Military Review

"With such a general as Kutuzov, Russia can be calm"

41
Slava Kutuzov
Inseparably connected

With the glory of Russia.
A. Pushkin


270 years ago, 16 September 1745, was born the great Russian commander, count, His Serene Highness, Field Marshal General Mikhail Kutuzov. Name Kutuzov forever inscribed in Russian history and the military chronicle. His whole life was devoted to serving Russia. Contemporaries unanimously noted his exceptional intelligence, brilliant military and diplomatic talents and love of country.

Start the service. War with Turkey

Michael Illarionovich Kutuzov was born 5 (16) September 1745 of the year in St. Petersburg. The Kutuzov family belonged to the famous families of the Russian nobility. The Kutuzov family believed that the progenitor of the “husband is honest” Gabriel, according to the legends of the ancient genealogies, who left “Prus” to Novgorod to rule Alexander Nevsky in the 13th century. His great-grandson - Alexander Prokshich (nicknamed Kutuz) - became the ancestor of the Kutuzovs, and Kutuz’s grandson - Vasily Ananiyevich (nicknamed the Hole) was the Novgorod mayor in 1471 and the ancestor of the Golenischevs-Kutuzovs.

The father of the great commander was Lieutenant-General and Senator Illarion Matveevich Golenishchev-Kutuzov. He served thirty years in the Engineering Corps and became famous as an intellectual with wide knowledge of military and civil affairs. Contemporaries nicknamed him "reasonable book." Michael lost his mother (Anna Illarionovna) in infancy and was brought up under the supervision of one of their relatives.

Michael was trained, as was the custom with the nobles, at home. In 1759, he was sent to an artillery and engineering noble school, where his father taught artillery science. The young man took over the ability of his father. In 15 years he became a corporal, soon he was promoted to captenarmus, in 1760, to conductors, and in 1761, he was released as an engineer-ensign, with an appointment to the Astrakhan Infantry Regiment.

The efficient young man was noticed by the empress and, at her request, was determined by the adjutant of Revelsky Governor-General Prince Holstein-Beksky. After the accession of Catherine II to the throne in 1762, he was granted the rank of captain. At his request, enlisted in the army. He was appointed commander of the company of the Astrakhan Infantry Regiment, which at that time was commanded by Colonel A. V. Suvorov. He received his first combat experience in Poland in 1764, where he beat Polish rebels. In 1767, he was recruited to work in the “Commission on the drafting of the new Code”. Apparently, he was involved as a secretary-translator, since Kutuzov knew French, German and Latin well.

In 1770, Kutuzov joined the army of Rumyantsev, was with the quartermaster-general Baur. He distinguished himself in the battle at the Ryaba Tomb, for which he was promoted to chief quartermaster of the premier-major. During the defeat on Prut Abda-pasha, he commanded two companies and repelled the attack of the enemy. In the battle of Larga, the grenadier broke into the Tatar camp with a battalion. In the battle of Cahul again distinguished himself, was promoted to the Majors. In 1771, under the command of Lieutenant-General Essen, he distinguished himself in the battle of Popeshtach.

However, because of discontent Rumyantsev (denounced Kutuzov) was transferred to the army of Vasily Dolgorukov in the Crimea. Mikhail Kutuzov mastered this lesson well, after this incident he was extremely cautious in words all his life, never betrayed his thoughts. Kutuzov distinguished himself at Kinburn in 1773. In 1774, he headed the advance guard storming the enemy fortification near the village of Shum. Strengthening took. But Kutuzov himself was seriously wounded: a bullet hit the left temple and flew off at the right eye. The wound was considered fatal, but Kutuzov, to the amazement of the doctors, recovered.

The Empress rewarded Kutuzov with the military order of St. George 4 class and sent for treatment in Austria, taking on all the costs of travel. Mikhail Kutuzov visited Germany, England, Holland and Italy, met with many famous people, including the Prussian king Frederick II and the Austrian general Loudon. European doctors ordered to take care of their eyes, not to bore them. After injury, the right eye became poorly visible. Therefore, Mikhail Illarionovich, who loved books, was forced to read less.

After returning to Russia from 1776, again in military service. At first he formed parts of the light cavalry, in 1777 he was promoted to colonel and was appointed commander of the Lugansk Pikiner regiment, which was located in Azov. In Crimea, he was transferred to 1783 in the rank of brigadier with the appointment of a light-regiment of the Mariupol regiment as commander. Served under the command of Suvorov. Using clever and executive Kutuzov in various matters, Suvorov fell in love with Kutuzov and recommended him to Potemkin. Having calmed the unrest of the Crimean Tatars in 1784, Kutuzov received the rank of major general on the idea of ​​Potemkin.

From 1785, he was the commander of the formed Bug Chasseur Corps. Commanding the corps and teaching rangers, Mikhail Kutuzov developed for them new tactical methods of struggle and outlined them in a special instruction. In 1787, during the journey of Empress Catherine to the Crimea, she led in her presence maneuvers depicting the Battle of Poltava. He was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir 2 degree. When a new war broke out with Turkey, he covered the border along the Bug with the hull.

In the summer of 1788, with his corps, he took part in the siege of Ochakov, where in August 1788, during the Turkish raid, was again severely wounded in the head. Again, all desperate for his life. The bullet struck the cheek and flew to the back of the head. Kutuzov not only survived, but also recovered in military service. "It must be assumed that fate appoints Kutuzov to something great, for he survived after two wounds, deadly according to all the rules of medical science," wrote Masot, the chief medical officer in the army. The Empress marked Kutuzov with the Order of St.. Anne.

In 1789, Kutuzov protected the bank of the Dniester and the Bug, participated in the capture of Hajibey, fought at the Causeni and in the storming of Bender. In 1790, he guarded the banks of the Danube from Ackermann to Bender, did searches for Ishmael, was awarded the Order of St.. Alexander Nevsky. During the storming of Ishmael, he commanded one of the columns. Having exhausted all possibilities for the speedy capture of the fortress, he sent Suvorov news of the impossibility of defeating the enemy. Tell him, ”replied Suvorov,“ that I pledge his commandant Ishmael! ”They took the Turkish fortress. Kutuzov asked Suvorov to explain a strange answer. "God have mercy, nothing," said Suvorov, "nothing: Suvorov knows Kutuzov, and Kutuzov knows Suvorov, and if Ishmael had not been taken, Suvorov would not have survived, and Kutuzov too!"

Praising Kutuzov’s courage, Suvorov wrote in a report: “By showing himself a personal example of courage and fearlessness, he overcame all the difficulties he had encountered under strong enemy fire; I skipped over the palisade, warned the aspirations of the Turks, quickly took off onto the shaft of the fortress, mastered the bastion and many batteries ... General Kutuzov walked on my left wing; but it was my right hand. " Suvorov said about Kutuzov: "Clever, clever, cunning, cunning ... No one will deceive him."

After the capture of Ismail Kutuzov, he was promoted to lieutenant general, rewarded 3 degree with George and was appointed commandant of the fortress. In 1791, Kutuzov repulsed the attempts of the Turks to repel the fortress, made searches abroad, in June 1791 defeated the Turkish army at Babadag with a sudden blow. In the Machinsky battle, the command of Repnin Kutuzov delivered a crushing blow to the right flank of the Turkish army. “Kutuzov’s quickness and stewardship surpasses all praise,” Repnin wrote. For the victory at Machin, Kutuzov was awarded the Order of George of 2 degree.

Directly from the banks of the Danube, Kutuzov moved to Poland, where he was in the army of Kakhovsky and the attack in Galicia contributed to the defeat of the troops of Kostyushka. The Empress summoned Kutuzov to Petersburg and gave him a new assignment: he was appointed ambassador to Constantinople. Kutuzov perfectly proved himself in Turkey, won the respect of the Sultan and the highest dignitaries. Kutuzov surprised those who saw him only as a warrior. During the triumph of Yassky Peace, the Empress rewarded Kutuzov 2000 souls and made him Kazan and Vyatka Governor-General.

In 1795, the empress appointed Kutuzov commander-in-chief over all ground forces, flotilla and fortresses in Finland and at the same time the director of the Ground Cadet Corps. Mikhail Illarionovich entered the narrow circle of persons who made up the empress’s chosen society. Kutuzov did a lot to improve the training of officers: he taught tactics, military history and other disciplines.

"With such a general as Kutuzov, Russia can be calm"

Portrait of M. I. Kutuzov by R. M. Volkov

Reign of paul

Unlike many other favorites of the Empress, Kutuzov managed to stay on the political Olympus under the new Tsar Paul I and remained close to him until the very end of his reign. It must be said, even during the reign of Catherine, Kutuzov tried to maintain good relations with her son Pavel, who lived in isolation, in Gatchina.

Kutuzov was promoted to general of infantry, with the rank of chief of the Ryazan regiment and the head of the Finnish division. He held successful negotiations in Berlin: for two months in Prussia, he managed to attract her to the side of Russia in the struggle against France. Kutuzov was appointed commander-in-chief of the Russian forces in Holland. But in Hamburg I learned about the defeat of the Russian troops and was recalled by the emperor to the capital. Paul granted him the order of St. John of Jerusalem and the Order of St. Apostle Andrew. He received the rank of Lithuanian military governor and led the army assembled in Volyn. Pavel was pleased with Kutuzov and said: "With such a general as Kutuzov, Russia can be calm."

Interestingly, Kutuzov spent the evening on the eve of the death of Empress Catherine in her company, and also talked with him the evening before the murder of the sovereign Pavel. The conspiracy against Emperor Paul passed by Michael Illarionovich. For the last two years, he almost never visited St. Petersburg - he served in Finland and Lithuania. He saw the discontent of the aristocracy and the guards officers, but no one had initiated Kutuzov into a conspiracy. Apparently, everyone saw that the emperor of all the generals highlights Kutuzov. Apparently, Kutuzov understood that England was behind the conspiracy, it was not for nothing that in the future he tried not to go along the lines of British politics.

Board of Alexander. Napoleon Wars

Emperor Alexander Kutuzov did not like. But Alexander was always careful, did not make any sudden movements. Therefore, Kutuzov did not immediately fall into disgrace. With the accession of Alexander I, Kutuzov was appointed by the Petersburg and Vyborg military governors, as well as by the civil affairs manager in the said provinces and by the inspector of the Finnish Inspectorate. However, already in the 1802 year, feeling the emperor’s coldness, Kutuzov referred to his illness and was removed from his post. He lived in his estate in the peas in the Ukraine, was engaged in farming.

However, when Alexander dragged Russia into a war with France, they remembered Kutuzov. He was assigned to one of the armies sent to Austria. The war was lost. The Austrians overestimated their forces, engaged in battle with Napoleon before the approach of the Russian troops and were defeated. Kutuzov saw the mistakes of the Austrian military-political leadership, but had no opportunity to influence the allies. The Russian troops, who hurried to the aid of the Austrians and were severely exhausted, had to go back urgently. Kutuzov, leading successful rearguard battles, in which Bagration became famous, skillfully slipped away, avoiding being surrounded by superior French forces, commanded by the most famous commanders of Napoleon. This march entered the history of military art as a wonderful example of a strategic maneuver. The feat of Kutuzov was marked by the Austrian Order of Maria Theresa of the 1 degree.

Russian troops were able to connect with the Austrians. Kutuzov led the Allied army. However, the emperors Alexander and Franz, as well as their advisers, were with her. Therefore, unity of command was not. Contrary to the will of Kutuzov, who warned the emperors from the battle and proposed to withdraw the army to the Russian border, so that, after the approach of the Russian reinforcements and the Austrian army from Northern Italy, to launch a counteroffensive, it was decided to attack Napoleon. Alexander, under the influence of his advisers, imagined himself a great commander and dreamed of defeating the French. 20 November (2 December) 1805 the Austerlitz battle took place. The battle ended with a heavy defeat for the Allied army. Kutuzov was wounded, and also lost his beloved son-in-law, Count Tizengausen.

Emperor Alexander, realizing his guilt, publicly did not accuse Kutuzov and awarded him the Order of St. 1806 in February. Vladimir 1 degree. However, behind the scenes, others were blamed on Kutuzov. Alexander believed that Kutuzov deliberately set him up. Therefore, when the second war with Napoleon began, in alliance with Prussia, the army was assigned to the decrepit Field Marshal Kamensky, and then Benningsen, and Kutuzov was appointed the military governor of Kiev.

Kutuzov lived in Kiev until 1808, when, after the death of Michelson, the war with Turkey was commissioned to lead the sick and elderly Prince Prozorovsky. He demanded an assistant Kutuzov. However, due to disagreements between the generals (the assault on Brailov, started contrary to Kutuzov’s warnings, he was recaptured with great losses, and Prozorovsky blamed for the failure on Kutuzov) in June 1809 of Kutuzov was sent to Vilno by the military governor. Kutuzov was completely satisfied with his stay in "his good Vilna".

Victory on the Danube

A new war with Napoleon was approaching. Trying to quickly end the war with Turkey, Alexander was forced to entrust this business to Kutuzov, who knew the Danube theater and the adversary perfectly well. The war was unsuccessful for Russia and dragged on. Instead of hitting the enemy's manpower, our troops engaged in the siege of fortresses, dispersing forces and wasting time. In addition, the main forces of Russia were preparing for battles on the western border. Only relatively small forces acted against the Ottomans on the Danube.

Already changed several commanders, but there was no victory. Ivan Mikhelson died. Aged Alexander Prozorovsky acted unsuccessfully and died in a field camp. Bagration fought skillfully, but due to discontent Alexander left the Moldavian army. Count Nikolai Kamensky was a good commander, but was recalled to guide the 2 army on the western borders of Russia. He was already sick and dead.

Thus, Kutuzov was told to go and solve the case with the Ottomans, which his four predecessors could not decide. At the same time, the situation has significantly deteriorated compared to previous years. Encouraged by the longstanding rather successful struggle, the weakness of the Russian troops in the Danube Theater, seeing that Napoleon was soon attacking the Russian empire, the Turks did not think to give in, on the contrary, they themselves were preparing a big offensive. And Kutuzov had only about 50 thousand tired troops to defend a vast region. Of these, only 30 thousand could be used in a decisive battle.

However, Kutuzov deceived the enemy. First he attacked the enemy. In the Ruschuksky battle of 22 on June 1811 of the year (15-20 of thousands of Russian soldiers against 60 of thousands of Turks), he inflicted a heavy defeat on the Ottomans. Then he faked a retreat (after retreating after the victory!) Lured the enemy's army to the left bank of the Danube. Kutuzov laid siege to the Ottoman army at Slobodzeya. At the same time, Kutuzov sent General Markov’s corps across the Danube to attack the Ottomans remaining on the south bank. Russian troops defeated the Turkish camp, captured the enemy artillery and turned the guns on the main camp of the Grand Vizier Ahmed-yeah across the river. The Ottomans fell into complete encirclement. The Vizier was able to escape. Soon in the encircled camp, famine and disease began, thousands of people died. As a result, the remnants of the Ottoman army capitulated.

The emperor rewarded Kutuzov with a title of count. Kutuzov forced Turkey to sign the Bucharest peace treaty. The port ceded to Russia the eastern part of the Moldavian principality - the territory of the Prut-Dniester interfluve (Bessarabia). The border between Russia and Turkey was established along the Prut River. It was a major military and diplomatic victory that improved the strategic situation for the Russian Empire by the beginning of World War 1812: the Ottoman Empire left the alliance with France, the security of the south-western borders of Russia was ensured before the start of the war with Napoleon. The Moldovan (Danube) army was liberated and could take part in the fight against the French.

Napoleon was furious: "Understand these dogs, these fools of the Turks, who have the talent to be beaten and who could have foreseen it, expect it!" He did not know that in a year Kutuzov would do the same with Napoleon’s all-European "Great Army" .

The destruction of the "Great Army" of Napoleon

Victory on the Danube did not change the attitude of Emperor Alexander to Mikhail Kutuzov. Alexander even wanted to take away his victor’s laurels, sending a new commander-in-chief, the mediocre admiral Chichagov, to the Moldavian army. However, Kutuzov had already managed to win and make peace with Turkey. He passed the command of Chichagov and went to his estate in the Volyn province, the village of Peas, having no appointment.

Learning about the entry of enemy troops into Russia, Kutuzov considered it his duty to arrive in the capital. Conscious of the merits of Michael Illarionovich, he was assigned to command over the troops in St. Petersburg. In July, he was elected head of the Petersburg militia, and then of the Moscow militia. Kutuzov said: "You have decorated my gray hair!" Diligently he was engaged in the militia, as a simple general. Arriving in the capital, the emperor elevated Kutuzov to princely dignity, with the title of Serene Highness and appointment to the State Council. A few days later, Kutuzov was appointed commander-in-chief of all the troops operating against Napoleon. In fact, this appointment was forced, under the pressure of the popular will.

11 August 1812 Kutuzov left St. Petersburg. 17 (29) August Kutuzov received an army from Barclay de Tolly in the village of Tsarevo-Zaymishche, Smolensk Province. When he examined the army, they saw an eagle in the clouds. The shelves thundered: “Hurray!” The troops happily met the glorified commander.

Kutuzov, seeing that the enemy has a great superiority of the enemy in forces, and practically no prepared reserves, kept the strategy of Barclay. The retreat of the Russian army was perceived by the army and society, who were accustomed to the victories of Rumyantsev and Suvorov, but it was the only sure way out in the current situation. Napoleon was carried away by the pursuit and destroyed the army. The actions of Kutuzov, although they are often contrary to the expectations of the army and society (as well as England), led to the actual death of the Great Army. At the same time, Kutuzov retained the combat capability of the Russian army, avoiding unnecessary bloodshed.

The battle of Borodino was one of the greatest manifestations of the spirit of the Russian army. Kutuzov accepted responsibility for leaving Moscow: “The loss of Moscow is not the loss of Russia: here we will prepare the destruction of the enemy. Responsibility is upon me, and I sacrifice myself to the good of the fatherland. ” The death of the ancient Russian capital only strengthened the morale of the army and heightened people's hatred for the invaders. Kutuzov secretly made the famous flank Tarutinsky maneuver, moving the army towards the beginning of October to the village of Tarutino. Caught south and west of Napoleon’s army, Kutuzov blocked his path of movement to the southern regions of Russia. He strenuously strengthened the army and diligently fomented a popular war. Napoleon waited in vain for peace envoys, and then he was forced to flee.

Murat was defeated in the Battle of Tarutino, Napoleon was unable to break through to the south in the bloody battle of Maloyaroslavets. The defeat at Vyazma, the battle of Red ended the disorder of the Great Army. Only an accident saved Napoleon on the Berezina. There is an opinion that Kutuzov deliberately let Napoleon go to maintain a counterbalance to Austria and England. Art Kutuzov, Russian weapon, popular war, famine and Russian expanses destroyed the pan-European army. 10 December 1812 Kutuzov welcomed Emperor Alexander in Vilna, laying French flags under his feet. “I could call myself the first general, before whom Napoleon runs, but God humbles the proud,” wrote Kutuzov.

After the Battle of Borodino, Kutuzov was promoted to field marshal general. After the victory over Napoleon Kutuzov was awarded the Order of St.. George 1-th degree, becoming the first in the history of the Order of the full St. George Cavalier. Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov was granted the name Smolensky.

Kutuzov was opposed to the continuation of an active war with Napoleon, but was forced to lead the foreign campaign of the Russian army. In January, 1813, the Russian troops crossed the border. The cities surrendered one by one. The Austrians and Prussians no longer wanted to fight for France. The remnants of the French troops were defeated. For three months, three capitals were occupied and the territory to the Elbe was liberated. Konigsberg was busy, she surrendered to Warsaw, Elbing, Marienburg, Poznan and other cities submitted. Our troops laid siege to Torun, Danzig, Czestochowa, Krakow, Modlin and Zamost. In February, 1813 took Berlin, in March - Hamburg, Lübeck, Dresden, Lüneburg, in April - Leipzig. The alliance with Prussia was renewed, the commander-in-chief of the Prussian army Blücher submitted to Kutuzov. Kutuzov was greeted in Europe: “Long live the great old man! Long live Grandpa Kutuzov! "

But the health of Field Marshal was undermined by hard work to the glory of the Fatherland, and he could not see the final victory of the Russian army ... The outstanding Russian commander Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov 16 (28) of April 1813 in Poland died, remaining in memory of the descendants of the legendary in many ways a mysterious figure.


Military Council in Fili. A. D. Kivshenko, 1812
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  1. bionik
    bionik 16 September 2015 07: 02 New
    +8
    Military ranks and ranks
    Fourier at the School of Engineering (1759)
    Corporal (10.10.1759)
    Captenarmus (20.10.1759)
    Conductor Engineer (10.12.1759)
    Warrant Engineer (01.01.1761/XNUMX/XNUMX)
    Captain (21.08.1762)
    Prime Minister for distinction under Larg (07.07.1770/XNUMX/XNUMX)
    Lieutenant Colonel for honoring Popesty (08.12.1771/XNUMX/XNUMX)
    Colonel (28.06.1777)
    Brigadier (28.06.1782)
    Major General (24.11.1784)
    Lieutenant General for the capture of Ishmael (25.03.1791)
    General from Infantry (04.01.1798)
    Field Marshal for the distinction at Borodino 26.08.1812/30.08.1812/XNUMX (XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX)
    1. bionik
      bionik 16 September 2015 07: 05 New
      +3
      AwardsM.I. Kutuzov became the first of 4 complete St. George Knights in the history of the order.
      Order of St. George 4th class (November 26.11.1775, 222, No. XNUMX) - “For the courage and courage shown in the attack of the Turkish troops, which made an landing on the Crimean coast under Alushta. Being harnessed to take possession of an enemy retrangement, to which he led his battalion with such fearlessness that a large enemy fled, where he received a very dangerous wound ”
      Order of St. George of the 3rd class (March 25.03.1791, 77, No. XNUMX) - “In respect of the diligent service and excellent courage shown by the seizure of the city and fortress of Ishmael with the extermination of the Turkish army there”
      Order of St. George 2nd class (March 18.03.1792, 28, No. XNUMX) - “In respect of diligent service, the brave and courageous feats with which he distinguished himself in the battle of Machin and the defeat by Russian troops under the command of General Prince N. V. Repnin, a large Turkish army”
      Order of St. George 1st class bc (12.12.1812, No. 10) - “For the defeat and expulsion of the enemy from the borders of Russia in 1812”
      Order of St. Anne 1 tbsp. - for the difference in the battles near Ochakov (21.04.1789/8/XNUMX) [XNUMX]
      Order of St. Vladimir, 2nd art. - for the successful formation of the corps (06.1789)
      Order of St. Alexander Nevsky - for battles with the Turks near Babadag (28.07.1791) [8]
      The Order of St. John of Jerusalem the Great Cross (04.10.1799/XNUMX/XNUMX)
      Order of St. Andrew the First-Called (08.09.1800/8/XNUMX) [XNUMX]
      Order of St. Vladimir 1st Art. - for fights with the French in 1805 (24.02.1806)
      Portrait of Emperor Alexander I with diamonds for wearing on his chest (18.07.1811/XNUMX/XNUMX)
      Golden sword with diamonds and laurels - for the battle of Tarutino (16.10.1812)
      Diamond signs to the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called (12.12.1812)
      Foreign:
      Holstein Order of St. Anne - for the battle with the Turks near Ochakov (21.04.1789)
      Austrian Military Order of Maria Theresa 1st Art. (02.11.1805)
      Prussian Order of the Red Eagle 1st Art.
      Prussian Order of the Black Eagle (1813).
      1. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam 16 September 2015 07: 21 New
        +1
        Quote: bionik
        Awards: M. I. Kutuzov became the first of 4 full St. George Knights in the history of the order.

        Dear colleague Vladislav, you NEED to know well the award system of the Russian Empire. The holder of the Order of St. George (as well as other orders) had the right to wear on his uniform only one order badge - of the highest degree. This automatically meant that he had all subordinate degrees. In addition, the orders had rank cards. The person who has already been awarded some orders, the next time could only be awarded the order, standing in the table of ranks above.
        Merits M.I. Kutuzov in front of the Motherland is so great that it is not necessary to additionally replicate dubious myths.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Vend
          Vend 16 September 2015 09: 40 New
          +1
          He saved Russia, but they did not forgive him forsaking Moscow. Not fair.
          1. DIVAN SOLDIER
            DIVAN SOLDIER 16 September 2015 09: 43 New
            -12
            Borodino lost, they surrendered Moscow, so that’s the genius of the general.
            1. Cat man null
              Cat man null 16 September 2015 09: 50 New
              +5
              Quote: DIVAN SOLDIER
              Borodino lost, Moscow surrendered

              And the final result - do not remind? wink

              Quote: DIVAN SOLDIER
              what is the genius of generals

              The end result, IMHO
            2. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 16 September 2015 10: 14 New
              +1
              DIVAN SOLDIER "Borodino lost, surrendered Moscow, so what's the genius of the general."
              Your genius is not comparable with him.)))
            3. avt
              avt 16 September 2015 11: 10 New
              +7
              Quote: DIVAN SOLDIER
              Borodino lost, they surrendered Moscow, so that’s the genius of the general.

              The genius of the commander lies in victory in the war, and not in a single battle of the war. Before Kutuzov, Smolensk was successfully defended and Napoleon did not take it by storm - they left themselves in the framework of the approved before the war Sasha No. 1 and developed under the leadership of Barclay, who knew perfectly well what to fight will have WITH ALL EUROPE, and Bonnie under arms in Europe at the beginning of 1812 had 1 million 187 thousand under arms, of which 850 thousand were actually French. He already wrote in response to the surrender of Moscow - Kutuzov strictly adhered to the chosen strategy and brought the war on the territory of Russia to its logical end, not letting Bonya go south, where they, having been equipped with robbery on the occupied territory since the revolution, could have simply eaten and let them go along the Old The Smolensk road, where it was devouring only in the provisions warehouses of Smolensk and not at all. That is, he provided healing fasting with local battles. So, Kutuzov’s merits as a strategist are enormous. Just because he closed the Turkish front with a victory and secured diplomatically, unlike the partisan front in Spain, Boni is already worthy of all respect. It’s just that Tormasov’s army would not go into business.
              1. Hello
                Hello 16 September 2015 11: 17 New
                0
                I wonder why Napoleon decided to go to Moscow and not to Petersburg, because his strategy was a general battle and the capture of the capital. And then surrender
                1. avt
                  avt 16 September 2015 11: 38 New
                  +3
                  Quote: Hello
                  I wonder why Napoleon decided to go to Moscow and not to Petersburg, because his strategy was a general battle and the capture of the capital.

                  Well, Bonya needs to be asked. That's why it was by all means that he went to Moscow and declared to his soldiers that with the capture of the city the company would end in surrender, which Sasha No. 1 would certainly sign. request I already wrote before - initially they were not going to defend Moscow. If they wanted to, they would have fought in Moscow itself, as before, they had defended Smolensk, repulsed ALL the assaults and surrendered the city. Moscow with a network of monasteries covering dangerous directions and river crossings is an ideal place for defense, well, naturally, taking into account the armaments of that time, they simply could not know then. So the current Garden Ring is an open earthen rampart, the Boulevard Ring is also a former fortification system, and there’s still China’s city and only then -Kreml. Yes, you can easily add gorodni - you won’t turn around, again the rivers - Yauza, Neglinka and sit under siege for at least a year, at least two without problems, it’s difficult to ring this city. So giving Borodino from The principle of “War and Peace” - if everyone wants to - it is necessary to give a battle “Kutuzov brilliantly executed the MANEUVERABLE war strategy developed before it began and one hundred pounds agreed on leaving the Mother See with Sasha No. 1. Napoleon simply could not brain to take it that after the capture of Moscow the war will not end, about which he actually broadcast the army - you can quite find yourself. But, “wild Muscovites”, these eastern barbarians did not and do not understand the rules of warfare. By the way, Gishpanites with their partisans fell out of a civilized family of peoples who had laid down according to Napoleon. The others, like after the surrender, joined the Buonaparty to rob Russia, and then they started to rob the keepers and expelled the Monster from Paris with Russia. Forgot to add - the Germans from the corps of the nea Peterburch, who, exactly after Boni’s retreat from Moscow, surrendered by the regiment to the Hussars by the thousands, well, and then naturally they were already heroic with the Russian army at Europah. They show that there is a caricature of the 13th year in the Borodino Panorama Museum.
                  1. Hello
                    Hello 16 September 2015 11: 48 New
                    +1
                    Thanks for your reply. Regarding Kutuzov’s strategic vision and Napoleon’s strategic miscalculation, I completely agree that it would be foolish not to use the strategic depth of the empire to exhaust the enemy and stretch the communication, which was done.
                    Best regards
                    1. DIVAN SOLDIER
                      DIVAN SOLDIER 16 September 2015 12: 03 New
                      -1
                      Why then it was necessary to give battle at Borodino, they would be exhausted further than the French.
                      1. Hello
                        Hello 16 September 2015 12: 17 New
                        +2
                        Quote: DIVAN SOLDIER
                        Why then it was necessary to give battle at Borodino, they would be exhausted further than the French.

                        Borodino, in my opinion, was needed to show Napoleon that the Russians agreed to a general battle, the battle took place Kutuzov retreated but kept the army in a combat-ready state and at the same time created confidence among the French that they had won. Further, the regular capture of Moscow and the retaliatory strike of Kutuzov but from a more favorable position for himself.
                      2. Nagaibak
                        Nagaibak 17 September 2015 08: 34 New
                        +1
                        Hello "Borodino, in my opinion, was necessary to show Napoleon that the Russians agree to a general battle."
                        Kutuzov repeated with the French too. what some time ago he did with the Turks under Ruschuk. One to one. Read the battle at Ruschuk.)))) There is also a battle near the walls of the fortress, then its abandonment, surrounded by the Turkish army))) its blockade, hunger and sadness of the Turks. Then the surrender of the Turkish army and the signing of peace. Just a little, just before the invasion of Napoleon.
                    2. RiverVV
                      RiverVV 16 September 2015 12: 33 New
                      +4
                      It is believed that the custody was given at the insistence of Emperor Alexander. He demanded that Kutuzov stop the advance of the enemy towards Moscow. Kutuzov, in turn, did not argue, gave battle in an advantageous and previously fortified position and used it to get out of contact with Napoleon's army.

                      If you look closely at the prince's career, it is noticeable that he always behaved the same way: he did not argue with his superior, but he carried out his orders in his own way.
                    3. avt
                      avt 16 September 2015 14: 05 New
                      +2
                      Quote: RiverVV
                      If you look closely at the career of the prince, it is noticeable that he always behaved in the same way: he did not argue with his superior

                      And he, according to eyewitnesses, was a fair courtier and womanizer. laughing Zra chtol his envious people and Sasha No. 1 himself called him a satyr. good hefty.
                    4. RiverVV
                      RiverVV 16 September 2015 18: 10 New
                      +1
                      And a flatterer in addition. But what's the difference?
                    5. Wasiliy1985
                      Wasiliy1985 16 September 2015 20: 03 New
                      +1
                      That would be all such womanizer and courtiers would be !!! I’m even for it, especially since womanizer women are, as a rule, very kind people - why should they be evil if women love them .. :)
        3. Wasiliy1985
          Wasiliy1985 16 September 2015 19: 53 New
          +2
          Exactly! Kutuzov’s strategy was “sucked up” by everyone who is not lazy of our contemporaries. But his contemporaries, and even more than that, his opponents give him his due, recognizing in him a smart and strong opponent!
          No wonder Suvorov said about him (as indicated in the post): "Smart, smart, cunning, cunning ... Nobody will deceive him."
          And Kutuzov himself, to the question: “how does he think to defeat Napoleon”, in the circle of his family, answered: “I won’t think so, but I’ll try to outwit him.”
          Which he did.
          So correctly, Alexander Vasilyevich certified Mikhail Illarionovich. :)
  2. X Y Z
    X Y Z 16 September 2015 19: 27 New
    +1
    A good word is NEEDED. And before you correct others, you yourself need to know this system yourself. Because the presence of an order of a certain degree did not always mean the presence of lower degrees. So at A.V. Suvorov was missing the order of 4 tbsp. And out of 23 holders of the order 1 tbsp. only 4 had a full set of orders. In addition, in 1856 it was allowed to simultaneously wear the signs of the orders of St. George of all art.
  3. moskowit
    moskowit 16 September 2015 20: 40 New
    +1
    Dear colleague Gamdlislyam. You are half right. The Order of St. George has never been removed, just as later, according to the 1884 statute of the year, other orders "with swords" were never removed.

    "The Order of St. George at its time was established by section -
    laziness into four classes or degrees, with which the highest
    Leno: “Do not remove this order”

    I present for illustrative purposes the portrait of Bracclaus de Tolly placed in the gallery of heroes of the 1812 of the year. Order of George 1 on the tape at the hip, 2st on the neck ...
  4. moskowit
    moskowit 16 September 2015 21: 18 New
    0
    Dear colleague Gamdlislyam. A very good book on the topic can be downloaded in PDF format. Http://www.torrentino.com/torrents/580554? BXwZcQa6cc82172365b32b7388f6f16a75
    cf8f=00b91239d9b0aec999133f42a0521de7
    She looks like this ...
  • erg
    erg 17 September 2015 05: 12 New
    0
    Most likely corporal first. The fourier in rank is equal to the captenarmus. Both of these ranks are older than corporal and are more likely to belong to special ranks of commanding staff than to ranks of combat commanders. Although, when built into battle formations, they occupied a place in the general system and probably carried out command functions, in contrast to non-combatant ones remaining in the rear. Although engaged in material support units. Captenarmus weapons, fourier other material support, including food.
  • V.ic
    V.ic 16 September 2015 07: 27 New
    +1
    In 1774 he led the vanguard assaulting enemy fortifications near the village Noise. Reinforcement took. But Kutuzov himself was seriously injured: a bullet hit his left temple and flew out at his right eye. Author Samsonov Alexander

    In fact, in the sources for this settlement, the name was written a little differently, namely, Noiseлa.
    The outstanding Russian commander Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov died on April 16 (28), 1813 in Poland, Author Samsonov Alexander

    It was more correct to say not in Poland, but in Lower Silesia, annexed to Prussia under Frederick I (the father of der Gross Friedrich). Death overtook Mikhail Illarionovich in the town of Bunzlau (now Boleslawiec). The marshal died in the house of commandant Bunzlau. By the way, not far from Boleslawiec A.I. Pokryshkin used part of the Berlin motorway as a runway. Berlin was 240 km away.
    1. Wasiliy1985
      Wasiliy1985 16 September 2015 20: 12 New
      0
      That is, our military places are already familiar ?! :)
      About the deployment of Pokryshkin’s air unit (sort of like a whole fighter air division - IAD, I don’t remember anymore), he’s described in detail in the Sky of War and his wingman Golubev in Paired with the XNUMXth, and there’s also a newsreel where the youngest the pilot of the Pokryshkin’s division shows with his hands to the downed German ace how he shot him down, but he doesn’t believe that the milk pump shot him down - Golubev wrote that the German was sure that only the Pokryshkin class pilot could knock him down. :) :)
      Shot just there!
      1. V.ic
        V.ic 17 September 2015 06: 58 New
        0
        Quote: Wasiliy1985
        That is, our military places are already familiar ?!

        There air division (Su-24) was: 3 airdromes - Kshiva, Zagan, Sprotava. The headquarters was in Spratava. Boleslawiec from Spratava 37 miles in my opinion.
  • parusnik
    parusnik 16 September 2015 08: 01 New
    +3
    Napoleon was furious: “Understand these dogs, these idiots of the Turks, who have the talent to be beaten, and who could have foreseen this, expect this!”... But it should be noted that Napoleon did not particularly intervene in this war, did not send notes ... He did not deliver advisers and weapons to the Turks, as it was in other times ... He took into account the influence of German military thought at court , at a Russian military school .. Namely, the capture of fortresses, the seizure of enemy territory, and not the defeat of troops in one or two general battles .. And here came Kutuzov, commander, a bright representative of the Suvorov school .. and he ruined everything .. He ended the war in the shortest time .. and on favorable terms ..
  • Miner
    Miner 16 September 2015 09: 27 New
    +1
    Thank you for the article.

    My question is not in the outline of those significant events, the participant and creator of which was our great compatriot.

    But nevertheless, I had occasion to meet such information that Kutuzov by the end of his life saw equally well with both his eyes, although one of them, as is known, was damaged in the battle and Mikhail Illarionovich often covered him with a blindfold so that his eyes would not overwork with eye strain, why Kutuzov had a headache.

    But others, claim that the celebrated commander still did not have the opportunity to see the second, either damaged or lost his eye.


    What is the truth of a colleague?
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 16 September 2015 10: 28 New
      0
      Quote: Miner
      What is the truth of a colleague?

      In vino veritas ...
  • Support
    Support 16 September 2015 11: 57 New
    -11
    The cowardly Kutuzov does not deserve the memory of the Russians. This freemason freemason did everything to the detriment of Russia. One example is that Raevsky’s battery died because Kutuzov didn’t give infantry help. 120 of our gunners fought against 1500 cuirassiers, and destroyed half. And when Prince Bagration, spitting on the inaction of the Commander-in-Chief, himself gathered people from different regiments and launched a counterattack, the Field Marshal deigned to "bite off the chicken." The army did not forget and forgive this chicken. So this freemason should not be extolled.
    1. Wasiliy1985
      Wasiliy1985 16 September 2015 20: 17 New
      0
      suck - very bewitched!
  • Support
    Support 16 September 2015 12: 28 New
    -5
    Ha, why so few cons? Then I’ll throw intestine processing products into a fan — the famous council at Fili — For leaving Moscow without a fight, Barclay de Tolly, Raevsky, Osterman, Tol and Baggovut (all Masons), against - Dokhturov, Konovnitsyn, Uvarov, Platov, Ermolov, Kaysarov ( all are not Masons). The decisive vote was cast by Kutuzov, who made the decision of his brothers in the boxes.
    Bagration (not a Mason) was absent from the Council. Kutuzov actually replaced the chief of staff of the Russian troops Benningsen with Quartermaster General and Freemason Tol. The fact that Benningsen, a supporter of the defense of Moscow, was removed from control, is the intrigue of the one-eyed traitor of Russia.
    Benningsen considered his own defensive position to be insurmountable even theoretically. You can take a ride on this position even now in order to make sure that the author of the “deep retreat tactics” Tol was an outright traitor. Masons stupidly decided to burn Moscow, as one of the centers of Russian Civilization.
    Waiting for the cons, liquid masons, where are you ....
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 16 September 2015 19: 30 New
      +1
      You do not know, but write about the Judeo-Masons. I didn’t want to, but I’ll have to write an article about Kutuzov, as everything was in reality. And who he really was and what people of his time and later, and Pushkin (young!), Wrote about him. Wait, find and read ... One-sidedness is always bad!
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 16 September 2015 19: 33 New
        0
        but you have to write an article about Kutuzov good They got it, the Tartarians, alternative workers ...
    2. Wasiliy1985
      Wasiliy1985 16 September 2015 20: 17 New
      0
      suck - very bewitched!
  • bistrov.
    bistrov. 16 September 2015 12: 40 New
    +1
    An outstanding commander and statesman. A faithful student of Suvorov, who actually applied his tactics. At the same time, a cunning politician who managed to stay on the constantly fluctuating wave of tsarist disposition. But even he could not escape, as they say, repression. The test was written under the influence of the previous commentator "Prop".
  • Support
    Support 16 September 2015 13: 47 New
    -5
    What is the tactics of Kutuzov? What do you repeat the ravings of libero demosrats -
    About Kutuzov’s tactics - at a time when Napoleon, weighed down by the loot and artillery, reached through Gzhatsk, Vyazma, Dorogobuzh, Smolensk and Krasny directly to Berezina. Much has been written about the trick of Admiral Chichagov, who missed the remnants of Napoleonic forces with the chief dwarf under Berezin. Appointed by the representation of Kutuzov.
    Instead of having growing numerical and qualitative superiority, send a fresh corps along at least two roads from at least one cavalry and two infantry divisions, with horse artillery, to overtake this miserable demoralized seam and block their movement - at least for Dorogobuzh, at least for Red , even in front of Orsha, just putting out fifty guns, Kutuzov long stretched parallel to the south a little more than 150 thousand troops, allowing only Cossacks in a few dozen people to pinch the half-dead from the cold and tin plundered representatives of European civilization. The troops on the march are uncomfortable to unfold in the orders for battle. Russia had a chance to end the war with one choch and return most of the stolen goods. And there would be no “Battle of the Peoples” near Leipzig, and under Fer-Champenoise, (ABBA - “Waterloo” remember ??). And then the Russian troops would not lose our soldiers and officers when taking Paris, and then they would not get out from there by sea (how many heard about this?), Selling all the horses to pay the way back (since then the vast majority of the horse population in France has Russian roots).
    1. RiverVV
      RiverVV 16 September 2015 14: 05 New
      +2
      Dude, your posts are funny to read. Two divisions went home by sea. Not from France, but from Germany. And on the ships of the Baltic Fleet. French horses, you say? .. Actually, in France since then, Russian genes have not only horses. French women will still be a little more attractive than mares ...

      As you find out how much the Baltic Fleet has torn off infantry tickets, write.
      1. Support
        Support 16 September 2015 14: 25 New
        0
        They sailed from the sea, I meant the geyropu, not Paris. Read what is and do not invent for me. It’s funny to read, don’t read what the problem is. Tell me, what am I wrong? Where did the genius of Kutuzov-Mason appear? And then all was designated by epithets. You give me your facts on mine.
        1. RiverVV
          RiverVV 16 September 2015 14: 31 New
          +1
          So he didn’t know how much the tickets cost on the ship? Two of you on the history of Ukraine.
        2. Wasiliy1985
          Wasiliy1985 16 September 2015 20: 18 New
          -1
          suck - very bewitched!
    2. Wasiliy1985
      Wasiliy1985 16 September 2015 20: 18 New
      0
      suck - very bewitched!
  • Support
    Support 16 September 2015 14: 45 New
    0
    Man, don’t get smart. Cut it, well done. You answer my facts. Where am I wrong. And with epithets, I can worse. I’m such a “stool.” And you ask me the facts. Can not? Then do not distract me ....
    1. RiverVV
      RiverVV 16 September 2015 16: 45 New
      +1
      Your posts are funny to read. It is a fact.
    2. istoler
      istoler 16 September 2015 17: 48 New
      +1
      What is the genius of Kutuzov?

      The fact is that on the eve of Napoleon’s invasion, Kutuzov was able to defeat the Turks in a year and, more importantly, conclude a profitable peace having saved the country from war on three fronts and freed up forces for a decisive battle with France.
      The fact that the balance of power in the main direction at the beginning of the company in 1812 was 450 thousand conventional French against 150 thousand Russian, and by the end of the company 10 thousand conventional French against the same 150 thousand Russian.
    3. Wasiliy1985
      Wasiliy1985 16 September 2015 20: 19 New
      0
      suck - very bewitched!
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Karabanov
    Karabanov 16 September 2015 16: 02 New
    +2
    Already somehow laid out ... Well, I really like the scene with funny "Gorodoshnikami" like laughing
  • moskowit
    moskowit 16 September 2015 21: 21 New
    0
    Ugly skirmish. Would be ashamed ...