Military Review

Mistral landing craft: a refund and future prospects

In early August, Russia and France put an end to the sensational stories with the delivery of two amphibious ships of the type Mistral. After several months of negotiations, the parties found a common language and decided to terminate the contract signed at the beginning of 2011. In accordance with the new agreement, France maintains its position and does not transfer the ships to the customer due to disagreements over the Ukrainian crisis, and Russia, in turn, receives all the money paid earlier to the Mistral manufacturer.

Recall that the first of the two amphibious assault ships ordered by the French shipbuilders were to be handed over to Russia last fall. However, several months before the deadline, French President Francois Hollande said it was impossible to transfer ships due to the current difficult situation in the international arena. In the fall of 2015, the Russian military should have received a second ship, but its delivery has now been completely canceled.

Shortly after the appearance of the first information about the completion of the negotiations, it was announced that France had paid compensation to Russia for refusing to deliver two ships, but the exact amount was not reported. The amount that had to be paid to the French side, became known only in early September. According to foreign and domestic media, the contract gap cost France in 949 754 859 euros. At the same time, in some domestic editions other figures were cited. Thus, the Kommersant publication, citing unnamed sources, reported that Russia had already received compensation in the amount of 950 million euros for two ships and 67,5 million euros for their feed parts built in our country.

The landing ship "Sevastopol" in Saint-Nazaire. Photo of Wikimedia Commons

The press cites different figures, but the actual situation is most likely reflected in data on 949,75 million euros. According to reports, it is this amount that appears in the text of the agreement on the termination of the contract for the supply of ships, submitted for approval to the National Assembly of France. September 15 the lower house of the French parliament should review and approve the document. It should be noted that the contract has already been signed, and compensation for the ships has already been paid in full.

A few days after the information about the amount of compensation, data appeared on the further joint work of the two countries. In accordance with the new agreement, French shipbuilders will have to dismantle Russian-made equipment from two landing craft. According to media reports, dismantling work should begin in September. In addition, it was argued that the dismantling would be carried out by French specialists under the supervision of Russian colleagues.

According to the updated project, landing ships for Russia were to receive a number of Russian-made equipment. It was supposed to use Russian communications and control systems, weapons, etc. As far as we know, most of these systems were transferred to a contracting company that installed them on ships. After the transfer of Russia, the two ships were supposed to be in the dock for the installation of the remaining weapons. For obvious reasons, this stage of the project will not be implemented.

In the near future, two ships must lose part of the onboard equipment, which the French side is obliged to return to Russia. According to some reports, the total cost of this equipment is estimated at about 50 million euros. With certain reservations, this amount can be added to the principal compensation when calculating total losses in France.

Official information on the list of systems that will be dismantled from two ships in the near future is not yet available. Nevertheless, attempts are being made to define this list and draw some conclusions. For example, the September release of FlotProm 8 published material “Mistral Shards”: which Russian equipment France will return, in which it tried to determine which ship systems would be removed from the ships, packed and sent to Russian warehouses.

According to the Flotprom, ships of the Mistral type were to receive 67P radar recognition equipment manufactured by the Kazan Electrotechnical Plant. It is noted that this system, designed to determine nationality aviation equipment or ships, suitable for installation on boats and ships of various projects.

The tasks of the combat control of the ship and the tactical formation on the Mistral were to be carried out by the Sigma-E combat information management system. This equipment, produced by NPO Mars, can be installed on ships of various projects and ranks, including landing ships of French origin.

To detect and attack targets, new ships were to use the optical-electronic and thermal imaging complex MTK-201МЭ. Such equipment is used on domestic XVUMX corvettes and allows you to monitor the situation in a radius of up to 20380 km.

FlotProm also lists the communications equipment supplied to France for installation on the Mistral. So, for the satellite radio communication, the P-793-M “Trailer-M” station was offered, with the help of which the ships could communicate with other ships and the coast. In addition, landing ships were supposed to carry a second satellite communications station, the P-794-1 "Centaurus-HM1". A super-long-range radio receiver P-774СД1.1 and an 16 channel receiver P-693 were also purchased.

It was planned to include Russian-made anti-aircraft artillery and rocket systems in the armament complex of the two ships. In accordance with the contract for the construction and supply of ships, the French contractor had to prepare places for the installation of weapons. Proper installation weapons and some auxiliary systems were supposed to be implemented at Russian enterprises after the transfer of ships. Due to the disruption of delivery, the ships never received weapons. According to reports, for self-defense, two Mistral amphibious assault ships were supposed to use AK-630 anti-aircraft installations and the Bending 3М47 missile systems.

At present, French specialists must start preparing for the dismantling of systems of Russian production to be returned. France Presse, citing its sources, reports that it will take several months to dismantle Russian equipment — these works will be completed only in January of next year.

Literally the other day it became known that in this situation the shipbuilding company DCNS, which was the main contractor under the Russian-French contract, will receive. French Secretary General for Defense and Security, Louis Gautier, during his speech in parliament, said that shipbuilders will receive insurance payments in the amount of 1,1 billion euros. This amount includes the cost of the ships themselves, as well as the cost of maintaining them, pending a decision on their future fate. At the same time, insurance payments do not take into account the costs of dismantling the systems returned to Russia.

At the moment, the further fate of the two landing ships built for Russia is the subject of controversy and discussion. According to various media sources, several countries are now showing interest in French ships and may even acquire them. The list of potential buyers now includes both expected and unexpected positions.

Earlier, the possibility of selling ships of the Mistral type Canada was actively discussed. In favor of the version of the possibility of the appearance of the French-Canadian contract, an argument was made in the form of numerous modifications to the design of ships aimed at ensuring effective work in northern latitudes. However, the Canadian military cannot afford such large and expensive purchases. For this reason, the possibility of selling two Mistrals to Canada is no longer considered seriously.

In early September, the publication Defense News added the United Arab Emirates to the list of potential buyers. According to the unnamed government representative of the UAE, who was quoted by the publication, his country is interested in buying one of the ready landing ships.

A little later, French journalists from Intelligence Online reviewed several versions of the possible sale of two ships and concluded that the best option is to transfer equipment to Egypt. However, the official Cairo can not allocate the necessary funding. In this regard, the contract may be paid by Saudi Arabia, which has already ordered a certain amount of military equipment for the Egyptian military at its own expense. In this case, the French edition mentions some negotiations in Riyadh. Perhaps French and Arabian officials have already begun to discuss a possible contract.

It should be noted that in the press of different countries other "candidates" of buyers of the built ships are now being discussed. According to various publications, two Mistral can replenish the military fleets of India, Vietnam, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, etc. However, so far none of the countries mentioned in the context of the latter News and rumors, did not officially express readiness to acquire French ships.

In this situation, Russia, apparently, does not want to lose its benefits and therefore intends to make lucrative offers. So, according to the Kommersant newspaper, the Russian side can offer the Ka-52K deck helicopters to a potential Mistral buyer. This modification of the "land" attack helicopter was developed specifically for basing on the landing craft, and now its further fate was in doubt. At the same time, the Russian export offer may be beneficial for potential customers, since the Ka-52K helicopters were developed for a specific type of ships and adapted to work on them.

Against the background of discussions on the possible sale of ships to third countries in the foreign press, new rumors have emerged concerning the future role of Russia in this story. According to some information, the Russian side can refuse the requirement to return the equipment of its own production. Such a condition, according to some publications, concerns the possible sale of ships to Egypt and India. In other words, if two Mistrals are sold to a friendly Russian state, then it will not insist on returning its systems.

As we can see, despite the appearance of an agreement annulling the Russian-French contract for the supply of two amphibious ships, and the payment of compensation, the situation continues to raise a lot of questions. The main one is the further fate of the two built ships. By the end of the year, two Mistrals should lose a number of Russian-made systems, after which French shipbuilders will be able to begin preparing ships for further sale.

Who exactly would express the desire to acquire two ships built for Russia is not completely clear. There are various assumptions in the domestic and foreign press, but all of them, apparently, do not fully correspond to the real state of affairs. In the export fate of the landing ships, at the moment, only one fact is precisely known - they will not be handed over to the original customer. The new buyer, in turn, has not yet been determined.

In this situation, you can only make predictions and try to predict the further development of the fate of two ships of the type Mistral. In addition, you should follow the news. What exactly will happen to the ships in the future - time will tell.

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  1. The comment was deleted.
    1. kirpich
      kirpich 17 September 2015 09: 58 New
      Do not post in every topic. Bored. am
  2. Evgeniy667b
    Evgeniy667b 17 September 2015 07: 07 New
    Well, why the idea of ​​the impossibility of modernizing helicopters, which, by no means, can be changed, for example, for land use. There is only one point: to prevent their entry into service with the Russian armed forces, that is, weakening of defense capability. Secretive bending under US interests !!! Everything is obvious.
    1. donavi49
      donavi49 17 September 2015 09: 05 New
      There the question is, why with a live Ka-52 build a Ka-52K, which is more expensive, more expensive to operate and more hemorrhoids for mechanics?

      The carrier of the real one is Kuzya. Plus maybe Peter the Great / Nakhimov on 1 because they have a large hangar. In a number of unscientific fiction BOD on flights to Aden, but again 2 Ka-27PS will look even better there. And the hangar there is squeezed, not the fact that it will fit. The rest of the ships carry an 1 helicopter and it will always be targeted / universal.

      The only real advantage of the X-35 on internal suspensions. This is really useful only on the standing Mistral / Kuzyakh - Kunashir, Iturup, Shikotan, Habomae.

      That is, theoretically, the order and touched by Ka-52K can be shoved. But to build further in series, it makes no sense. For the phenomenon of surf / avalanche in the Navy, that is, for the 2020 + year, the Ka-52KM will already be ready, with a new board, a new radar and other new products.
      1. gjv
        gjv 17 September 2015 09: 51 New
        Quote: donavi49
        This is really useful only on the standing Mistral / Kuzyakh - Kunashir, Iturup, Shikotan, Habomae.

    2. Dart2027
      Dart2027 17 September 2015 21: 30 New
      The land version is already there - Ka52.
  3. Yun Klob
    Yun Klob 17 September 2015 08: 34 New
    Nerdyukov Serdyukov.
  4. Car lover
    Car lover 17 September 2015 08: 50 New
    The author has a talent for writing many letters about nothing. Contents: "Mistral, probably, someone will buy, but not yet. Russia, probably, will sell equipment made for them + helicopters, but not to anyone yet."
  5. Engineer
    Engineer 17 September 2015 09: 02 New
    Two Syrian express trains would be good ...
  6. shurikchaevnik
    shurikchaevnik 17 September 2015 09: 52 New
    And where are the 5 lards about which some cheers are here ... not patriots wrote such pearls? It’s supposed that Russia was again thrown into slops ... Or is it only to me that it seems so ?!
    1. Kuzyakin15
      Kuzyakin15 17 September 2015 10: 25 New
      It wasn’t for you alone. For almost a year, high officials vparivali us about 5 lard forfeit, then about 3, and then about 1,19 lard allegedly already received.
      But in reality, it is not Russia that dictates to the frogmen, but the French, our MOs are specifically bent.
      Pease ..... s! Even Ukraine specifically throws us, with credit, and with ship engines and with the development of A.N. Money cried-MO itself admitted this
      1. Cat man null
        Cat man null 17 September 2015 10: 37 New
        Quote: Kuzyakin15
        Ukraine specifically throws us - and with credit, and with ship engines

        - with a loan - in doubt, there seems to be such a bidding, with such rates - we never dreamed of ..
        - with ship engines - it is not clear who Ukraine is throwing more. In a few years, Russia will have its own engines, and Ukraine-finishes its production of those engines .. "to spite mom’s frostbitten ears", yeah ..

        Quote: Kuzyakin15
        But in reality, it is not Russia that dictates to the frogmen, but the French, our MOs are specifically bent.

        There is real information - in the studio, links. No - do not talk nonsense ..
  7. kirpich
    kirpich 17 September 2015 10: 02 New
    With 90% confidence, India will buy one Mistral yes We will argue? wink
  8. datur
    datur 17 September 2015 10: 45 New
    MDA- and technology and = money !!! these troughs were worth it !!!
  9. Roman 1977
    Roman 1977 17 September 2015 12: 14 New
    In my opinion, the main problem is that the USSR began to lag behind in the construction of landing ships. No one was preparing large-scale landing operations, so the construction of the BDK of 775 Ave. was transferred to "fraternal" Poland, and they themselves built the useless hermaphrodites of Ave. 1143 with their weak Yak-38, BPC Ave. 1155, destroyers Ave. 956, 5 submarine types, etc. etc. The 11780 project of the Soviet UDC "Ivan Tarava" was ruined by departmental contradictions, so at the request of the USSR Minister of Defense Marshal of the Soviet Union D.F. Ustinov (he seemed to be the smartest person), tracking peacetime was added to the tasks of the 11780 project enemy submarines in the ocean zone. And plus the "dislike" of Soviet leaders for aircraft carriers, which they considered the "instrument of imperialism"
    And now, it has what we have:
    3 of the oldest BDK pr. 1171, one of which is Orsk (BSF) in constant repair
    19 BDK Pr. 775, which are "seeking" the "Syrian express"
    and one, built already 11 years (laid in 2004 year) "push-pull" "Ivan Gren" Ave. 11711, which is essentially a development of the ancient BDK Ave. 1171 60's, with the added helicopter deck, which in turn is a development of the American tank landing LST since the Second World War.
    With the termination of the Mistral contract, nothing similar to the UDC shines for us in the near future, but from the development of the UDC "Surf", which still exists in the form of a layout, to its introduction into the Navy, given the construction time for the remaining ships, at least 5-6 years will pass . It’s cheaper to buy UDK Ave. 071 from the Chinese, or even easier to just buy a “box” and equip it at reporting yards.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 17 September 2015 13: 45 New
      Quote: Novel 1977
      Project 11780 of the Soviet UDC "Ivan Tarava" was ruined by departmental contradictions, so at the request of the USSR Minister of Defense Marshal of the Soviet Union D.F. Ustinov (he seemed to be the smartest person), tracking of enemy submarines in the ocean was added to the tasks of project 11780 in peacetime zone.

      ... in full accordance with the views of the UDC that existed at that time in the Navy. If we take domestic articles and books of that time, then the same Tarav spelled out that they can and will be used as aircraft carriers of PLO.

      In addition, do not forget about the genesis of domestic UDC. Our UDC grew out of the "halzan". And he was originally a helicopter carrier of a PLO, on which they later hung the function of a landing ship. This universality migrated to 11780.
  10. Kuzyakin15
    Kuzyakin15 17 September 2015 13: 50 New
    Gat Man Null:
    2 shipyard rubles were paid for ship engines, and somewhere around $ 80 million for the development and launch of the transport Academy of Sciences. As stated by the representative of the Ministry of Defense, you can forget and write off this money. It is unlikely that we will get them back. This was confirmed by a senior official of Ukraine: Money has already been sawed, they simply do not.
    But engines and money, as I understand it, are necessary for us today. Or rather, the day before yesterday, or not a hundred will be in so many years
    1. Cat man null
      Cat man null 18 September 2015 17: 04 New
      Quote: Kuzyakin15
      2 shipyard rubles were paid for ship engines and somewhere around $ 80 million for the development and launch of transport AN

      So be it..

      Quote: Kuzyakin15
      It is unlikely that we will get them back

      Any transaction carries an element of risk.

      Quote: Kuzyakin15
      And engines and money, as far as I understand necessary us today

      - you wrote it right yes
      - necessary - this is when you die without them. Is someone dying? Nope .. Dates are shifting? Well, it’s an everyday matter .. nationwide, naturally ..

      You see, what happened in Ukraine in the winter of the 14th was expected. But it was expected about a year later. Moreover - it was expected quite reasonably (I'm on the timing).

      Based on this, engines were planned (about AN I’m not the topic, sorry).

      Typical force majeure. Happenes. Has anyone died of this? - no. Everything is in order, shook off, and we go further.

      Quote: Kuzyakin15
      and not what will happen after so many years

      Are there any options? wink

      Something like that. All IMHO, essno.
  11. Tambov Wolf
    Tambov Wolf 17 September 2015 14: 15 New
    And where is the 3,2 billion euros that the media talked about for almost half a year? Forgiven fraternally? And at whose expense?
  12. Riperbahn
    Riperbahn 17 September 2015 18: 33 New
    The Chinese will buy. For floating casinos :) at the price of scrap metal.
  13. Ilya77
    Ilya77 17 September 2015 18: 52 New
    I liked the comment from one site:

    “I live in one city that was famous for its shipbuilding even under the USSR. The whole city was built around it. Here you have a huge institute, here you have a bunch of design bureaus, here you have a bunch of specialized vocational schools, and of course 3 shipyards and 4 At the time, everything was worth everything from trawlers to aircraft carriers (by the way, the latter, after the collapse of the USSR, the Varyag was sold to the Chinese after all). So the USSR collapsed, plants began to be plundered, the work became few. And the population was solid engineers - shipbuilders. Real professionals, many generations of shipbuilders in the 2-3 generation. At first, who was lucky - worked on ship repair here and there, who were less fortunate - went to the near and far abroad to earn money. Well, who was not lucky - retrained in auto mechanics / window installers, etc. And then China came in. Here and there were job offers in China for shipyards under construction. Then we went to our university - joint projects, invitations to students, and finally - switched to teachers. At the same time, all the specialists who went there felt (and still probably feel) themselves as demigods - both the housing and the salary are such that you live in nothing without refusing yourself and the family can be sent. The thing is that in China there is a lot of labor and resources. They also have purchased / copied drawings. But they don’t have professional engineers who can do something intelligible from all this. Hence the first "nightmare" ships. Which are built, it seems, according to the drawing, but they float (namely float) like a trough. All why - because certain standards were not met for the same welding, for the same assembly, etc. But these norms are not in the drawings. But they are in the heads of our specialists, who have been building Chinese ships there according to our drawings for 5 years already. But this is still half the trouble, all the salt is what nobody is talking about - in education. Would you know how many professors, candidates and doctors of science have been studying Chinese youth there for years ... And then these young people go on probation to our aging specialists. As a result, in 10-15 years, China will still raise a generation of engineers. And then we’ll talk for whom world domination. "
  14. Lydia61
    Lydia61 17 September 2015 20: 58 New
    Something tells me that these Mistrals may be with us
  15. tatarin_ru
    tatarin_ru 17 September 2015 23: 12 New
    Mistrals are a multi-way route, at one time a good hook, Russia played the card with them classically, and it’s profitable, as a result, the money was returned back, but France got a little split in the country because of the Mistral and in Asia lost the market to us , but somewhere did not receive, India is an example of this, the general state. an order in this direction for Russia exceeded 40 lard.

    As a result, Russia is a reliable supplier, France is a bright representative of geyropa, Pido * Osna so to speak.

    Yes, and we got the necessary experience, I think we have documentation for it, which means we have our own projects ahead.
  16. Kuzyakin15
    Kuzyakin15 18 September 2015 14: 27 New
    All this is self-consolation. Adjustment of consequences to reality. Technology is not ice — how long will it take to master these technologies in relation to our realities and when will we build ships? 6 years from now? And they were needed yesterday. Although, according to the reviews, the boxes are not ice. But then it was not necessary to order, but you would build it by 18-20 a year, and look like ..

    We wanted the best, but it turned out ..
    1. Cat man null
      Cat man null 18 September 2015 22: 29 New
      Quote: Kuzyakin15
      while we master these technologies in relation to our realities

      And do not tell me where they built the stern (2 pieces) to these same Mistrals?

      I forgot sad

      This is a question about the "development of technology", huh ..
  17. tatarin_ru
    tatarin_ru 18 September 2015 14: 52 New
    And self-comfort

    - Geopolitics are not linear solutions, but complex combinations are a fact.
    - Mistrals are not a means of primary necessity; the fleet needs or does not need another question
    - The money spent was returned, there is no compensation, this is understandable. I did not expect another from the French; I did not experience illusions.
    - There was a noise in France. Because of the Mistral, Oland somehow reluctantly spoke about sanctions at first. Thanks to this, Lupine was gaining votes, and she was for cooperation with Russia.
    - The last few years, the French began to move us in Asia on our wounds traditionally, India and Egypt considered large contracts, after the story with the Mistrals, something went out, this is a fact, what a fit. The sum for the Mistral was not nearby.

    You need to develop your own, but if everything is poached, then by the year 18 well - nothing. So, in my opinion, development is underway, get technology, adapt for yourself, start building prototypes.

    Hurray-patriots and hoo-pissimists, some all want to be smeared with their faces, others are knee-deep sea. Arguing that the cons then put.

    The French in their homeland, well, are not the heroes in this story with the Mistrals, and they themselves talk about it.
  18. gcn
    gcn 18 September 2015 17: 35 New
    I don’t know how it is with forfeit, but our experience was received with little financial benefit. By the way, thermal imagers for tanks and not only that, they didn’t give us a license ((for free)), who knows, unsubscribe
  19. Kuzyakin15
    Kuzyakin15 18 September 2015 19: 28 New
    tatarin_ru, gcn:
    Perhaps you are right, oh no, maybe. But as for technology, I remain at my own: they still need to be adapted to their realities, not so simple and not so fast.
  20. Kuzyakin15
    Kuzyakin15 19 September 2015 12: 54 New
    Quote: Cat Man Null
    Quote: Kuzyakin15
    while we master these technologies in relation to our realities

    And do not tell me where they built the stern (2 pieces) to these same Mistrals?

    I forgot sad And do not tell me what is still and there is no question of laying your ships. And if we in all senses ended up in “chocolate”, which is then a topic for discussing with these boxes. If everyone thinks that we are very lucky and got the money in full, set your own heart and don’t chew on this topic like bast. But only for some reason, they get out of deep conservation, “rhinos” (just don’t demand a link, look for yourself. There was an article) and repair the BDK for as many as 60 years.
    Just do not think that evil is enslaved by the Boers, God. I am the same patriot as all of you. But hiring ... hacking hats, I don’t remember. I am too old to yelling at hiding and how, with a swing, waving. And then here on the VO forum there are individuals who, on one submarine, Novorossiysk, "have gathered all the NATO ships to drive all over the Black Sea. But in general, I think it's time to close the topic of the Mistral." Died so dead! More than what we got, we won’t get it. And therefore, Amen. This is now a French headache

    This is a question about the "development of technology", huh ..
    1. Cat man null
      Cat man null 19 September 2015 14: 00 New
      Quote: Kuzyakin15
      And do not tell me why there is still no question of laying your ships. And if in all senses we ended up in "chocolate", then what is the topic of discussion with these boxes

      - why there is no question - I do not know. By the way, “no speech” and “no plans” are two different things. The concept of "secret" has not yet been canceled, you know ..
      - two categories of people “exaggerate” this topic: 1) magazine-readers who don’t know what else to cut down on and 2) passengers on the Internet who don’t care - anyway
      - at the level of the leadership of the Russian Federation, as I understand it, this issue has long been closed

      Quote: Kuzyakin15
      If everyone thinks that we are very lucky and got the money in full - build your own, and do not chew on this topic like a bast. But only for some reason "rhinos" are taken out of deep conservation and repaired by the BDK for as many as 60 years

      - to build - not to build, to rebuild - not to rebuild - not we decide with you. This is decided by specially trained people. And let them.

      Quote: Kuzyakin15
      here in the VO forum there are individuals who gathered all NATO ships to drive across the Black Sea with one submarine Novorossiysk

      Well, except for Turkish if, there are not many NATO ships on the Black Sea. There simply cannot be many (see Montreux Convention, for example).

      But the Turks can not be considered - they now have enough problems inside the country to climb still outside wink

      Quote: Kuzyakin15
      It's time to close the Mistral topic. Died so dead! We won’t get more than what we got. And therefore, Amen. This is now a French headache

      Agree yes

      And about Mistral in general - here:

      - it was a purely political decision related to 08.08.08
      - France’s support at that time was very useful. Got it
      - a package of technical documentation was attached to the Mistrals. If you got it, the deal is already justified.
      - The team trained at Vladivostok for almost a year. For some reason, I think that it was a specially selected team that not only “trained”.

      I.e :

      - extinguished the scandal after 08.08.08/XNUMX/XNUMX
      - received (or not. But rather - yes) technical documentation
      - climbed the whole box, and - literate people climbed
      - The stern for Mistral was built by the shipyard of the Baltic Shipbuilding Plant. I didn’t forget, actually laughing Accordingly, we received a lesson in "adapting technology to our conditions"

      Here is such a bag of sweets (this is not all, this is what lies on the surface). For almost free (advance payment returned)

      Something like this..
  21. xomaNN
    xomaNN 21 September 2015 15: 37 New
    It’s a pity that the francs are not enough lifted up financially no
    1.5 billion in return for the non-delivery of E-barges would be fairer. Well, at least 6-8 months. take dismantling grew. systems and installation of similar foreign ones. So by the summer of 2016, the barges will be ready for sale. Another question is at what price will they agree to buy? The price for Russia was godlessly inflated by watered. motives, and there will already be just a sale with strong competition in the market of similar UDC.