Moscow and all Russia on November 7, 2011 remembered the most important thing for the worldview and outlook of our people historical The event that happened 70 years ago is the military parade on November 7, 1941, which was held on the anniversary of the October Revolution. This day was in many ways a turning point in the history of World War II and the Battle of Moscow. It was on the 7th that Adolf Hitler planned to complete the seizure of the capital of the Soviet Union and hold a solemn military parade on Red Square. This symbolic action was supposed to completely break the spirit of the inhabitants of the USSR, to show the whole world the power of the Wehrmacht and the Third Reich.
The battle for Moscow was the most important event of the Great War; it finally buried Berlin’s plans for a “blitzkrieg”. Although there were still years of bloody battles, and on 7 in November the situation was difficult. The advance units of the Wehrmacht divisions were noted only 13 kilometers from Moscow, and the main units 70-100 km, which is why the Red Army fighters were sent straight from the parade to the front.
The parade on November 7, 2011 was attended by about 6 thousand people, including 4 thousand children, as well as several dozen units of military equipment from the time of the Great Patriotic War. In particular, participated in the festive event Tanks T-34, T-37A and T-60, as well as the Soviet BM-13 missile artillery combat vehicles (Katyusha), vehicles of that war and balloons.
The rhythm of the procession was set by a company of drummers from the Military University of the Russian Federation. The march was attended by servicemen of the Interior Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, the Moscow Garrison and representatives of the children's movement of the capital, students of cadet corps. Around 900, the servicemen of the Internal Troops of Russia made up the standard group, it carried the banners of military units that participated in the defense of Moscow 20 years ago across the Red Square.
The ceremonial march began on the 10 clock with the hymn of the capital, “I was lightning the world a lot.” Then the war veterans, who were placed in the stands of Red Square, unfurled banners: "We defended Moscow!", "These days will not be silenced by glory", "We fought for the Motherland", "Glory to the participants of the Great Patriotic War!" The event ended with the passage of military equipment.
In addition to the parade participants, veterans and children, the head of the capital Sergey Sobyanin, members of the Moscow government, deputies of the Moscow City Council, representatives of veterans', various social and children's movements, as well as religious denominations of Russia attended the Red Square of Moscow. Sergei Sobyanin urged those gathered to surround the surviving veterans of the Great Patriotic War with support and care.
The parade in the capital for the 70 anniversary of the great 1941 parade of the year was prepared long and carefully. It is clear that he was more like a costume procession, but this action did not lose its significance and solemnity. So, the participant of the 7 parade of November 1941 of the year Mark Ivanihin opened the event.
Parade 7 November 1941 of the year
Many historians of the November 7 parade, 1941, are equated, by influencing people's consciousness and the course of further events, with a major military operation.
It should be noted that the situation at the front was difficult. Since October 25 was Tula defensive operation, October Wehrmacht 29 came to Tula. Three days were fierce battles: parts of the 50 Army, together with the garrison of the city (156-th regiment of the NKVD, 732-th anti-aircraft artillery regiment of air defense) and the militia (Tula Worker Regiment), were able to repel the onslaught of the German 24-th corps before the arrival reinforcements. At the same time, residents built three defensive lines around the city. According to the Soviet side, 30 of October The Red Army repulsed 4 tank attacks near Tula (the city was initially stormed by two tank divisions and one Wehrmacht infantry brigade), the main attacks were on the Oryol highway, Rogozhinsky settlement and the Voronezh highway. October 31 repulsed three attacks, November NNXX - two assaults and numerous small attacks. On November 1, parts of the 2 and 2 of the German field armies reached the city, but even they could not make a break in the battle. The Tula garrison was also reinforced by units of the 4 Army, which came out of the encirclement.
The Wehrmacht tried to circumvent the city from the south-east and east in the direction of Dedilovo, Stalinogorsk, Venev, Kashira. But the attempt failed, since on November 7, units of the 50 Army from the Tula region and the 3 Army from the Warm region carried out a counter-attack on the flanks of the advancing German group.
4 November ended autumn thaw, frost bound the roads. The Wehrmacht command redeployed forces and redeployed reserves, preparing for a new decisive blow. The Soviet command transferred reserves to the most dangerous areas. Already on November 15, the Germans resumed the offensive in the north-west, and the 18 in the south-west.
After some doubts, the leadership of the USSR decided to hold a parade to strengthen the morale of the Soviet people. The siege of Moscow and the evacuation that began on October 16 gave rise to many rumors, including the flight of Stalin and the top political leadership of the USSR from the capital. It was a great opportunity to loudly announce to the whole world that Moscow and the USSR are standing and will stand firmly.
October 24 1941, the year Stalin summoned General Artemyev, Commander of the Moscow Military District, and General Zhigarev, Commander of the Air Force, to his office and ordered to begin preparations for the parade in complete secrecy.
On November 6, immediately after the solemn meeting of the Moscow Council, which took place at the Mayakovskaya metro station, Joseph Stalin announced to the highest party leadership of the country about the start of the military parade on Red Square. The commanders of the military units participating in the parade received information about this at 23 hours, and the representatives of the working people invited to the main square of the country were informed that the celebrations were held from 5 in the morning on November 9th.
The start time of the parade at the very last moment was postponed from the usual 10 in the morning two hours earlier - to 8 hours. This led to an incident with a parade survey. The operator Ivan Belyakov and his assistants did not warn about this, they arrived at the 8 watch to prepare for the start of shooting at the 10 watch and did not have time to adjust the synchronous sound equipment. Therefore, the parade and the speech of Stalin were removed without sound. The NKVD general Kuzmichev apologized to the operators, informing them that the Soviet government knew that it was not their fault that Comrade Stalin’s speech had not been withdrawn, but because of the government agencies that had not warned about changing the start time of the parade. Then the head of Stalin’s security, General Vlasik, invited the cameramen to arrive at 5 for the evening at Lubyanka. There they were told that Stalin attaches great importance to the broadcast of his speech from Red Square and offered to remove it a second time, already with sound. Since re-filming at the Mausoleum was excluded, then someone suggested (it could be the director Leonid Varlamov, cameraman Ivan Belyakov or Mark Troyanovsky) to build a plywood mock-up of the Mausoleum podium in the Grand Kremlin Palace, disguise it as marble. They even tried to let Stalin walk out of his mouth during a speech in order to recreate the authenticity of the event. To do this, in the BKD opened all the windows. Although it did not work out, the audience and American film experts did not notice this error. Footage of the November 7 parade of 1941 and the speech of the Soviet leader embedded in it were included in a documentary tape by Leonid Varlamov and Ilya Kopalin, “The defeat of the German fascist troops near Moscow”, which won the Oscar for 1942 year as the best foreign film.
The military-political leadership of the country was greatly worried about the possibility of the bombing of the Luftwaffe on Moscow that day to destroy the leaders of the USSR and disrupt the parade. Therefore, from November 5, the Soviet aviation delivered preemptive strikes at the airfields of the Germans. The situation was facilitated by nature: on the afternoon of November 6, military meteorologists reported that the next day would be marked by a blizzard and heavy snow, so there should be no fear of enemy air raids. Although serious measures were taken to protect the airspace, up to 550 fighters defended Moscow's sky on this day. And not in vain, on November 7 at the borders of the capital, squadrons of the 6th fighter corps and anti-aircraft gunners of Moscow air defense destroyed 34 enemy aircraft.
On the night of November 7, by Stalin’s personal order, the stars on the towers of the Kremlin were uncovered and lit, and Lenin’s Mausoleum was freed from disguise. In 7.50, Stalin and the top leadership of the USSR appeared on the platform of the mausoleum. The parade began exactly at 8 in the morning of November 7 of the year 1941. Commander of the Moscow Military District, General Pavel Artemyev, commanded them, and he was received by the hero of the Civil War, Marshal Semyon Budyonny. At the same instant, all the loudspeakers of the Soviet Union, which worked around the clock during the war, were heard the solemn voice of the announcer: “They say all the radio stations of the Soviet Union. The central radio station of Moscow begins to broadcast a parade of Red Army units dedicated to the 24 anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution from Red Square ... ”.
In 8 hours, Marshal Semyon Budyonny rode a horse out of the gate of the Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin. After the report of the commander of the parade, General Artemyev, and the detour of the troops, the head of the State Defense Committee (GKO), Supreme Commander and People's Commissar of Defense Joseph Stalin, addressed the Red Army and the people of the Soviet Union. The leader did not speak for long, reported on some successes of the Red Army in the battle of Moscow, that the enemy was exhausted, the main objectives of Operation Typhoon were not achieved. It was not possible to take the capital of the USSR in an impetuous throw. And he called on the Red Army and Red Navy men, commanders and political workers, partisans to be worthy of the Great Liberation Mission, which fell to the lot of our people.
The solemn march of the Red Army on the square was opened by the cadets of the artillery school. Then, with banners unfolded, under the revolutionary marches, which were performed by the orchestra of the Moscow Military District headquarters under the direction of Vasily Agapkin (this is the author of the famous Slav Women's Farewell march), representatives of all types of troops of the Red Army marched through Red Square. Only the Air Force did not participate in the parade, the bad weather did not abruptly dispose of aviation.
About 7 thousand people took part in the parade on November 1941, 28,5: cadets from the battalions of the District Military-Political School and the Red Banner Artillery School, fighters from the Moscow Rifle Division, division named after Frunze, division them. Dzerzhinsky, sailors of Moscow naval crew, the Red Army Special battalion of the military council of the Moscow military district and the Moscow defense zone, combined anti-aircraft defense regiment, etc. Of the military equipment in the parade participated: 160 armored vehicles, 140 artillery pieces, 232 vehicles.
The parade lasted no more than half an hour, but everyone who came to the main square of the country was convinced that the fighting spirit of the Red Army and the country's leadership was not broken. In the stands on both sides of the Mausoleum, in addition to Muscovites - workers and employees, were correspondents of foreign newspapers accredited in Moscow. Therefore, the news of the solemn parade spread throughout the planet.