Cruisers "Kirov" have no analogues in world shipbuilding. These ships could effectively carry out combat missions to destroy surface ships of the enemy and his submarines. Missile weapons installed on ships made it possible to ensure the defeat of large surface enemy strike groups with a high degree of probability. The ships of the series were the largest non-propelling shock warships in the world. For example, US nuclear-powered cruisers of the Virginia type URO were 2,5 times smaller in displacement. The cruisers of Project 1144 "Orlan" were designed to engage large surface targets, protect compounds fleet from air attacks and submarines in remote areas of the oceans. These ships were armed with almost all types of military and technical equipment that were only created for surface ships in the USSR. The cruisers' main missile weapons were the Granit anti-ship missile system.
26 March 1973 of the year at the Baltiyskiy Zavod the laying of the first lead ship of the 1144 project, the heavy nuclear missile cruiser Kirov (from 1992 of the year Admiral Ushakov), took place. 27 of December 1977 of the year was launched, and 30 of December 1980 of the TARK was transferred to the fleet. On October 31, the second ship of the series, the Frunze TARK (from the year Admiral Lazarev), entered service. December 1984 The third ship, the Kalinin TARK, was handed over to the fleet (Admiral Nakhimov since 1992). And in 30, the plant started the construction of the last ship of this series - the TARK “Peter the Great” (originally they wanted to call it “Kuibyshev” and “Yuri Andropov”). Construction of the ship had a difficult period in stories country. The collapse of the USSR led to the fact that the construction was completed only in 1996 year, and tests in 1998 year. Thus, the ship was accepted into the fleet through 10 years after the laying.
TARK project 11442 "Admiral Nakhimov" under repair
To date, of all the four in the ranks, there is only the heavy nuclear missile cruiser “Peter the Great”, which is the most powerful strike warship not only in the Russian Navy, but throughout the world. The first ship of the series "Admiral Ushakov" is in the sediment from the year 1991, in the year 2002 was withdrawn from the fleet. His fate has already been decided - the ship will be disposed of at the Zvezdochka Ship Repair Center in Severodvinsk. According to experts, the disposal of this TARK will cost approximately 10 times more expensive than the dismantling of the largest nuclear submarine, as there is simply no technology and experience to dispose of such warships in Russia. It is very likely that the second ship of the series, the cruiser Admiral Lazarev, will suffer the same fate; the ship has been slumped in the Far East since 1999. But the third cruiser of the 11442 project “Orlan” “Admiral Nakhimov” is currently undergoing repairs and modernization at Sevmash. It will be returned to the fleet at the turn of 2017-2018, previously called 2019 year. At the same time, according to Mikhail Budnichenko, General Director of Sevmash, the life of the cruiser after the completion of repairs will be extended by 35 years. It is assumed that the repaired TARK "Admiral Nakhimov" will continue to serve in the Pacific Fleet of Russia, and "Peter the Great" will remain the flagship of the Russian Northern Fleet.
Heavy nuclear missile cruisers of the 1144 “Orlan” project did not have and have no direct analogues abroad. The atomic American cruisers of Long Beach type (17 500 tons) decommissioned at the moment were 1,5 times, and the Virginia (11 500 tons) were 2,5 times smaller and had much weaker weapons, both quantitatively and quantitatively. This could be explained by the different tasks that confronted the ships. If in the American fleet they were only an escort for multi-purpose aircraft carriers, then the Soviet fleet was the creation of nuclear surface ships as independent combat units that could form the basis of the ocean fighting forces of the fleet. The various weapons of the 1144 TARK project made these ships multi-purpose, but at the same time they complicated their maintenance and created some problems with the definition of their tactical and technical niche.
The history of the creation of cruisers project 1144
In 1961, the first nuclear-powered cruiser of the Long Beach BWU became part of the US Navy, this event was the impetus for the resumption of theoretical work on the development of a combat surface nuclear-powered ship in the Soviet Union. But even without taking into account the Americans, the Soviet Navy, entering into those years in the period of its rapid development, objectively needed ocean-going ships, which would be able to act for a long time apart from the coastal bases, the nuclear power plant contributed best to the solution of this task. Already in the year 1964, in the USSR, research began again to determine the appearance of the country's first military atomic surface ship. Initially, the research ended with the creation of a tactical and technical assignment for the development of a project for a large anti-submarine ship with a nuclear power plant and a displacement of 8 thousand tons.
Heavy nuclear missile cruisers "Peter the Great", "Admiral Ushakov", winter 1996-1997
When designing the ship, the designers proceeded from the fact that the solution to the main problem can be achieved only if sufficient combat stability is ensured. Even then, no one doubted that the main danger to the ship would be aviationTherefore, the creation of a layered air defense system for the ship was originally envisaged. At the initial stage of development, the designers believed that it would be very difficult to combine all the necessary equipment and weapons in one hull, so the option of creating a pair of two nuclear surface ships was considered: the BOD of project 1144 and the missile cruiser of project 1165. The first ship was to carry anti-submarine weapons, the second - anti-ship cruise missiles (RCC). These two ships were supposed to operate as part of the compound, covering each other from various threats, they were equipped with anti-aircraft weapons on an equal footing, which should have contributed to the creation of a strong layered air defense. However, as the project developed, it was decided that it would be most rational not to separate the anti-submarine and anti-ship functions, but to combine them in one cruiser. After this, the design work on the atomic cruiser of project 1165 was stopped and all the efforts of the developers were redirected to the universal ship of project 1144.
In the course of the work, the increasing requirements for the project led to the fact that the ship received a growing range of weapons and various equipment - which, in turn, was reflected in the increase in displacement. As a result, the project of the first Soviet atomic surface warship quickly moved away from the narrow anti-submarine functions, acquiring a multi-purpose orientation, and its standard displacement exceeded 20 thousand tons. The cruiser was supposed to carry all the most modern types of combat and technical equipment that were created in the Soviet Union for combat surface ships. This evolution was reflected in the ship’s new classification - the “heavy nuclear missile cruiser”, which was assigned in June 1977 of the year, already during the construction of the lead ship of the series, which was laid as the “anti-nuclear cruiser”.
In its final form, the technical design of the new atomic surface ship was approved in 1972 and received the 1144 cipher "Orlan". The project of the first Soviet surface combat nuclear-powered icebreaker was developed in the Northern Design Bureau in Leningrad. The chief designer of the 1144 project was B. I. Kupensky, and from the USSR Navy the captain of 2 rank A. A. Savin was the main observer of the design and construction of the cruiser from the very beginning to the transfer of the ship to the fleet.
The lead ship of the series, the cruiser of the project 1144 "Kirov".
From the very beginning, the new nuclear-powered icebreaker became the favorite child of S. G. Gorshkov, who served as commander-in-chief of the Soviet Navy. Despite this, the design of the ship was difficult and slow enough. The increasing displacement of the cruiser as the design requirements were revised and modified, forced the designers to look for new and new versions of the main power plant of the ship - first of all, its steam generating part. At the same time, Gorshkov demanded to place on the cruiser a backup power plant that would work on organic fuel. The fears of the war years could be understood: the Soviet and world experience of operating nuclear-powered ships in those years was not large enough, and even nowadays, accidents with reactor breakdown occur from time to time. At the same time, a surface combat ship, unlike a submarine, can afford to switch from an atomic reactor to burning ordinary fuel in fireboxes - it was decided to use this advantage in full. It was assumed that the backup boiler will be able to help in ensuring the parking of the ship. The underdeveloped basing system of large warships in the Soviet Union was for a long time a sore spot for the navy.
While the lead ship of the series was still on the stocks, an improved project was created for the next cruiser, which received an 11442 index. It provided for the replacement of some models of weapons and equipment with the latest at that time systems: the Kortik anti-aircraft artillery complex (ZRAK) instead of the turret 30-mm six-barreled machine guns; “Dagger” air defense missile system instead of “Osa-MA” air defense missile, universal 130-paired AK-130 installation instead of two one-gun 100 mm AK-100 turret on Kirov, Vodopat anti-submarine complex, RBU- jet bombers 12000 instead of RBU-6000, etc. It was planned that all the ships of the series following the Kirov cruiser would be built according to an improved project, however, in fact, due to the unavailability for the mass production of all the planned weapons, they were added to the ships under construction as development was completed. In the end, only the last ship, Peter the Great, could correspond to the 11442 project, but even with reservations, the second and third ships Frunze and Kalinin were in an intermediate position between the first and last ships of the series.
Description of the design of cruisers project 1144
All cruisers of the 1144 "Orlan" project had a hull with an extended (more than 2 / 3 of the total length) low-forecastle. The hull is divided into 16 main compartments with watertight bulkheads. Throughout the hull of the TARK go 5 decks. In the bow of the ship under the bulb fairing there is a fixed antenna of the Polynom hydroacoustic complex. In the stern of the ship there is an underdeck hangar, which is designed for the permanent deployment of Ka-3 helicopters, as well as storage rooms for fuel and a lift, used to deliver helicopters to the upper deck. Here, in the stern of the ship, there is a compartment with a lifting and lowering device of the towed antenna of the Polynom sonar complex. Advanced superstructure heavy cruisers are made with the extensive use of aluminum-magnesium alloys. The main part of the armament of the ship is focused on the stern and in the bow.
The 1144 project cruisers are protected from getting damaged by anti-torpedo protection, double bottom throughout the hull, as well as local booking of vital parts of TARK. As such, there is no belt armor on the 1144 “Orlan” cruisers - armor protection is located in the depth of the hull - but along the waterline from the ship’s bow to the stern there was a thicker 3,5 meter covering sheath (including 2,5 meters above the waterline and 1 meters below the waterline) which plays an important role in the constructive protection of the cruiser.
TARK project 1144 "Orlan" became the first warships after the Second World War, the project which was laid sufficiently developed booking. So the engine rooms, the rocket cellars of the Granit complexes and the reactor compartments from the sides are protected by 100-mm (below the waterline - 70 mm) and from the side of the deck by 70-mm armor. Armor protection was also provided to the premises of the combat information post of the ship and the main command post, which are located inside its hull at the waterline level: they are covered with 100-mm side walls with an 75-mm roof and traverses. In addition, in the stern of the cruiser there is armor on the sides (70-mm) and on the roof (50-mm) of the helicopter hangar, as well as around the ammunition storage and aviation fuel. Local reservations are available above the tiller compartments.
The nuclear power plant with KN-3 reactors (core type VM-16), although based on ice-breaking reactors type OK-900, has significant differences from them. The main thing is in fuel assemblies that contain uranium with a high degree of enrichment (approximately 70%). The lifetime of such an active zone until the next recharge is 10-11 years. Installed on the cruiser double-circuit reactors, thermal neutrons, water-to-water. They use bidistillate, a high-purity water, which circulates through the reactor core under high pressure (approximately 200 atmospheres), providing boiling of the second circuit, which eventually goes to the turbines as steam, as a coolant and moderator.
The developers paid special attention to the possibility of using a two-shaft power plant of the cruiser, the power on each shaft of which is 70000 HP. The complex-automated AEU was located in 3-x compartments and included 2 nuclear reactors with a total thermal capacity of 342 MW, 2 turbo-gear units (located in the bow and stern from the reactor compartment), as well as 2 stand-by automated KVG-2 boiler, mounted in turbine units. When only a backup power plant is in operation - without using nuclear reactors - the 1144 “Orlan” cruiser is able to develop 17 nodes speed, fuel reserves will be enough to pass 1300 nautical miles at this speed. The use of nuclear reactors provides the cruiser with a full stroke speed of the 31 node and an unlimited navigation range. A power plant installed on the ships of this project would be able to provide heat and electricity to a city whose population would be 100-150 thousands of inhabitants. And the well-thought hull lines and large displacement provide the TARK 1144 "Orlan" with excellent seaworthiness, which is especially important for warships of the ocean zone.
The crew of the TARK project 1144 / 11442 consists of 759 people (including 120 officers). There are 1600 rooms, including 140 single and double cabins for officers and military commanders, 30 cabin for sailors and foremen on 8-30 people each, 15 shower rooms, two saunas, sauna with 6 XX2,5 pool meters, a two-tier medical unit (outpatient, operating room, infirmary isolators, X-ray room, dental office, pharmacy), gym with exercise equipment, 3 saloon for midshipmen, officers and admirals, as well as a lounge for rest and even its own cable television studio I.
Armament cruisers project 1144 "Orlan"
The basic one weapons These cruisers were PKR P-700 "Granit" - the third-generation supersonic cruise missiles with a reduced profile of the flight path to the target. With a launch mass of 7 tons, these missiles developed speeds up to 2,5 M and could carry conventional warheads with a mass of 750 kg or a nuclear monoblock power up to 500 kt up to 625 km. The length of the rocket is - 10 meters, diameter - 0,85 meters. 20 anti-ship cruise missiles "Granit" were installed under the upper deck of the cruiser, with an angle of elevation 60 degrees. The SM-233 launchers for these missiles were manufactured at the Leningrad Metal Works PO. For the reason that the Granit missiles were originally intended for submarines, before launching the missile, the installation must be filled with seawater. According to the experience of operational and combat training of the Navy, it is very difficult to shoot down the Granit. Even if the anti-ship missile hits the anti-ship missile missile, due to its enormous speed and mass, it can retain enough momentum to “reach” the target ship.
Launcher ship Fort-M ZRK
The basis of the 1144 “Orlan” anti-missile armament of the cruisers was the C-300F (Fort) missile system, which was located below the deck on spinning drums. Complete ammunition complex consisted of 96 anti-aircraft missiles. On the only ship of the Peter the Great series (instead of one C-300F complex), the unique C-300FM Fort-M bow complex, which was produced in one copy, appeared. Each such complex is able to simultaneously fire up to 6 maneuvering small-sized targets (accompany up to 12 targets) and direct 12 missiles at them simultaneously in the conditions of active and passive jamming by the enemy. Due to the design features of the C-300FM missile complex, the Peter the Great's ammunition rifle reduced by 2 missiles. Thus, the Peter the Great TARK is armed with one C-300FM complex with 46 48H6X2 missiles and one C-300F complex with 48 48H6E missiles, the full ammunition consists of 94 missiles. "Fort-M" was created on the basis of the army air defense complex C-300PMU2 "Favorite". This complex, unlike its predecessor, the anti-aircraft complex “Fort”, is able to hit targets at a distance of 120 km and successfully fight enemy missiles at altitudes up to 10 meters. The expansion of the affected area of the complex was achieved by improving the sensitivity of the receiving channels and the power characteristics of the transmitter.
The second echelon of the air defense of the cruiser is the Dagger air defense missile system, which was included in the 11442 project, but in fact appeared only on the last ship of the series. The main objective of this complex is the defeat of air targets that broke through the first line of the air defense of the cruiser (“Fort” air defense missile system). The basis of the "Dagger" are solid-fuel, single-stage, remote-controlled 9М330 missiles, which are unified with the Tor-M1 ground defense system of the ground forces. Rockets fly up vertically with an inactive engine under the action of a catapult. The missile recharging is automatic, the launch interval is 3 seconds. The target detection range in the automatic mode is 45 km, the number of simultaneously fired targets is 4, the response time is 8 seconds. SAM "Dagger" works offline (without the participation of personnel). According to the specification, each 11442 cruiser of the 128 project should have 16 of such missiles in 8хXNUMX installations.
The third air defense boundary is the Dirk “Dirk”, which is a short-range defense system. It is designed to replace the ordinary 30-mm six-barreled artillery systems AK-630. The Dirk "Dirk" in the television-optical and radar modes is able to provide full automation of the combat control from the detection of a target to its defeat. Each installation consists of two 30-mm six-barrel automatic machines AO-18, the total rate of which is 10 000 rounds per minute and two 4 units of two-stage 9М311 rockets. These missiles have a fragmentation-rod warhead and a proximity fuse. In the turret section of each installation is 32 such missiles in transport and launch containers. The 9М311 missiles are unified with the Tunguska 2C6 land complex and are able to fight anti-ship missiles, guided bombs, helicopters and enemy aircraft. The range of the missile part of the DIRECT "Dirk" is 1,5-8 km, the shot from 30-mm artillery installations is conducted at a distance of 1500-50 meters. The height of the air targets hit is 5-4000 meters. In total, each of the three cruisers of the 11442 project was supposed to contain 6 of such complexes, the ammunition of which consisted of 192 missiles and 36 000 projectiles.
As a universal artillery system, the 11442 “Orlan” cruisers received one AK-130 turret, which has two 130-mm automatic guns with 70 barrel lengths of caliber. AK-130 provides firing rate at the level from 20 to 86 shots per minute, and, in addition to air targets, can be used to fire various sea and coastal objects, to support the landing of assault forces. The ammunition of a universal artillery unit consists of several types of unitary shots - for example, high-explosive fragmentation shots with remote, shock and radio fuses. The firing range of this artillery unit 25 km,
The anti-submarine armament of the 1144 cruiser was represented by the Metel complex, which in the 11442 project was replaced by the more modern anti-submarine complex Waterfall. In contrast to the "Blizzard", "Waterfall" does not need a separate PU - rocket-torpedoes of the complex are charged into standard torpedo tubes. The rocket model 83PH (or 84PH with a nuclear warhead), like an ordinary torpedo, is fired from a torpedo tube with compressed air and dives into the water. Then, when a certain depth is reached, the rocket engine is launched and the rocket-torpedo takes off from under the water and by air delivers the warhead to the target area - up to 60 kilometers from the carrier ship - after which the warhead is separated. The UMGT-1 - 400-mm small-sized self-guided torpedo can be used as a warhead. The range of torpedoes UMGT-1, which can be installed on rocket-torpedoes - 8 km, speed - 41 node, depth - 500 meters. In ammunition cruisers to 30 such rocket-torpedoes.
The RBU-6000 twelve-barrel rocket launcher, like the torpedo tubes, was received by all the ships of the series, but starting from the third, they began to be supplemented with a more modern 10-charge anti-torpedo bomb launcher RBU-12000 Udav-1. Each of these installations has a conveyor reloading and is able to both charge and shoot torpedoes going to the cruiser in automatic mode. The reaction time "Boa" 15 seconds, the maximum range is 3000 meters, the minimum is 100 meters. Ammunition for two such installations is 120 deep-seated jet bombs.
All cruisers of the 1144 (11442) project were provided with a permanent base up to the X-NUMX Ka-3 helicopters in the anti-submarine version. To ensure the air group's deployment on the stern of the cruiser, a landing platform is equipped, there is a special under-deck hangar and helicopter lift, as well as the necessary radio navigation equipment and an aviation control post. Soviet heavy nuclear cruisers of the 27 "Orlan" project - for the first time after the era of artillery ships - in the design process received an adequate displacement reserve to protect the armor and cover the Ka-1144 helicopters themselves and fuel for them under deck.
The main characteristics of TARK "Peter the Great":
Displacement standard - 23 750 t, full - 25860 t.
Length - 250,1 m.
Width - 28,5 m.
Height (from the main plane) - 59 m.
Draft - 10,3 m.
The power plant is a 2 nuclear reactor and a 2 boiler.
Power - 140 000 HP
Travel speed - 31 node.
Navigation range - unlimited on the reactor, 1300 miles on the boilers.
The autonomy of swimming is 60 days.
Crew - 760 man.
Armament: 20 PKR P-700 "Granite"; 48 of “Fort” missiles and 46 of “Fort-M” missiles; 16 PU Zrk "Dagger" (128 missiles); 6 SPORT "Dirk" (192 rocket); RBU-12000; 10x533-mm torpedo tubes; AK-130; 3 anti-submarine helicopter Ka-27.