The documentary heritage of the closed departmental archive of the CPSU was integrated into the system of the State Archival Service of the Russian Federation. As of January 1, 2015, the Documentation Center stores the 3 704 1, the 142 525 storage units. The general chronological framework of documents reflecting the sociopolitical history of southern Russia covers the period from the end of the 19th century to the 2010 year. This array of sources contains many documents on the history of the Great Patriotic War. By species, they are divided into management documents and documents of personal origin.
The center is regularly completed with documents of personal origin, systematically combined into collection collections, the authors of the documents are both famous scientists, local historians, public figures, and ordinary citizens. The collection-collections “Don Sports Veterans”, “Veterans of the Great Patriotic War”, “Don Komsomol Veterans” collections have been formed and continue to be replenished; the “Children of War” is being formed.
In 2004, Vladimir Ivanovich Shamarov handed over to the Center the documents for the personal origin of his father, Ivan Viktorovich Shamarov (1911-1945). The collection consisted of 16 cases and was assigned to the Don Veterans Sports Collection Fund, since in 1930-ies Ivan Shamarov was actively engaged in free-style wrestling with trainer A.G. Pustynnikov in the sports society "Dinamo" (Rostov-on-Don). Among the materials transferred are personal documents, letters from Ivan Shamarov, letters and memories of fellow-friends about him; the manuscript of the story "And he wanted to live," written by his son Vladimir in memory of his father; collection of photos.
The biography of Ivan Shamarov was typical of many young people born on the eve of 1917. The son of a blacksmith worker, in 1929-1934 he served as a sailor in the Black Sea navy. At the end of the service, he entered the rabfak of the Rostov Pedagogical Institute, then to the Teacher Institute at the Physics and Mathematics Faculty. In 1938 he graduated from the institute and, together with his wife Pelageya Fedorovna Shamarova (a graduate of the same institute), was sent to work in a school in the Oryol district of the Rostov region. From August 1940 to September 1941 he worked as a teacher of mathematics at school No. 43 of the city of Rostov-on-Don. In September 1941 he was drafted into the ranks of the Red Army. A wife with three children born in 1937, 1938 and 1940 was evacuated from Rostov-on-Don to the Zavetinsky district of the Rostov Region.
167 letters are invaluable testimony to a “living” story.
The documents deposited in the Center include a unique collection of 167 letters sent by Ivan Viktorovich from the front from 4 September 1941 of the year to 14 of May 1945 of the year - invaluable evidence of a “living” story. This collection is complemented by seven letters from Ivan's front-line comrades, dated May-November 1945, sent to the widow after the death of a comrade. In these two cases, the whole history of the Great Patriotic War was reflected: from the beginning to the military operations in Germany.
Studying these letters, you understand, "at what price happiness was won." Private correspondence, carefully kept for many decades by relatives and friends, reflects various episodes of the Great Patriotic War, many aspects of the inner world and way of life of war veterans, and also contains many testimonies about the life of the rear.
The first months of the war
The collection of letters contains four postcards dated 4-6 September 1941: “I am mobilized. We are going to Poltava, and then I don’t know. ” Then: "We left with Lozovoi, I do not know where." September 6: “Hello from Ukraine! We are going to Kiev, we are approaching Mirgorod. And in these short messages everywhere: “pity and bring up our children”, “I kiss you and children”, “Hello, Polichka and my children Vova, Vanya, Vitya!”
5 September 1941, the last postcard came: "Where I will be, then I will write." And then a long silence followed.
In March, 1942, his wife, Pelageya Shamarova, made a request to the Commissariat of Defense of the USSR. In a reply from 15 March 1942, it was reported that “information about the whereabouts of I. Shamarov. currently not available. He is not on the list of dead, dead from injuries and missing. ”
14 May 1942, my wife receives a letter from Ilya - a friend of her husband, in which he reports that “Ivan and I were together in a difficult situation. Where is he now, I do not know. But I don’t think something happened to him. ”
"Wait for me"
Pelagia could only wait and hope for a miracle. And the miracle happened! The first letter received after the liberation of the Rostov region from the occupation dates back to February 1943 of the year (the date is not readable). About his long silence, he does not apply. After greetings to all, a brief message that everything is fine, the enumerations of those acquaintances who served with him served as a complete poem by Konstantin Simonov “Wait for me”.
It was later from the recollections of fellow soldiers that it became known that after a short-term training in the intelligence school, during the performance of a combat mission in Budennovsk, Ivan Shamarov was captured by the Schmidt team. He himself only once in a letter from 10 of September 1944 wrote: “I did not write for a long time, this is not laziness, but no matter how much I wrote, they could not go. I was ... where I was in the 41-42 year, only a total of 16 days. But everything went well. ”
Scrolling through the yellowed "triangles", you get information about military operations in which Ivan participated. He was a military intelligence officer, a military rank - sergeant, served in the 915 artillery regiment of the 346 th Debaltsevskaya Red Banner Rifle Division.
Some lines pointing to the location of the front-line soldier are marred by military censorship: “I am now in the army in artillery ...”, “Hello from ...”
Studying the letters of Ivan Shamarov for four months - February-May 1945 - you understand that these are not just letters, but short reports from the battlefield. So succinctly he describes the military successes along the route of the division. October 14, 1943: “It is difficult to describe what is happening here at the forefront. Our beat aviation ours is bombing. "Katyusha" sing - a continuous roar, a rumble. He is also an enemy of heavy bombing and it is very easy to get hit by a bomb or shell. It’s with such music that I compose a letter for you. ”
"We are now finished with idiots in the Crimea"
The battles for Debaltseve, Melitopol, the forcing of Sivash, Sevastopol, Kherson, Yelnya, the liberation of Latvia, Lithuania and the last battles in Germany - about all these battles at least a few lines in letters to my wife.
17 May 1944: “We are now finished with idiots in the Crimea, and if you had seen: how his last days were shredded. After all, he took Sevastopol 250 days, and we kicked him out in three days and even less. And when the last group was liquidated outside the city, it is just difficult to convey. How many have filled them and how much technology they have left for tens of square kilometers. And as the city exulted on the day of liberation - they saluted, the soul was sinking with joy. ”
In each letter, along with the love of their relatives, their land, patriotism and hatred of the enemy, the dream of ending the war and returning to a peaceful life passes like a thread. 5 September 1943: "Now the most responsible character of the struggle for the Dnieper, but we all know that no one will stand against the Russian soldier (these words are underlined)."
17 August 1944: "This year we are thinking of ending the war and seeing you."
October 17 1944: "In general, military life - the life of a front-line soldier is full of surprises."
October 24 1944: "You already know about the brilliant successes of our troops and us, so there is nothing more to write."
October 28 1944 year: “While we miss. But around us "concerts" for the fascists are performed funeral. "
In his letters, Ivan Viktorovich asks many questions about the lives of children, wife, relatives in the liberated Rostov, about their life, health and nutrition.
November 28 1943: “Thank you, entertaining letter. Vitka (younger son), of course, you forgive? The only pity is that they will grow out of this age and I cannot observe it. Well, at least in the letters describe their tricks. It is very interesting to me".
In almost every letter, starting with 1941, the phrase: “I am still alive and well, I wish you the best.”
Personal letter to son
In September, the eldest son Vladimir learned to write 1943, and his father, to instill in him the skills of reading and writing, sends letters from the front, written personally to Vladimir Ivanovich Shamarov in block letters.
December 10 1943: “Well done, that you know how to write. Learn to write better. The Red Army soldiers also read your letter and praised you that you can write to daddy himself. ”
Later, in the 1944 year, when the middle son Ivan also learned to read and write, Ivan Viktorovich would write letters in print letters personally to each of his sons.
13 February 1944: “Hello, Vanya! I received your letter. Thank you, son. Learn to write better. All my comrades read your letter. Well done! Just do not turn the letters. I kiss you. Your dad. Hello from my comrades.
1943 year - year of awards
October 28 1943, Ivan Shamarov was awarded the medal "For Courage", and November 19 1943 - the Order of the Red Star.
He received the medal “For Courage” for the fact that, in the area of military operations in the area of the village of Udachnoe 22 of October 1943, “quickly and clearly linked the battery’s battle formations. According to its coordinates, three enemy firing points were destroyed, the fire of three artillery batteries, seven artillery batteries was suppressed, ”is indicated in award documents published in the“ People’s feat ”electronic base.
And here are the lines from the second award sheet: “Comrade Shamarov, the master of his craft, quickly tied the firing positions, thereby accelerating the operation of the batteries for the quickest opening of fire. On November 2, 1943, he participated in forcing the first gun, and subsequently, without horse traction, he rolled the guns at the OP (firing position). During a hot battle, he worked along with the fire crew. Being wounded, Comrade Shamarov did not leave the battlefield until the enemy counterattack choked. After some time, the enemy again counterattacked with large infantry forces with support tanks, with the active support of diving enemy bombers. As a member of the CPSU (b), Comrade Shamarov urged his comrades to prevent enemy tanks from entering infantry battle formations. With gun fire, Comrade Shamarov did not allow tanks to battle infantry formations, and also destroyed up to 15 machine gunners and two light machine guns.
"The boredom is incredible in this unfortunate country"
The further our troops moved to the West, the more “descriptive” the news came from the front. In his letters to his wife, Ivan Viktorovich gave interesting sketches of foreign life and architecture, compared the weather with that which should be at home.
17 March 1945: “For now, the boredom is incredible in this ill-fated country. Moreover, it is spring now - mud, water from below and above. ”
He died after victory
From the end of 1944, Ivan Shamarov had bad dreams full of disturbing forebodings, which he sometimes reported in letters.
30 March 1945: “I have bad dreams. And if you believe them, then it will be bad for you or for me. ”
27 April 1945, Ivan was wounded in the stomach in the Stettin area (Western Pomerania, Germany).
But he lived to win! He saw with his own eyes the fruits of his military labors, his salute and, I think, his soul exulted just like thousands of others.
His last letter from the hospital is dated 14 of May 1945 of the year, and he hopes to see you soon.
25 May 1945, Ivan Shamarov died in hospital from injuries. He was buried in Germany, in the South-West district of the city of Stargard in a brotherly cemetery. Details of the last days of his life were told to the widow by front-line friends. In their letters there are many warm words about Ivan Viktorovich, the bitterness of loss and words of support for his wife and sons of a deceased friend.
In conclusion, I would like to emphasize that with the example of just one family, its correspondence for 1941-1945 of the year, memories of comrades, we get an idea of the war and its participants - simple and sincere, which causes the deepest respect for people who sacrificed their lives common victory.