Military Review

Thermonuclear day after tomorrow

54
Thermonuclear day after tomorrow



What can we expect from thermonuclear energy, and what is not worth it?

At the end of August, world media spread around the message of the American company Tri Alpha Energy, which announced a "significant breakthrough" in the development of its own fusion reactor, an alternative to the world's most popular tokamaks. The engineers working on the project stated that they managed to keep the plasma hot to 10 mln ° C for 5 ms - there was simply not enough energy for a larger system.

Tri Alpha Energy has notable Russian roots: as it became known, Rosnano owns shares in one of its foreign subsidiaries. Russian scientists also play a significant role in this project, so the recent breakthrough is their merit. So, the most complex injectors for installation are designed and manufactured at the Siberian Institute of Nuclear Physics. Budker SB RAS. According to Aleksey Beklemishev, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, who participates in the creation of these injectors, such a task is hardly within the power of scientists from other countries. We talked with him about how the Tri Alpha reactor differs from tokamaks, how they can be used to produce gold and about the possibilities of thermonuclear energy in general.


Alexey Beklemishev. Photos from the personal archive

“It is said that various reactor variants — tokamaks, stellarators, and so on — are different plasma confinement methods that physicists are trying to master for controlled thermonuclear fusion. What distinguishes the Tri Alpha project in this series?

- Both tokamaks, and stellarators, and the solution that the creators of Tri Alpha work out, are not so fundamentally different: they all use magnetic plasma confinement. The plasma in them is maintained in a quasi-stationary state, that is, it is maintained for quite a long time using an external magnetic field.

Pulse systems that use ultrashort and super-power laser flashes are significantly different from them. There everything happens in the smallest fractions of a second - in fact it is not “burning”, but a series of tiny thermonuclear microexplosions. In addition, there is a range of intermediate options.

- What are the main differences between the scheme that Tri Alpha is working on and the more familiar tokamaks?

- The configuration of the magnetic field in Tri Alpha is about the same as in the tokamak: these are closed force lines forming a “donut” or torus.

Let's remember that plasma consists of ions and electrons. Electrons are nimble and fast particles, and if they can “run away” from the plasma, it will rapidly cool down. Fortunately, the electrons are charged and can move only along the magnetic field lines. Therefore, the classic approach to electron retention is to close the magnetic field lines into a torus. So it is implemented in tokamaks, and in stellarator, and in systems with reversed field - such as in Tri Alpha.

However, if in a tokamak this field is formed by complex systems of superconducting magnets, cores, and windings, here this toroidal bunch forms right inside a small plasma “cloud”. This solution gives the main advantage of Tri Alpha - the advantage of compact size. If a powerful tokamak, such as the one under construction ITER, forms a toroidal clot the size of a house, the Tri Alpha installation in its most large-scale performance creates a plasma torus with a radius of about two meters.

Systems with a reversed magnetic field are more compact, cheaper, and potentially more efficient than tokamaks. The theory predicts that some promising thermonuclear fuel cycles in tokamaks are unrealizable in principle for a number of reasons. Combustion of deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma in them can be achieved, but deuterium-deuterium (DD) fuel, and even more so proton-boron-11 (pB) in tokamak cannot be used.

These fuels are much more profitable in terms of energy output, ecology, and other factors. But they require a much greater efficiency of plasma confinement by the magnetic field than is available to the tokamak. However, in some alternative systems, including those with reversed field, plasma confinement can reach the desired level. Hence the hopes that are associated with projects such as Tri Alpha.

- What is the role in all this play injectors, the development of which you are busy with colleagues?

- Their role is enormous, and they are needed for reactors of any type, be it ITER tokamak or Tri Alpha. First, in order for the thermonuclear reaction to go, the plasma must be heated. Secondly, some losses of particles from it are inevitable in any case, and the deficiency must be constantly replenished. Thirdly, which is especially important for toroidal systems, it is possible to maintain an electric current by injection into the plasma. All this requires injectors: their task is to “inject” into the plasma pre-prepared and heated particles.

It is not easy to make, because we have to limit the plasma to a magnetic field in order not to let the particles out. But it does not let other particles into the plasma. Therefore, we must “throw” them into the plasma in the form of neutral atoms, which practically do not react to the magnetic field, and only then convert atoms into ions. Moreover, they have to be supplied at a sufficiently high speed so that the atoms have time to reach the central regions of the plasma before they lose the electrons and become ions.


The atomic injector produced by the INP, currently installed on the TCV tokamak (Switzerland). Photo: Alexey Beklemishev's personal archive

For large reactors, such as the ITER tokamak or the Tri Alpha system, constant operation of the injectors is required, and at high energy levels. Injectors require powerful, often in size, they are even larger than the reactor itself. In addition, there are diagnostic injectors. They use a stream of fast atoms not to “feed” a thermonuclear reaction, but to study the plasma and everything that happens inside it.

This is a great science and high technology in its pure form. Development of injectors is a very difficult technical, technological and scientific task. We deal with it both for our plants operating in Novosibirsk and for a number of international projects for the past 15 – 20 years. I think our team is the world leader in this area. Therefore, the Tri Alpha project has become one of our customers. Moreover, the customer is very profitable: they require unique injectors, and they are ready to finance the development of the technologies necessary for this. It turns out that we do our scientific work, develop high technologies, collect highly qualified personnel and even earn good money from it.

- If we are talking about Tri Alpha, then just recently the media was full of reports that the authors of the project managed to make a huge and important step forward. How important is this achievement?

- By and large, it is that the Tri Alpha team has achieved the results that it promised its investors. The work of this project is organized in stages, and at every step they have to achieve certain results, demonstrate them to investors, confirm that things are developing in the right way - and only after that get new multi-million funding for the next step.

Accordingly, what we have seen recently is, in general, PR-hype, raised in order to convince investors of the need to allocate 300 million dollars to the next stage of work. However, for this hype there are quite good reasons.

Remember, we said that the Tri Alpha reactor is a system with a reversed magnetic field. The volume of the plasma torus that exists in it is relatively small. Plasma very quickly loses a certain number of particles, cools and disintegrates. And only recently, the developers of Tri Alpha for the first time managed to achieve a stable existence of a plasma "donut" all the time while their installation was working - until the energy stored for the experiment was over. At the same time, all plasma parameters remained at the same level.

In other words, in keeping hot plasma, the authors of Tri Alpha came to the hospital. We can confidently assume that in the future, when the plasma is heated to even more severe temperatures that are required for fusion, they will be able to keep the plasma in this state. This was one of the problems inherent in all installations with a reversed field, and was solved for the first time. By and large, this is indeed a serious achievement, proof of the principle that the chosen approach may ultimately work.

As we have said, tokamaks are limited by the rather low plasma confinement efficiency, and they will not be able to implement thermonuclear reactions on the most promising types of fuel. In Tri Alpha, they threatened more: theoretically, they plan to get about ten times better plasma confinement and will be able to realize much more “advanced” reactions, up to proton-boron-11.

The most important feature of this reaction is that its energy is released in the form of charged particles and gamma quanta, which, unlike neutron radiation, are easy to screen. Hence the unique proposal of Tri Alpha: “pure thermonuclear”, energy without neutrons and without radioactivity. However, there is a fundamental difficulty in implementing such an approach. This is the required temperature: if the “deuterium” thermonuclear fusion effectively works at the plasma temperature 100 – 300 million degrees, then for proton-boron-11 the temperature is needed once in 20 higher. Huge temperatures force the plasma to radiate actively, and it almost quickly loses all of its energy in the form of X-rays. Such a plasma cannot burn on its own, it must be constantly energized from outside, in particular with the help of injectors.

In general, the release of energy is a completely separate and important conversation. The fact is that in thermonuclear reactions it occurs to a greater degree in the form of neutrons and all kinds of ionizing particles — protons, gamma quanta, etc. And this energy, of course, is dangerous both for the people working here and for the equipment ...

Even physicists are very reluctant to experiment with deuterium-tritium plasma. 20 years ago, such experiments were carried out in the United States, after which the tokamak had to be dismantled and buried: it became radioactive, and it was too dangerous to use it further. Tokamak JET in the UK worked for a short time with tritium, after which he stopped for a long time for maintenance. To really get a thermonuclear output of energy more than costs, we need installations with complex and expensive protection.

Therefore, when the ITER tokamak, which is currently being built in France, will switch to the “tritium program” of work, it will be fully transferred to automated service. Around the installation will be only robots that will perform all the necessary work. And even so, a special protective “blanket” is being developed for ITER, which will cover the entire installation and will delay radiation and neutrons.

- In your opinion, which type of reactors will eventually “win” and will be used in future thermonuclear power engineering?

- I think the ITER reactor will eventually work approximately the way its developers conceived, and in the right time will even reach the planned power level. The problem here is not in physics, but in economics: even when ITER starts working, in itself few people will need it. In other words, it will be possible to get a controlled thermonuclear reaction - but this will still give too little in terms of the commercial use of thermonuclear energy. ITER participants understand this themselves, so after it, a new and even more immense DEMO project has been conceived, the task of which will be to demonstrate an economically viable scheme of a fusion power plant.


ITER tokamak under construction. Photo: iter.org

Such power plants based on tokamaks will be able to generate several gigawatts of energy (like modern large nuclear power plants and hydroelectric power plants. - RP.). These will be huge, complex engineering systems in design, construction and management, orders of magnitude more complicated than nuclear power plants. Not every country is capable of such a scale, and not everyone needs it.

In general, we will get quite limited use when not the cheapest electricity. Therefore, it seems to me that although it is quite worth waiting for success from ITER, история Tokamak as an energy source on this may end. Unless there is some other implementation of this concept.

“But then the meaning of the work in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion is unclear. Why learn to control the plasma if we get expensive and "radioactive" energy?


- In fact, energy is far from the only area of ​​potential use for controlled thermonuclear. Even dangerous neutrons emitted by the reaction are extremely valuable for some areas. In fact, the cost of these fast neutrons far exceeds the value of gold.

If they put a definite target on their way, then they can be used to “transmute elements” into targets — to realize on an industrial scale the dream of the alchemists about transforming some substances into others. Speaking in modern language, we can get some isotopes we need or destroy others, harmful and dangerous.

Prospects for the creation of such an installation for the "afterburning" of radioactive waste from radioactive production are quite close. If you still have to wait until thermonuclear energy, I think, half a century, then the “after-burner” will most likely appear in 10 years. It is estimated that such a facility will be economically and practically justified when the efficiency of conversion into neutrons of the energy supplied to a thermonuclear reactor reaches at least 10%. And this bar already looms in front of the developers quite close.

Following this may appear a system that is called a "fuel developer". It requires approximately 50% of the efficiency of energy conversion into neutrons. Here we will be able to produce important isotopes in practically industrial quantities - to produce valuable nuclear fuel, turning thorium into a mixture of isotopes with uranium-233.

In addition, the concept of hybrid nuclear fusion reactors is being actively promoted, a major proponent of which is the head of the ITER Council, Academician Evgeny Pavlovich Velikhov. It is understood that the thermonuclear facility will produce neutrons, and those will power a highly efficient and safe fast neutron reactor.

- According to you, the developers of Tri Alpha planned each stage of their future work. Does this plan have some kind of foreseeable ending? When can we wait for the promised "clean fusion"?


- The problem of Tri Alpha is not only in the reactor and plasma confinement. It is required to solve an incredible number of scientific and technical problems. It is necessary to find a highly efficient way to convert the x-rays emitted in the reactor into electricity. It is required to bring the energy efficiency of each element of the system to the maximum possible - by the way, injectors are particularly relevant. Currently, research is underway to achieve efficiency "from the outlet" for 85 and even 90%.

As for the plans of Tri Alpha, you need to remember that they managed to achieve a stationary state only now. In the past, the experiments were not so successful, and the plasma parameters were frankly low. She fell apart too quickly. Many changes were made to the design of the experimental setup, and they managed to realize its full potential. I hope that now Tri Alpha will receive funding for the next C-3 installation, and our new, more powerful injectors will be on it.
Author:
Originator:
http://rusplt.ru/sdelano-russkimi/termoyadernoe-poslezavtra-18720.html
54 comments
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  1. Andrey Yuryevich
    Andrey Yuryevich 13 September 2015 05: 53 New
    +4
    Comrade Author Yaroslav Rybakov, to be honest, I doubt that there are enough people in HE who understand thermonuclear physics, I myself understood little from this scientific opus, except what was done by ours, but not ours. the meaning of dragging an article from the "Russian planet" onto the "military review" is not clear ... what
    1. RiverVV
      RiverVV 13 September 2015 06: 12 New
      +5
      I will translate from scientific into Russian: "Plans are big. Someday everything will be."
      1. tilovaykrisa
        tilovaykrisa 13 September 2015 08: 17 New
        -1
        in myths (research institutes) you can see a plasma arc in a magnetic field and this is reality.
        1. Bayonet
          Bayonet 13 September 2015 17: 08 New
          +1
          Quote: tilovaykrisa
          in myths (research institutes) you can see a plasma arc in a magnetic field and this is reality.

          Well, these are completely different things! smile
        2. gridasov
          gridasov 13 September 2015 17: 32 New
          +1
          a plasma arc can be seen on any welding machine. Therefore, it is probably enough to openly lie and deceive ourselves. The generator can only be voiced as an achievement when the balance of the received energy will radically exceed the totality of the spent. This time. It should be so simple as to ensure the quality factor of both the process and the device providing it. And the third most important element should be process control. Therefore, the conclusion is that there is not only a real reactor, but also an understanding of what is needed. A real reactor may be a technology based on completely simple principles.
    2. evil partisan
      evil partisan 13 September 2015 06: 57 New
      +5
      Quote: Andrew Y.
      I myself understood little from this scientific opus

      Go read a couple of 0,5l covers. and you’ll understand everything. Checked. yes
      1. Kos_kalinki9
        Kos_kalinki9 13 September 2015 07: 31 New
        +5
        Quote: wicked partisan
        Quote: Andrew Y.
        I myself understood little from this scientific opus

        Go read a couple of 0,5l covers. and you’ll understand everything. Checked. yes

        I'm afraid after such covers and letters you will forget temporarily. lol
      2. siberalt
        siberalt 13 September 2015 17: 37 New
        0
        Quote: wicked partisan
        Quote: Andrew Y.
        I myself understood little from this scientific opus

        Go read a couple of 0,5l covers. and you’ll understand everything. Checked. yes

        As before, 0,5 was revered for that. And it could take a whole week to read the MSS (volume box) laughing
    3. i80186
      i80186 13 September 2015 06: 59 New
      +7
      Quote: Andrew Y.
      Opus understood little, except what was done by ours, but not with us

      We have a long gone stage. I remember then (2005-2006) even a couple of shows on TV were shown.
      Here in the picture, what in 2006 already worked in Sarov.
      This is a half-petawatt laser from the side of the master femtosecond generator (blue box). Without it (well, more precisely, two orders of magnitude more powerful) download, do not download, everything is useless.
      But the publication among the bourgeoisie, five years later, when we did not need it.
      http://www.researchgate.net/publication/258371370_Application_of_Petawatt_pARame
      tric_Laser_ (PEARL) -Laser_Wakefied_Acceleration

      For even then, in Shaggy 2006, they showed the construction of our laser synthesis unit in the same Sarov. Such are the things. smile

      But about her article on topwar

      http://topwar.ru/24271-sverhmoschnaya-lazernaya-ustanovka-v-sarove-budet-ispolzo
      vatsya-dlya-termoyadernogo-sinteza.html

      In fact, it turns out like with a cosmome - we carry Amirikans, and for their money we saw a new one. laughing
    4. tilovaykrisa
      tilovaykrisa 13 September 2015 08: 15 New
      0
      There are such, in brief, we have drawn a beautiful future killing oil and gas, but we will not own it, but created with the help of our wise men.
      In reality, the project with the first tokomak has been going on for 16 years and 1 thermonuclear station would have been completed in Japan with shares of the French Federation and Japan already in 2013, but then the crisis woksima ended up hanging.
      it’s real that it will be possible to reach the commerce no sooner than 30 years from now, and here it’s not about scientists and the theory is about the production of materials for both reactors and stands.
      so what are we waiting for if we survive and for the time being we drive the oil industry and wander the gas.
    5. War and Peace
      War and Peace 13 September 2015 08: 34 New
      +1
      controlled nuclear fusion with the current understanding by scientists of the essence of matter is most likely impossible, all of these toys of physicists are already about 60 years old, and things are still there. We need new representations of the physical world at the atomic level, we need a new physics.
      Beklemishev speaks of a reduction in the scale of the reaction and, accordingly, a decrease in the dimensions of the plants, but these dimensions are connected by magnetic fields, and those respectively by the dimensions of the coils plus cryogenic plants for cooling the coils. Huge tokamaks with huge costs are a lot of money, and as you can see, the research process is excessively stretched in time. There will be no breakthroughs in the foreseeable future ...
      1. Eragon
        Eragon 13 September 2015 09: 37 New
        +5
        Quote: war and peace
        controlled nuclear fusion with the current understanding by scientists of the essence of matter is most likely impossible, all these toys of physicists are already 60 years old, and things are still there.

        I myself am not a nuclear physicist, but a friend - yes. A year ago, we spoke on a similar topic. Further - from his words. Temperature, energy to hold it - all this has not been a problem for a long time. The main problem that was known from the very beginning of the construction of tokomaks is magnetic field stability. But they cannot achieve it.
        Quote: war and peace
        We need new representations of the physical world at the atomic level, we need a new physics.

        Physicists are no big deal either. Now they rave about the next idea (as I understood). They want to achieve conditions under which the decay of electrons, neutrons, etc. will begin. And inside the maaalenky "black hole" to keep it all in a heap. Then it remains to wrap it all up with wires and directly receive electricity. It sounds, of course, wildly, but who knows, physicists smile
        1. i80186
          i80186 13 September 2015 10: 06 New
          +1
          Quote: Eragon
          Physicists are no big deal either. Now they rave about the next idea (as I understood). They want to achieve conditions under which the decay of electrons, neutrons, etc. will begin.

          C'mon, they have been raving with this idea since the middle of the last century, but no one has seen the living quark. But they, quarks, have aromas and colors. smile
          1. Eragon
            Eragon 13 September 2015 10: 22 New
            +1
            Quote: i80186
            But they, quarks, have aromas and colors. smile

            And they (quarks) are fascinated laughing
            1. The comment was deleted.
            2. Svetlana
              Svetlana 13 September 2015 20: 07 New
              -1
              and even quarks are beautiful .. and there is something from macramé in their internal structure - see the Bilson-Thompson model of the electron, positron, neutrino, up- and down-quarks
              http://www.newscientist.com/data/images/archive/2564/25645802.jpg
        2. Bayonet
          Bayonet 13 September 2015 17: 13 New
          -1
          Quote: Eragon
          Then it remains to wrap it all up with wires and directly receive electricity.

          The trouble is that the "black hole" does not emit anything, but only absorbs! What and how to extract energy from? hi
          1. i80186
            i80186 13 September 2015 18: 55 New
            0
            Quote: Bayonet
            The trouble is that the "black hole" does not emit anything, but only absorbs! What and how to extract energy from?

            No, but what about Hawking radiation? Heisenberg's uncertainty principle where? Quantum mechanics - it is like that. smile
          2. Bayonet
            Bayonet 13 September 2015 22: 23 New
            0
            Quote: Bayonet
            The trouble is that the "black hole" does not emit anything, but only absorbs!

            Well, here are the cons, but from whom? From those about whom Zadornov said: “Well stupid – s – e!” A black hole is a region in space-time whose gravitational attraction is so great that even objects moving at the speed of light cannot leave it, including quanta of light itself . Of course, our black holes, especially Soviet ones, unlike Western ones, radiate a lot of energy useful for the national economy! Who would doubt that? hi
    6. Buffalo
      Buffalo 13 September 2015 10: 27 New
      -1
      Why is it incomprehensible? The military does not need material for nuclear warheads? We do not need gold obtained by artificial nuclear fusion? And the positive experience, wherever it was obtained, can be repeated in Russia.
  2. Vasily
    Vasily 13 September 2015 06: 34 New
    +6
    Good article.
    It’s a shame not to know how the Tokamak works.
    Tired of reading idle gossip in the form of numerous "articles" about Lavrov and Kerry.
    It is necessary to blame on other sites where there are more scientific articles.
  3. rotmistr60
    rotmistr60 13 September 2015 07: 06 New
    +3
    they succeeded in retaining plasma heated to 10 million ° C for 5 ms

    For experts, this is also a breakthrough in nuclear physics. A simple layman thinks simply - in about ten years they may reach 0,5 seconds, well, etc. But whether it is worth rejoicing or not is a big question. The ordinary citizen is worried about other, more mundane problems.
    1. ava09
      ava09 13 September 2015 08: 01 New
      +5
      An ordinary citizen is most likely interested in one question: - "When will training stop at my expense for scientists working for my enemies?"
      1. Bayonet
        Bayonet 13 September 2015 21: 53 New
        +3
        Quote: ava09
        An ordinary citizen is most likely interested in one question: - "When will training stop at my expense for scientists working for my enemies?"

        The “ordinary citizen” cares only for one thing - how to fill the womb and fill his eyes, and most importantly, that the neighbor does not live better!
    2. Cube123
      Cube123 13 September 2015 10: 31 New
      +5
      Quote: rotmistr60
      they succeeded in retaining plasma heated to 10 million ° C for 5 ms

      For experts, this is also a breakthrough in nuclear physics. A simple layman thinks simply - in about ten years they may reach 0,5 seconds, well, etc. But whether it is worth rejoicing or not is a big question. The ordinary citizen is worried about other, more mundane problems.

      In the 19th century, when Maxwell asked for development money from the British Prime Minister, he showed him large coils and magnets. To the Prime Minister’s question: “Well, what is the practical benefit of this?” Maxwell replied: “I don’t know, but in 20-30 years you can take taxes on this.” Money was given and from this came the electric power industry, electronics, lasers, the theory of relativity, manned space and very, very much more. Today's world would be completely different without it. Perhaps later someone else would have discovered it, but "a good spoon for dinner."
      Article plus.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  4. Jurkovs
    Jurkovs 13 September 2015 07: 31 New
    +2
    Again on our hump they will enter paradise.
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet 13 September 2015 22: 41 New
      0
      Quote: Jurkovs
      Again on our hump they will enter paradise.

      On your? It seems no less than an academician ... winked
  5. Dean
    Dean 13 September 2015 08: 42 New
    +3
    Artificial Ball Lightning
  6. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 13 September 2015 08: 42 New
    +8
    Hmmm ... Twenty-five again. I already wrote on the forum on this topic. The author of the article confirms that the ITER project is a big panama jammed by scientists from many governments. The system presented in the article is a new carrot, which again needs to be run for about 50 years (approximately, like for Tokamaki).
    Everything that the interviewee says is implemented much cheaper and with the developed technologies in fast nuclear reactors, and Russia has an obvious priority for these reactors, and work is in full swing.
    A direction of science called "Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion" is a pretty bread place, easily absorbing any financial resources of almost any power. If the mattresses are carried away by this - the wind will be in their back. For such a program, you can "recycle" more than one trillion "greens" without any useful result.
    A carrot called "Clean Thermonuclear" is an excellent target for the next 50 years. Perhaps this is the same provocation with the goal of ruining the enemy, as the notorious "Star Wars" Reagan.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 13 September 2015 08: 55 New
      0
      Here, Lockheed Martin threatens to build a high-efficiency fusion reactor in 2023.
      1. Alexander_
        Alexander_ 13 September 2015 09: 19 New
        +1
        Under the promises give financing, otherwise nothing.
    2. Buffalo
      Buffalo 13 September 2015 10: 31 New
      -1
      Rejecting - offer. Offered - answer. So they said under Stalin. In my opinion, this is fair.
    3. user
      user 15 September 2015 11: 22 New
      0
      that the ITER project is a big panama


      I’m not a nuclear physicist, but I’ll bring my fly in the ointment.
      In the mid-80s, I was in practice at the INP, where they had a kind of control and information processing center above the accelerator (this is mine). So when they opened (with me) another particle, they sprayed all the equipment with champagne. But since that time, a lot has changed, now graduates of the NSU and NSTU leave with whole well-trained teams (well, graduate from the university, get practice, fill up their hand and adyu). Passing ball at the same NSTU at fizteh 3 - - - - (I won’t tell you by plaque points, but I’m looking for laziness, but one of the lowest in the university) of the few groups recruited it remains good if 10 remain, the rest are expelled for poor progress, all he stayed the same (he studies really hard, and the times of lyric physicists are long over, although how to say with a friend the son graduated from the physics and technology department although he never was an excellent student, now he is engaged in fuel cells for nuclear power plants).
      Why did I write all this? In the USA and Europe, there are whole teams that worked at the INP in collaboration with the same Alexei Beklemishev, who I think has long since passed everything that is possible and that is impossible to our Western colleagues, so there’s no such jammed big panama there no. Although this is interesting, they work there as Negro scientists, and they are rarely co-written by anyone even when they point out that the psychological discomfort is wild, who will talk to people involved in science, they will understand that authorship is some kind of phobia, but after reading them in contact, Correspondence or on the site, it’s just amazing how they (or in the host country) are fine and wonderful both in money and in conditions and how much they are appreciated (though this is a little from another story).
  7. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 13 September 2015 08: 48 New
    +1
    the cost of 1kW.h will not get cheaper anyway.
  8. rosarioagro
    rosarioagro 13 September 2015 09: 11 New
    +6
    "... energy without neutrons and without radioactivity"

    Yeah, gamma quanta doesn’t count?
    1. evil partisan
      evil partisan 13 September 2015 09: 58 New
      +1
      Quote: rosarioagro
      Yeah, gamma quanta doesn’t count?

      Yes, there, as far as I remember, except for X-rays and gamma is still full of all sorts of different high-energy good flies. And to neutralize all this somehow ... it is necessary ...
      1. rosarioagro
        rosarioagro 13 September 2015 17: 59 New
        0
        Quote: wicked partisan
        in addition to x-rays and gamma, it is still full of all sorts of different high-energy goods.

        Microwave in particular, it can be converted directly into electricity
  9. veksha50
    veksha50 13 September 2015 10: 01 New
    +2
    "It turns out that we are doing our scientific work, developing high technology, and gathering highly qualified personnel and even make good money on it"...

    From all this intricacy, I understood that again with the minds and hands of our Russian scientists, the Americans are making a breakthrough in high technology ... And, for some reason, it’s not even strange, Rusnano put her clumsy paw to this project ...

    Everything explains the phrase about "good money" ...

    Ugh !!!
    1. evil partisan
      evil partisan 13 September 2015 10: 32 New
      +1
      Quote: veksha50
      From all this sophistication, I realized that again, with the minds and hands of our Russian scientists, the Americans are making a breakthrough in high technology ...

      More likely not so. Rather, our instruct Americans to knowingly ... as if in a more cultural way ... what uh ... slippery winked a path of knowledge on which they themselves have already slipped.
      Quote: veksha50
      Rusnano put her clumsy paw to this project ...

      Perhaps it is for this Chubais that they will award yes. Moreover - quite deservedly.
      And then you can go to the wall. In aggregate.
      1. veksha50
        veksha50 13 September 2015 10: 55 New
        +2
        Quote: wicked partisan
        Rather, our Americans are being instructed by the Americans to ... express themselves more culturally ... uh ... slippery path of knowledge, on which already slipped themselves.


        If this were so, I would only be glad ... However, vague suspicions torment me ...

        PS And about Chubais ... First - to the wall ... and then you can reward ...
        1. evil partisan
          evil partisan 13 September 2015 11: 22 New
          +2
          Quote: veksha50
          And about Chubais ... First - to the wall ... and then you can reward ...

          But you can combine ...
        2. novobranets
          novobranets 13 September 2015 11: 32 New
          0
          Quote: veksha50
          And about Chubais ... First - to the wall ... and then you can reward ...

          A cross ... wooden ... on a knoll. And forget where they buried. request
  10. Ajent cho
    Ajent cho 13 September 2015 10: 47 New
    0
    Sounds like a chimera hunt. Ours have figured out something for themselves and now they are just pulling rubber and, at the same time, babosy from the “partners”.
  11. Straight
    Straight 13 September 2015 11: 19 New
    -1
    But Stalin did not guess to help Hitler create a nuclear reactor. Rusnano is another matter that helped the American company to exercise American "leadership" in the world ..
    1. chunga-changa
      chunga-changa 13 September 2015 11: 53 New
      0
      It is as if framed under the leadership of a fraction and it was created that would utilize the remnants of the Soviet scientific backlog and control the current scientific potential in favor of the West, suddenly someone comes up with something new or useful. This is not a secret, but why now cry through the hair. Let scientists at least work for their uncle, the alternative is to become a manager for reselling Chinese, they still will not let their own, not through skolkovo, stir up.
      1. Bayonet
        Bayonet 13 September 2015 21: 57 New
        0
        Quote: chunga-changa
        It would have been taken under the direction of a fraction and created to utilize the remnants of the Soviet scientific backlog in favor of the West

        And where are you getting from, damn it!?!?
  12. Grif
    Grif 13 September 2015 12: 00 New
    +2
    The funny thing is that the word "Tokamak" is Russian. Toroidal Camera with Magnetic Coils. Something like this. The word took root and became international. The first Tokamak was built in the USSR, hell knows how many years ago. Somewhere in the 60s.
    1. War and Peace
      War and Peace 13 September 2015 14: 24 New
      -1
      Quote: Grif
      The funny thing is that the word "Tokamak" is Russian. Toroidal Camera with Magnetic Coils. Something like this. The word took root and became international. The first Tokamak was built in the USSR, hell knows how many years ago. Somewhere in the 60s.


      And what's funny?
    2. Bayonet
      Bayonet 13 September 2015 17: 20 New
      0
      Quote: Grif
      The first Tokamak was built in the USSR, hell knows how many years ago. Somewhere in the 60s.

      The first tokamak was built in 1954 and was only here for a long time!
  13. Zomanus
    Zomanus 13 September 2015 12: 10 New
    +1
    Something flew somewhere, the arrow jerked ... So, briefly, you can retell this article probably for 80% of VO readers, including me.
    As I understand it, if that happens, it is no longer with us. So it is not interesting.
  14. Svetlana
    Svetlana 13 September 2015 13: 23 New
    0
    In the C-2U Tri Alpha installation, 6 oblique beams of neutral hydrogen atoms (neutrals) were used:
    three northern beams (created by beam generators closer to the northern divertor) and three southern beams (created by beam generators closer to the southern divertor)
    these three southern oblique bundles of neutral neutrals are directed along the subgroup of generators of the uniparticle hyperboloid of revolution. (the uniparton hyperboloid has two subgroups of direct generators).
    The disadvantage of the C-2U Tri Alpha installation is that only a poloidal magnetic field is present in the plasma donut. And almost no toroidal magnetic field. A plasma donut with a toroidal-poloidal magnetic field will be more stable.
    To create a toroidal magnetic field, it is necessary to skip the Z-pinch along the axis of the plasma donut
    or the intensity of three northern oblique beams of neutral hydrogen atoms (neutrals) to make weaker than the intensity of three southern oblique beams of neutrals. Then the thermoelectric power in the plasma created by three oblique southern beams will induce both a toroidal and poloidal current in the plasma.
    Accordingly, a poloidal and toroidal magnetic field will appear in the plasma donut.
    The configuration of the magnetic field in the plasma donut becomes quasi-powerless,
    a similar configuration of the magnetic field in tokamak and spheromak.
    But in order to compensate for the axial (axial) component of the momentum of the force transmitted by the collisions of neutrals to the plasma particles, the north magnetic plug will have to be made stronger than the south.
    Another way to create a toroidal poloidal magnetic field in a plasma donut is
    introduce into it from the inside several beams of gyrotrons directed along the generatrices of a single-cavity hyperboloid. Gyrotrons for Tri Alpha are already being made at INP Novosibirsk.
    The thermoelectric power in a donut plasma induced upon heating of the plasma by gyrotron beams will induce in the plasma the toroidal poloidal magnetic fields necessary for its confinement.
    Similarly, in the MAGLIF installation at Sandia National Laboratories
    to generate toroidal poloidal magnetic fields in a magnetized plasma, helicity can be injected into the magnetic flux in the plasma by laser or microwave beams,
    directed along the generatrices of a one-sheeted hyperboloid: the thermoelectric power will induce the necessary currents.
    see http://www.krellinst.org/nnsassgf/conf/2014/pres/mgomez.pdf
    It is also possible to create a liquid-salt explosive magnetic thermonuclear reactor with laser initiation of detonation of explosives on ring metal targets fed into a spherical explosive chamber protected by a rotating flyb melt. In this pulsed explosive magnetic thermonuclear reactor, the thermonuclear target is arranged as a MAGLIF Z-machine liner:
    A beryllium (Be) cylinder with a length of 10 cm and a diameter of 10 cm is located in the 10 Tesla axial magnetic field created by external coils. On the outer surface of the Be-cylinder, BB oxyquinit or TNT is deposited. On its inner surface is a layer of DT fuel.
    For compression of the axial magnetic field created by external solenoids,
    initiate explosives from the outer surface by focused low-power pulsed laser beams.
    Plasma inside the Be-cylinder is created and preheated to 300 EV by microwave beams with a wavelength of 0.5 mm, directed along the generatrices of a one-sheeted hyperboloid into the Be-cylinder through its upper end.
    1. combat66
      combat66 13 September 2015 14: 20 New
      +3
      I didn’t understand anything, but apparently it doesn’t matter! Much has been written and probably significant. For efforts plus definitely! laughing
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Svetlana
      Svetlana 10 January 2016 22: 53 New
      -1
      Another plasma magnetic trap consists of two ring solenoids creating a magnetic field with the configurations of a magnetic bottle. Inside the magnetic bottle, two negatively charged current rings are created from
      two circular electron beams rotating in the axial (axial) magnetic field of a magnetic bottle. The space charge of ring electron beams is partially compensated by positively charged ions.
      Electrons in ring electron beams rotate around the axis of a magnetic bottle. The centers of two electron beams rotate relative to each other, periodically changing the coordinates of the centers of the beams along a sinusoid along the R axis and along the Z axis of the magnetic bottle. Since the electric currents of two circular electron beams are directed in the same direction, the electron beams are attracted to each other, but the centrifugal force from the rotation of the centers of the beams relative to each other does not allow the beams to fall on each other and merge into one circular electron beam. Similarly, two gravitating bodies in space can rotate around each other
      their common center of gravity, centrifugal force does not allow them to fall on each other. Only instead of the force of gravitational attraction, the centers of electron beams are attracted by the electromagnetic Lorentz force acting between the equally directed currents of electron beams. Uncompensation of the negative charge in the beam cross section is necessary so that the rotation of the negatively charged cross sections of electron beams relative to each other leads to the appearance of a toroidal region of the toroidal magnetic field between them. fields. The force of tension of the lines of force of a toroidal magnetic field attracts electron beams to the axis of the magnetic bottle, prevents them from scattering in the radial direction and falling on the side cylindrical walls of the plasma chamber with the magnetic bottle. And the attraction of the azimuthal (along the angle fi) electric currents of two circular electron beams will not allow them and the plasma contained within them to scatter along the Z axis through the two necks of the magnetic bottle.
      1. Svetlana
        Svetlana 17 January 2016 20: 22 New
        -1
        This refers to relativistic ring electron beams (REBs) with a charge partially compensated by ions, proposed by V.I. Wexler in Dubna for the acceleration of positive ions. By the well-known theorem, there are no purely electromagnetic fields with finite energy, which everywhere would be powerless if [JXB] = 0. However, taking into account the relativistic increase in the mass of electrons, ring REBs are attracted by gravitational force, which can still lead to the formation of quasi-forceless configurations of electromagnetic fields and the creation of artificial gravitational fields. http://www.dailytechinfo.org/np/7738-uchenye-poka-tolko-v-teorii-nashli-sposob-s


        ozdaniya-iskusstvennyh-gravitacionnyh-poley.html
        A similar system of ring REPs can find application as an energy storage device for electric aircraft
  15. dropout
    dropout 13 September 2015 14: 57 New
    +6
    A hundred-year-old joke:

    Two men meet and one says, imagine you invented the radio and now you can talk without wires.
    The second answers, I still do not understand how they do it by wire.

    A hundred years have passedunderstanding not added.
    1. Buffalo
      Buffalo 13 September 2015 19: 34 New
      +4
      One archaeologist, not finding wires at the site, during excavations, concluded that Neanderthals had wireless communications.
  16. RiverVV
    RiverVV 13 September 2015 16: 44 New
    +2
    Mind science does not understand
    Until zero-five is drunk.
    When is drunk zero five
    Everything seems simple enough ...

    An attempt to better understand
    Already smells like a liter.
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet 13 September 2015 17: 29 New
      0
      Quote: RiverVV
      When is drunk zero five
      Everything seems simple enough ...

      There's something about getting gold flashed, so any educated person, after drinking a liter, will prove to you that getting gold is easier and cheaper with the help of a philosopher's stone! laughing
  17. Mentat
    Mentat 14 September 2015 12: 58 New
    0
    Quote: war and peace
    There will be no breakthroughs in the foreseeable future ...

    Read the ITER docs. In the near future (~ 30 years), not just breakthroughs are planned, but commercial exploitation.
    Do not blurt out without understanding the topic.
  18. Burmistr
    Burmistr 14 September 2015 14: 54 New
    -1
    I recall that while still in prison, on the basis of a welding transformer, Bolotov made a fusion reactor and could turn one substance into another, and this was due to his new model of atom and second-order chemistry, which few people had heard of, because of which he had suffered all his life
    I saw a video on the Internet where he demonstrated these newest elements; those who wish can look for it and watch
    and official science is bullshit, with it civilization must and will stand still for a long time
    the Academy of Sciences, which was created so that people suddenly do not invent something that cannot be invented, and in order to extol frank nonsense like the "theory of relativity"