The archived file of the “Communist Don” for 1943 is an expensive relic, an invaluable documentary evidence of the life of the right bank of the Don after liberation. This wonderful historical the document tells about the progress of the revival of the district, about the everyday and at the same time heroic deeds of collective farmers: about sowing, haymaking, harvesting, restoration of schools, hospitals, livestock farms, about raising funds for construction tank columns of the Don Cossack, about the families of military personnel, orphans, traitors and much more.
The filing of a district newspaper in the format of a leaflet includes 65 numbers and begins with the second number, dated 17 in January, and ends with the number 69 from 11 in November. It is missing in the binder numbers 1, 24, 26, 65, 67. The newspaper of that time is signed by the responsible editor A. Prisekin.
Unfortunately, we do not know anything about those who then made the newspaper. They say the newspaper lives one day. No, this is an unfair statement; the journal itself writes the story itself. We offer you an overview of the events reported by the “Communist Don” in 1943.
The headline of the January 1 editorial for 17, “Everything is for defeating the enemy!” Defines the meaning of life in the rear.
The 25 anniversary of the Red Army was approaching, the concern for its combat capability came first. The collective farmers collected 19700 rubles for several hours to the defense fund for the construction of a tank column only at the Verniy Put agricultural farms.
Life in the area is gradually getting back to normal, getting better. A short note in the room says that a mill mill, a shoe shop, a bakery were opened in the village of Meshkovskaya, a bakery was opened, a canteen, three saunas and a hairdresser were open. There is a repair of houses.
And on January 29 we read: “A district hospital has opened on the territory of the Nazarovsky farm. Head of the hospital V.A. Milov. "
Spring is approaching with the eternal grain-care concerns, and on January 24 in “The Communist of the Don” a message appears: “January 27 in Migulinskaya MTS opened courses for tractor drivers. 100 people will be trained on them, among them there are a lot of girls-collective farmers ”. To keep abreast of events, you can already subscribe to the district. At the end of the same number an ad was posted: “A subscription to the district newspaper Kommunist Dona was opened at 1943 year. The subscription is accepted by post offices and post offices. ”
4 February 1943, the newspaper Kommunist Dona publishes a combat report from the headquarters of the Don Front to the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the USSR Comrade Stalin about the end of the destruction of the surrounding Stalingrad enemy group.
The message of the Soviet Information Bureau “At the Last Hour” narrates that “the last center of resistance of the enemy in the Stalingrad area has been crushed. 2 February 1943, the historic battle at Stalingrad ended with the complete victory of our troops. ”
91000 of German soldiers, including 24 generals and 2500 officers, were taken prisoner. Listed booty trophies. In Berlin, declared a three-day mourning.
And against the background of these joyful events for the Soviet people, the report of the commission on the funeral of our countrymen killed at the hands of the German invaders is even worse. The Commission announces a funeral rally on the occasion of the funeral of 5 February in the village of Meshkovskaya.
And in the newspaper for 9 February 1943, a report on this mournful event is published. Correspondent "Communist Don" reports:
“February 5 workers and employees of the village of Meshkovskaya, collective farmers of the nearest collective farms were buried by Y.K. Raklova, E.N.Goncharova, D.I. Orlova, G.V. Toropchina, I.P. Levin, V.Kalnitsky, A.Kovaleva, A.E. Goncharova and G. Razbeyko, who were killed by the evil hand of the German invaders.
Relatives, friends and acquaintances gathered at the coffins, which were lovingly decorated with wreaths and flowers.
One by one, from the courtyard of the stanitsa council, coffins with the victims of the German invaders are taken out to the mass grave.
The memorial meeting is opened by the chairman of the district executive committee, Comrade Merkulov.
The floor is given to the secretary of the district committee of the CPSU (b) comrade Drobashchenko:
- Today we are burying the best comrades who died the death of the brave for the people's cause, for the liberation of the Soviet land from the fascist bastards. Sleep, dear comrades! We will avenge your mean enemy.
The memorial service is closed. When the coffins are alternately lowered into a mass grave, rifle shots are fired, salutes in honor of the fallen comrades. A monument is being erected near the fresh grave. Numerous wreaths fall on him. This monument will remind the working people of the names of the dead comrades, will call for a final struggle against the worst enemy of humanity - German fascism. "
All the dead at the hands of the Nazis - the partisans. Former director of the Meshkovskaya MTS Y.K. Raklov, police officer G.V. Toropchin, organizer of the local commune I.P. Levin, partisan messenger G.M. Razbeyko, father of the partisan S.G. Razbeyko and other respected people.
They were captured at the end of September 1942, and on October 2 were hanged in the center of the village of Meshkovskaya. Only Georgy Moiseevich Razbeyko was executed in the farm Melovatsky right next to his house. Death united them forever.
Thankful descendants come to worship the mass grave in the village of Meshkovskaya today.
Just before the partisans from Meshkovskaya, in mid-September, the young Migulinsk partisan scout Katya Miroshnikova, who obtained information for one of the Red Army units located on the left bank of the Don, perished. About the feat of the girl also told the fellow countrymen the newspaper "The Communist of the Don".
The essay by Nikolay Titov “Katya Miroshnikova” was written in the wake of the events and published in the Don Communist 6 on June 1943, shortly after the body of a brave partisan was found.
Here is what the correspondent Nikolai Titov reports about the last days of the patriot’s life:
“Komsomolskaya Miroshnikova decided to join the party. This selfless Russian girl did not think of herself outside the ranks of the party of Lenin - Stalin. In a statement to the 9 regional organization XIUMX in Miguli September, she wrote: “Today I received the third combat mission. I want to fulfill this task as a party candidate, and therefore please consider me as a party candidate. This task will be completed by me. I assure the party of the Bolsheviks: I will do everything with the Bolshevik power entrusted to me with all the blessing on me. To the last breath, to the last drop of blood, I will work for the sacred Motherland, to help the great defenders of the Red Army, for the defeat of the German occupiers. " In these words, written with a firm hand, she is all the true daughter of a socialist homeland.
Katya Miroshnikova swam Don for the third time. Visited the farm Mescheryakovsky, looking, if you can not do something useful for their comrades and harm the enemy. “It would be good to deliver alive to the detachment of a German officer - the“ language, ”thought Katya. With this thought she came to Migulinskaya. But then she suffered a failure. On the street of the stanitsa, a German servant, the elder Derevyankin, met with Katya. Kate grabbed, detained. She was brought to the farm Konovalovsky, to headquarters.
She was imprisoned for eight days. Interrogated, beaten, tortured, but she did not say anything to the Germans, did not betray anyone. They promised her life if she tells about everything that interests the German officer.
But she, without thinking, said: “What is better to die with you, reptiles, to die! I will die for the Motherland, for Stalin! ”
Katya's words finally infuriated the officer. “Remove !!!” he ordered the soldiers. Three armed Germans led the Don partisan over the hill. Soon her white kerchief disappeared from her eyes ... After a while, the Germans returned to the farm without Katy.
And there, in a detachment on the left bank of the Don, her comrades, friends, and her family were waiting for her. At night a signal was given. But there was no answer ... Katya Miroshnikova died the death of the brave for her Fatherland.
After a long search, her body was found in the weeds only in May 1943. In the liberated old Cossack village of Migulinskaya now stands a fresh hill of the grave and a monument to the patriot Katya.
We again live in the open spaces of the Don, cleared of Hitlerite locust. The front-line fire went far to the West, but the name of the true patriot, the Don partisan Katya, will live forever among the people. She, who died with the Duma of the Homeland and with the name of Stalin on the lips, is akin to the heroines of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, Lisa Chaykina and many heroines brought up by the Komsomol and the party. ”
Yes, we remember our fellow heroes, although 70 years have passed since the end of that great war. And may this memory be eternal.
At a time when Soviet people fought heroically against a hated enemy and worked selflessly in the rear, there were those who went to serve the Germans.
Evidence of this - the publication in the October issue of "Communist Don" 1943 of the year. Traitors waited for deserved punishment and contempt of the people.
October 4 The 1943 of the year in the village of Meshkovskaya held an open court session of the Military Tribunal of the NKVD troops of the Rostov region. I. Yeraiskov appeared before the tribunal, accused of a crime under Article 5801 “A” of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR (treason).
The materials of the judicial investigation reproduced the terrible picture of the criminal acts of this geek of mankind, a zealous executor of the orders of the German authorities.
Ereyskov, a resident of the Mikhailovskaya farm of the Migulinsky molmasyasoskhoz, during the days of the German occupation of the Migulinsky district, voluntarily went to the Germans to serve the senior policeman.
A traitor and a traitor to the homeland, Ereiskov, in November 1942, detained two Red Army soldiers who were leaving the encirclement of the enemy troops, and personally shot them. Over the corpses of those shot, he posted an inscription: "Whoever will hide the partisans, will suffer the same fate."
The workers of the farm, who sabotaged, did not go out to field work, were beaten up by Yereiskov, planted in the basement. So, in August last year, he beat working women Boglacheva P.Kh. and Krasnyanskaya M.F.
- Do you plead guilty to the charges?
- I admit.
Every word of the defendant exposes him as a traitor to the Motherland, an active assistant to Hitler's frantic gang.
10 June 1942 of Yereiskov was mobilized into the Red Army, but due to illness, he received leave for 6 months with subsequent re-examination. Remaining in the occupied territory, Eriyskov 10 of October last year entered the service of the German police, and from 16 in November he is the senior police officer. This was the promotion, the encouragement of a kind of active service from the enemy.
Before the trial appeared craven, petty little coward. This is confirmed by the course of the demonstration process.
- Did you know that the Red Army will come soon, and you will have to answer for your atrocities?
- I knew. We had nowhere to go, the defendant mumbles indistinctly.
- Why not come out of the environment? Chickened out?
This question was not answered by the chairman of the court. Witnesses B.N.Plakhov, M.F.Krasnyanskaya, A.Ya. Zase, P.Kh. Bogomolov fully confirmed the facts of Yereyskov’s criminal treacherous activities.
A traitor to the Motherland, a renegade of the Russian people, I. Yereiskov received from the Soviet justice due retribution. He is sentenced to the highest degree of criminal punishment. "