 airframe showed that:
                        both the total DOR and its individual components are essentially oscillatory in nature, therefore, for its practical use it is necessary to obtain probabilistic detection characteristics;
                        the dynamic range of EPR values ​​for the studied implementations was -45.6 .. + 12 dB, while the dynamics of the signal within the angle 1 gr. reaches 40 dB;
                        main radiation for the horizontal plane and approach angle 15 grad. concentrated in the side sector 35 .. 90 gr. , and in other areas average (mathematical expectation) EPR varies slightly and varies from 0,01 to 0,06 square meters. It is these EPR values ​​that can be taken to assess the radar detection potential.
                      5. Falcon 22 September 2015 08: 51 New
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                        Quote: opus
                        the main radiation for the horizontal plane and the angle of approach of 15 degrees. concentrated in the lateral sector 35 .. 90 gr. , and in other areas the average (mathematical expectation) of the EPR changes insignificantly and varies from 0,01 to 0,06 square meters. It is these EPR values ​​that can be taken to assess the radar detection potential.


                        The conclusions are clear, thanks!
                        The information is interesting!
                        I do not understand how the EPR of 0,01 and 0,06 was obtained. I did not understand how it was calculated. request
                      6. opus 22 September 2015 12: 56 New
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                        Quote: Falcon
                        I do not understand to

                        Having P, D, wavelength, polarization, received DOR, dB in M2

                        if you are a student, you can ask a question (or the whole article): Andrey Vladimirovich Sokolov, professor of the Faculty of Physics of Moscow State University wink

                        / Antifeev V.N., Borzov A.B., Bystrov R.P., Isaev I.Sh., Sokolov A.V.// Mathematical model of scattering of electromagnetic waves by complex objects
  • Sweles 21 September 2015 11: 09 New
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    our racket doesn’t look so impressive compared to foreign ones
    AGM-158 JASSM,
    -Maximum flight range, km 500 (1300 for AGM-158B)
    - Weight, kg 1020
    -War weight, kg 430

    AGM-158 JASSM,
    359 km range
    - weight 1400kg
    - warhead 500kg

    X-59MK2
    -Export range -300km
    -weight -800kg
    -BCh-300kg
    our rocket flies closer less and ammunition less
    German rocket presses on the psyche, which looks intimidating, reminiscent of a medieval siege ram ...
    1. alex56 21 September 2015 11: 29 New
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      Well, we are not measured by virtues to speak with anyone more;)
      All the above characteristics are interconnected: the weight is more, and therefore more warheads and range.
      At the same time, let our product be smaller and weight, but it should also fit one apparatus more than Western analogues.
      Although, of course, maybe I'm wrong, and size matters. So let the experts correct me, and I will be happy to know their competent point of view)
    2. Mera joota 21 September 2015 11: 31 New
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      Quote: Sveles
      our rocket flies closer and less ammunition

      The engine is heavier and gluttonous. For such a rocket.
    3. Falcon 21 September 2015 12: 08 New
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      Quote: Sveles
      our racket doesn’t look so impressive compared to foreign ones


      It's all about the engines.
      We have TRDD-50 or R-95-300. Single-shaft bypass. Developed for X-55 missiles. Weight under 2 tons.

      American Williams F107 More interesting. It is two-shaft and is a turbo fan and not just turbojet.
      Accordingly, the prototype of modern aircraft engines is more economical.
      1. opus 21 September 2015 14: 25 New
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        Quote: Falcon
        We have TRDD-50 or P-95-300. Single-shaft bypass


        36MT engine (TRDD-50AT) double-circuit, two-shaft, with coaxial shafts of cascades of low and high pressure. Combustion chamber - annular half-loop with a rotating nozzle. The high-pressure cascade is an axial-diagonal compressor and a single-stage axial turbine, the low-pressure cascade is a single-stage fan with wide chord blades and a single-stage axial turbine.


        High pressure circuit - axial-diagonal compressor (one axial stage and one diagonal) and a single-stage axial turbine.
        Low pressure circuit - a single-stage fan with wide-chordate blades and a single-stage axial turbine.


        Quote: Falcon
        Designed for X-55 missiles.

        non-pylon version for the KS-122RS / 9Б2413 / Relief rocket - SSC-X-4 SLINGSHOT


        Quote: Falcon
        American Williams F107 More interesting.

        Williams F107


        Dry weight: 66,2 kg, Specific fuel consumption: 0,685 kg / kgf · h,Thrust: F107-WR-400: 275,3 kgf
        F107-WR-402: 316,1 kgf

        Not so "interesting"



        TRDD TRDD - 50 / product 36-01 (now - product 37-01 and 37-01Э) thrust 450 kgf.

        Specific fuel consumption at maximum mode - 0,71 kg / kgf * h.
        BUT!!!
        The modern version of the engine (with a digital control system), which is produced by NPO Saturn, has improved performance:
        - thrust higher by 25-30%
        - the engine is more economical (than a similar 1980's engine), someone writes that% on 17-20.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Mera joota 21 September 2015 14: 51 New
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        Quote: Falcon
        American Williams F107 More interesting.

        Williams 107 is also a heavy rocket, the JASSM has the lighter Teledyne CAE J402. At the same time, an engine from a two-ton rocket was pushed onto a rocket weighing less than a ton, from where there will be a large range ...
    4. Dimka off 21 September 2015 13: 10 New
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      Quote: Sveles
      our racket doesn’t look so impressive compared to foreign ones

      Quote: Sveles
      X-59MK2
      -Export range -300km
      -weight -800kg
      -BCh-300kg
      our rocket flies closer less and ammunition less

      Well, the author talks about this in the article. This is an export option. And for his army, a rocket flies much further. So it should take at least 1000 km.
      Quote: Sveles
      German rocket presses on the psyche, which looks intimidating, reminiscent of a medieval siege ram.

      In the psyche to whom?) Air defense systems? so they don’t care what to shoot down. And from the ground it is not visible that he is flying at high speed.
      1. Sweles 21 September 2015 15: 29 New
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        Quote: Dimka off
        And for his army, a rocket flies much further. So it should take at least 1000 km.


        this is unknown ...
    5. opus 21 September 2015 13: 11 New
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      Quote: Sveles
      our racket doesn’t look so impressive compared to foreign ones


      You are comparing export modification and non-export (outside MTCR)


      Quote: Sveles
      -Export range -300km

      The key here is EXPORT.

      1.MISSION CONTROL MODE (MTCR)
      - Equipment and technologies of Category I (300 km distance, 500 kg Mon-Bch)
      - equipment and technologies falling under Category II (materials, components and dual-use technologies not covered by Category I that can be used to create missile systems with a range of 300 km or more) are allowed if they are implemented as part of export control systems and if in making decisions, the principles of non-proliferation are sufficiently taken into account.


      2.Wassenar Accords on RT
      ====================================================================== ================
      Our main buyers of rockets are countries that do not have their own RMDS.
      For all of them (and anti-ship missiles and ballistic missiles) -300km restriction.
      The same Bramos-290, our version of 540 km
    6. Arikkhab 21 September 2015 17: 20 New
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      quote from the text of the article:
      “The fuel supply is enough to deliver the warhead to a distance of 290 km. It should be noted that the actual flight range may be much higher. It is possible that in the future foreign customers will be offered an export version of the new missile, in which case the manufacturer should consider the restrictions imposed Missile Technology Control Regime This international treaty prohibits the export of missiles with a range of more than 300 km. Thus, a range of no more than 290 km can only be applied to the export version of the X-59MK2, and missiles USSIAN Air Force will be able to fly for long distances. "
      that is, options are possible
  • Zaurbek 21 September 2015 09: 20 New
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    Stealth hulls, usually triangular in cross section. I did not see square ones.
    1. opus 21 September 2015 13: 14 New
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      Quote: Zaurbek
      Stealth hulls, usually triangular in cross section.


      like this?








      or how is this "stealth" a catamaran?


      Quote: Zaurbek
      I did not see square ones.

      X-51 Waverider, without a booster (flies in 3 seconds), in the midsection - “square” (almost)





      Well, a catamaran (above)
      1. Zaurbek 21 September 2015 15: 52 New
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        UAV and X 51 - not stealth. A B-2 and the ship are far from the square.
        1. opus 21 September 2015 16: 58 New
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          Quote: Zaurbek
          UAV and X 51 - not stealth

          Both are declared: on stealth technology. Like the BrahMos-II
          So for reference "Bramos-1" is the same as stealth positioned
          Strategic UAV of the USA - RQ-4 Global Hawk has an EPR of just 5

          the wingspan is approximately 35 meters, the length is 13,3 meters, and take-off weight is close to 15 tons. Compare with the 737-800 Boeing (wing span)

          Quote: Zaurbek
          And the B-2 and the Ship are far from the square.

          and from the triangle in the midsection
          Quote: Zaurbek
          Stealth hulls, usually triangular in cross section.


          The catamaran is nevertheless closer to the square in the midship. Do not you find?
          1. Zaurbek 29 September 2015 20: 02 New
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            Hypersound cannot be a stealth by definition, physically!
          2. Zaurbek 29 September 2015 20: 02 New
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            Hypersound cannot be a stealth by definition, physically!
      2. Zaurbek 21 September 2015 15: 52 New
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        UAV and X 51 - not stealth. A B-2 and the ship are far from the square.
  • 31rus 21 September 2015 10: 24 New
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    Dear, one significant but “can and will” be that the approach to the much-needed weapons, when NATO already has them, has been worked out and is mass-produced, urgently tested and adopted, now there are a lot of real goals for them, that’s why you need to test on ISIS
  • Mera joota 21 September 2015 11: 38 New
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    Option X-59 is undoubtedly interesting, because they abandoned the frankly idiotic layout of the engine is a big plus. Not entirely clear with the GOS, nothing intelligible. The range of course let us down, but the engine used will not allow the best. In general, it could appear ten years earlier because no breakthrough ideas were used, but that’s okay, if only the ICG passed.
  • Zaurbek 21 September 2015 15: 54 New
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    It is necessary to start production, and the new engine will arrive in time. The free space will either be occupied by fuel or ammunition.
  • Mama_Cholli 21 September 2015 20: 25 New
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    Full-scale tests can be carried out in the area where the IG is trying to grow. Grind and polish the product. Everyone will be happy .... IMHO