Today the situation has changed. The armed conflicts in the Middle East, in North, West and Northeast Africa, unleashed with the help of the same West — the United States and the European Union — contribute to the influx of hundreds of thousands of refugees into European countries. Syrians and Libyans, Iraqis and Malians - they might have been glad to stay in their native countries, but the war forced them to flee to the West, saving their lives. They can be understood. But it is possible to understand even ordinary Europeans, to whom such an invasion of people absolutely alien to the language, cultural, and religious terms is absolutely not to their liking. Needless to say, the most attractive countries in Europe have long been overcrowded with migrants. Now, no one will be surprised by Parisians or Brussels from Eritrea or Congo, Somalia or Senegal. The African presence is increasingly being felt in most major European cities. So, in France, at least 1 / 3 population of the country were born abroad or have parents born abroad. The overwhelming majority of immigrants from other states residing in France are migrants from the former French colonies in North, West and Central Africa: Algerians, Moroccans, Tunisians, Senegalese, Malians, Congolese, Cameroonians and others. In some cities in the south of the country it is not clear from the first time whether you are in France or in some North African, or even West African city.
Eritreans will go to the Baltic States
However, the governments of European countries, the very vaunted democracies, absolutely do not care about the interests of their own citizens. Moreover, the countries of Eastern Europe, which, due to the low level of economic development, did not represent an attractive target for Asian and African migrants, also become victims of the migration policy of the European Union.
- photo: www.bbc.com
The leadership of the European Union is forcing Eastern European countries to accept migrants on their territory in an effort to free the same Germany or France from the overflow of Asians and Africans. Of course, the former socialist states themselves, which were so rapidly rushing into a “democratic Europe” since the beginning of the 1990s, are not at all welcome. But there is no place to go - the degree of dependence of the governments of Eastern European countries on the higher European Union hierarchy is too high. Thus, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia received the “valuable instruction” of the EU leadership to place thousands of African migrants on their territory by the end of 2015. You can gloat. For twenty-five years, the Baltic states have created all sorts of obstacles for the Russian and Russian-speaking population to live on their territory. Russian-speaking people received the status of "non-citizens", that is, official people of the second grade, which is unique to the modern world. To obtain citizenship of the same Latvia, a Russian-speaking person should have tried a lot. The ideal option for the Baltic nationalists would be the complete expulsion of the Russian and Russian-speaking population from the territory of the Baltic states. But now the Baltic States, which in recent decades have positioned themselves as the main anti-Russian outpost in Eastern Europe, have received a worthy gift from the EU leadership for their conscientious service - 2,5 thousands of African migrants. Unlike the Russian and Russian-speaking population of Latvia, Lithuania or Estonia, these migrants are people of a completely different culture, religion, and even race. Every European country will specialize in accommodating refugees from certain countries in Asia and Africa.
The Baltic countries will come mainly from Syria and Eritrea. If everything is more or less clear with the Syrians - these are Arabs who fled from the hostilities, many of them are still quite civilized people, then with Eritreans it is more difficult. The average Latvian or Estonian is unlikely to even be able to show on the map where Eritrea is located. A young country of Northeast Africa, located right on the Red Sea coast, Eritrea gained political independence only in 1993 - after a long and bloody civil war, which the Eritrean Popular Front for Liberation and a number of other partisan organizations fought against Ethiopia, which before 1990's entered the territory of Eritrea. The inhabitants of Eritrea are representatives of the Semitic (tigre, tigers) and Cushitian (afar) peoples, racially related to the Ethiopian minor race in transition, whose representatives inhabit North-Eastern Africa - Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and in part - Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania and Egypt. Economically, Eritrea is among the poorest countries in the world, respectively, and in the field of education, health and social welfare. The political regime in Eritrea is brutally harassed by the opposition, whose representatives are subjected to severe repression. Many Eritreans have no choice but to flee in search of a better life in faraway Europe.
Eritreans are people of a completely different mentality and lifestyle from Europeans. In many ways, they are similar to the Somalis, especially the Eritreans - Muslims. Recall that in Northeast Africa, Islam took the toughest forms, superimposed on the warlike customs of the local Cushite and Semitic peoples. It is in Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea that female circumcision is widespread, and women have practically no rights. The men of local nations are very militant, but in conditions outside their countries, militancy turns into heightened criminalization. Most immigrants from Somalia and neighboring countries, arriving in Europe, prefer to not work anywhere. This is not surprising - almost all of them have very necessary skills for living in their homeland, but completely useless skills in modern Europe - to feed camels or to hunt, build mud earthen houses or collect dates. For many of them, the only craft is the ability to kill - the Horn of Africa, on which Somalia, Eritrea, and Ethiopia are located, is probably the champion in the number of bloody wars, even by the standards of the Black Continent. For many European countries, Somali migrants have become a real problem - for example, in Norway, where more than thirty thousand immigrants from Somalia live, only 2% work among Somali migrants. The remaining 98% of Somali migrants are listed as unemployed, but in reality they are criminals from the drug trade to street robberies. Somalis are committed and most of the rape on the territory of Norway, and here they share the palm with the people from Pakistan. The whole world bypassed the blatant case when a young migrant of Somali origin raped a Norwegian woman right on the steps of the Norwegian parliament. Norway swallowed. Of course, among the Somali migrants there are decent people, some even manage to get a decent job and get the respect of new citizens. On the difficult fate of the Somali fashion model Varis Dirie, who moved to the UK, tells a fairly well-known film "Flower of the Desert". Eritreans in everyday behavior and culture are very similar to the Somalis - after all, they are close in terms of language, belong to a single civilizational cluster. Should we expect that they can behave in a similar way in the territory of the same Latvia or Estonia?
Baltic countries are not happy migrants
The arrival of African migrants is not welcome by the Latvian, Lithuanian, Estonian politicians themselves, who, although they have always been ardent supporters of “integration into Europe”, still remained nationalists and hoped to build “national states” from Latvia, Lithuania or Estonia. However, with a cracking economy, with financial dependence on subsidies from the European Union and the United States, with constant internal problems on the basis of opposition from the Baltic nationalists and the Russian-speaking population, it is very difficult to build nation states. Therefore, the governments of the Baltic republics have no choice but to allow the entry of refugees from other EU countries into their territories. Although politicians, of course, "grumble." The Minister of Internal Affairs of Latvia, Richard Kozlovskis, said that the country was not preparing to receive such a significant number of African refugees, and therefore simply cannot accept those 700 people who should be accommodated in Latvia in 2015 in accordance with certain EU quotas.
- Photos: ROBERT ATANASOVSKI / AFP
Former Estonian Foreign Minister Kristiina Ojuland wrote on her page on the social networking site Facebook: "refugees in such numbers are a threat to the white race." But the fate of the white race, the leadership of the European Union the least concern. It is the Baltic nationalists who still inherited a political line of racist persuasion from the time of cooperation with the Nazis during the Second World War. The European Union demands tolerance and the Baltic States, willy-nilly, but you have to obey. Although, of course, the Baltic republics do this with terrible reluctance. No wonder - the Baltic countries have always been distinguished by increased isolation and nationalism, intolerance towards visitors. Even with relatively culturally close Russian and Russian-speaking Baltic states can not cope - to say nothing about Africans and Asians. By the way, Latvia, according to the MIPEX Integration Policy Assessment Index (MIPEX), is the least favorable country for receiving refugees. Latvia ranks 37 in the hospitality rating. The worst attitude of migrants can be found only in Turkey. Latvia also has a colossal political problem in the face of more than 300 of thousands of non-citizens living in the country. This is the Russian-speaking population of the republic, which for twenty-five years has not yet achieved the status of citizens of the country. Meanwhile, "non-citizens" are those who built post-war Latvia. These are Soviet teachers and doctors, engineers and officers, workers and employees, as well as their descendants. Who, if not them, has a greater right to obtain Latvian citizenship? However, it is possible that African refugees will receive Latvian citizenship earlier than Russian-speaking “non-citizens” who have been waiting for it for decades. Lithuania demonstrates a similar attitude towards immigrants. The Republic of Lithuania is somewhat more hospitable than Latvia - it is on the 34-th place in the Migrant Integration Policy Assessment Index (MIPEX).
Estonia can be the most hospitable country - it occupies the 22-place in the specified rating. And this, it seems, will play a cruel joke with the country - the fact is that Estonia is the smallest Baltic state in terms of population. 1 312 is currently inhabited by thousands of people (as of January 2015). This is official data. In fact, many Estonians have been abroad for years, earning money. Moreover, Estonia is experiencing the problems of a catastrophic decline in population typical for the North European countries. Each year, the country's population is reduced by about five thousand people. This is a lot, considering that the population of the country slightly exceeds a million inhabitants. So, from 2000 to 2015. The population of the country has decreased by 60 thousand people. In the 2010 of living in Estonia 1 333 290 people, of 2011 - 1 329 660 people, of 2012 - 1 325 217 people, of 2013 - 1 320 174 people, of 2014 - 1 315 819 person. That is, only in five years the population of the country has decreased by almost twenty thousand people. Against the background of such a large-scale reduction in the population, the arrival in Estonia of a large number of foreign migrants simply cannot go unnoticed. Therefore, after the Estonian government was informed that the country must accept 1064 refugee, Estonian Prime Minister Taavi Rõivasa declared that the proposal of the European Commission for the Estonian state was unacceptable. The refugee quotas must correspond to the size of Estonia and its socio-economic potential, the Estonian premier believes. The head of the Estonian government was also supported by residents of the country who organize rallies against the admission of African refugees. What they fear is completely understandable. Eritreans are not Estonians. There are five to ten children in Eritrean families, each of which, in turn, is also focused on the birth of a significant number of children. Refugees, settling at a new place of residence, call relatives, including the second, third, fourth wives, who are registered as sisters, daughters or nieces. It should also be borne in mind that African refugees are completely useless for the Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian economy. In the Baltics - the strongest unemployment among the local population. Latvians and Lithuanians smoothly move to the countries of Western Europe, turning into migrant workers themselves. It turns out that in their place come the Africans, who will not even work - they will live on benefits paid from subsidies received by the Baltic countries from the European Union. Meanwhile, in the Baltics are not happy to see even qualified foreign specialists.
For decades, Russian-speaking specialists have been denied citizenship, even to the detriment of the economic and cultural needs of the Baltic states. The education system suffers from this, including any foreign specialist, be it a world-famous professor in the field of natural sciences or a promising engineer-inventor, who is required to prove his excellent knowledge of the state language in order to receive the right to teach at a local university. It turns out that the residents of the same Latvia themselves are losing this - a low level of education encourages students to go to get education in other countries, but the authorities stubbornly refuse to change the procedure for employing qualified teachers who do not speak the state language to the proper degree.
Will Africans replace Latvians, Lithuanians and Estonians?
Meanwhile, the problem of outflow of population from the Baltic countries is really very serious. So, only in a decade, about 250 thousands of people left Latvia. With a population of less than 2 million, this is a very significant figure. The country is in first place in Europe to reduce the population. Demographers are making quite disappointing forecasts for Riga - by 2020, the Latvian population will decrease by another 20%. Over ten years, 300 has left thousands of neighboring Lithuania, but this is only according to official data. Independent sources talk about a digit by an order of magnitude more - about half a million Lithuanian citizens who left the country in search of a better life abroad. Only in London today there are a huge number of Lithuanians who form many thousands of diasporas. Most of the Latvians, Lithuanians and Estonians who have left for the countries of Western Europe will most likely not return home. First of all - for economic reasons. In this situation, taking a huge number of refugees from African countries is an extremely strange decision that directly contradicts the security interests of the Baltic states. An increase in internal tensions is not excluded, which will be associated, among other things, with the discontent of the population with the national policies of the governments of the Baltic states. Against the background of Eritreans and Somalis, Russian-speaking "non-citizens" will no longer look like potential adversaries, but rather become a culturally close group, cooperation with which will be necessary in the process of joint resistance to the growth of African migration. In addition, it is obvious that the Baltic States will also face problems of competition in the small labor market that still persists in the Baltic countries that are affected by mass unemployment. After all, some of the African migrants, of course, want to get a job. And the Baltic authorities will be forced to find jobs to the detriment of the local population - otherwise, the supervisory organizations will complain to the European Union and the size of the subsidized financing of the Baltic republics will be significantly reduced.
For years, artificial barriers have been raised between Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians on the one hand, and representatives of other ethnic groups of the population, designed to maintain national isolation and strengthen the political ambitions of the nationalist forces of the Baltic states. However, these same barriers turned out to be a time bomb under the social and political stability of the Baltic countries. Moreover, they actually do not allow the formation of a new political nation, since hundreds of thousands of representatives of non-titular groups of the population, primarily Russian-speaking, are cut off from the process of forming a national identity. If thousands of African migrants arrive in Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania, then they and their children will not be able to integrate into the Baltic societies due to language and cultural barriers. It means that a new force destructive for the process of nation-building will appear on the territory of the Baltic states. Cut off from education, employment in state structures, African migrant groups will replenish the ranks of the marginal layers of the Baltic countries, which will have a direct impact on the growth of crime, various social vices - drug addiction, alcoholism, prostitution. One should not disregard the political aspects of the problem. One way or another, but over time thousands of immigrants will begin to consolidate as a socio-political force to assert their rights. It is likely that in this they will meet with support from European human rights organizations, which intensify the pressure on the Latvian, Lithuanian and Estonian authorities. Already, European politicians, putting pressure on the authorities of the Baltic republics, refer to the fact that thousands of migrants from African countries die in the wrecks of ships and boats entering Europe. The problem is very serious and every EU country should take part in its solution, in saving people - this is today the credo of the leaders of the European Commission, who dictate their position to the Latvian, Lithuanian and Estonian governments.
Secondly, there is one more important nuance. Despite the very sharp contradictions between the nationalists and the Russian-speaking population, based on the language fault, until recently the population of the Baltic states remained homogeneous in confessional terms. The emergence of thousands of African migrants, especially from countries with unstable political regimes and civil wars, will entail, with almost one hundred percent guarantee, the spread of religious extremist movements in the territory of the Baltic States, the appearance of cells of radical terrorist organizations. For all this, the Baltic states should say thanks to the European Union, to which it has strived for so long, and for membership in which, ultimately, it has been given a common fate for European countries - the adoption of African migrants on its territory. It is likely that the policy to reduce the population of the Baltic countries was carried out by the European Union consciously - just to resettle here a significant part of African and Asian migrants, creating social and political problems in the countries of Western Europe. In addition, the presence of a significant number of ethnically alien immigrants can contribute to changing the very nature of interethnic relations in the modern Baltic states. As Alexander Gaponenko, who heads the Union of non-citizens of Latvia, says, “Latvia will fulfill the demands that Europe makes, since the dependence of the Latvian political elite on Europe and the USA is extremely high. This will cause a conflict on the part of the mass of the Latvian population, which was brought up in a spirit of intolerance towards all foreigners and representatives of other races. Latvia is a racially intolerant country ”(quoted in: Non-Russians are coming! The European Union is populating the endangered Baltic States with refugees from Africa and Asia // https://versia.ru/evrosoyuz-zaselyaet-vymirayushhuyu-pribaltiku-bezhencami-iz-afriki-i- azii).
Hungary groans from thousands of transit migrants
Not enthusiastic about the introduction of EU quotas for the accommodation of refugees and other countries of Eastern Europe. For the time being, only Hungary is openly indignant at European migration policy. Hungary is generally the “white crow” of Europe. Since the Hungarian government in 2010 was headed by Viktor Orban, who represents the center-right party “Union of Young Democrats - Hungarian Civil Union”, the country's policy has become completely atypical for most modern European states. Thus, in accordance with the amended constitution, Hungary was proclaimed the state of the Hungarian people united by God and Christianity. The Hungarian leadership unequivocally opposed the legalization of same-sex marriage. Orban has repeatedly opposed the introduction of economic sanctions aimed at Russia. Representatives of another right-wing Hungarian political party, Jobbik, generally openly supported Russia's policy in the Crimea, welcomed the reunification of the people of Crimea with Russia, and repeatedly expressed sympathy to the residents of Donbass fighting for their political self-determination. Naturally, in the sphere of migration policy, the Hungarian government has manifested itself in a very original way. Although Hungary has adopted 54 000 refugees, but its attitude to Hungary is very different from other European countries. Here the refugees are under strict police control, so both Kosovo Albanians and people from the Middle East are trying to quickly pass or bypass Hungarian territory, trying to penetrate from the Balkans to Germany and Austria. Viktor Orban believes that the European Union’s policy on the distribution of quotas for receiving migrants is very doubtful, since it contributes to the erosion of European identity and, ultimately, can lead to unpredictable consequences. In the summer of 2015, on the initiative of the Hungarian government, even the construction of a special wall on the border with Serbia began. It is assumed that the wall should protect Hungary from the influx of Albanian and Middle Eastern migrants trying to enter the country from the territory of Serbia. Naturally, the construction of the wall caused a sharply negative reaction from the European Union. However, in August - early September 2015, it was Hungary who had to take one of the main attacks. Every day, 3 arrives in the country with thousands of refugees from Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan. The situation in the country has become seriously complicated, since Hungary is not able to cope with such an influx of migrants trying to get to more developed countries of Western Europe through its territory. On September 8, the Hungarian police, trying to stop a crowd of several dozen people from Afghanistan, were forced to use pepper gas. How many more similar collisions will take place is still unknown. But it is already clear that Hungary alone cannot cope with the influx of refugees, which was also acknowledged by the resigning defense minister.
Romania changes refugees for Schengen
Hungary's neighbor Romania is also concerned about the proposal of the EU leadership to accept an impressive number of migrants. According to the established quotas, Bucharest was supposed to accept 6530 people - people from Iraq and Syria. However, Romanian President Klaus Johannis said that the country is able to accommodate only 1785 refugees. In addition, the Romanian leadership reported that the country is not part of the Schengen zone and therefore refugees will have to undergo certain procedures when entering the territory of Romania. In exchange for accepting EU quotas, Romania demanded that it be admitted to the Schengen zone. Apparently, Bucharest knows how to blackmail the European Union. The fact is that the admission of Romania to Schengen means the unhindered possibility of entry from Romania into most of the developed countries of Western Europe belonging to the Schengen zone. And this opportunity will be used, first of all, by the Romanian Gypsies - the very ones that France and Italy are trying to get rid of with great difficulty. Romania itself is an economically poor country, and living on its territory of a large Roma population creates additional problems, since most Roma occupy the lower floors of the social hierarchy of Romanian society, do not work and are interrupted by dubious earnings. This is one of the causes of internal ethnic tension in the country. In fact, Romania offered the European Union an exchange according to the scheme “we take your several thousand Syrians and Iraqis, and you take us to the Schengen zone and receive several tens of thousands of Gypsies going in search of earnings to Rome and Paris, Brussels or Berlin.”
Czech Republic and Slovakia - against quotas, Poland is ready for compromise
Slovak Prime Minister Robert Fico subjected the quota system for the accommodation of refugees and migrants to reasonably criticized. The head of the Slovak government drew attention to the fact that the refugees and migrants themselves are extremely selective about their place of residence. Slovakia is not interesting to them. “Refugees do not want to stay here. They want to get mainly to Austria, Germany, France and the UK. And our country is not to blame for the fact that it is not interesting for migrants, so you should not impose mandatory quotas on us. How do we keep the refugees? Chained? Forcibly integrate? ”- asks Fico leadership of the European Union (Quoted from: http://lifenews.ru/news/160919). Like Romania and Hungary, Slovakia opposes the quotas proposed by the EU leadership. Czech President Milos Zeman also spoke against the EU quota system. He said that Europe should help refugees from Ukraine, not African migrants, stressing that Ukrainians belong to European culture and are distinguished by hard work and hard work. Zeman criticized the very possibility of locating Middle Eastern migrants in the territory of the Czech Republic, who are not only extremely far from the Czechs in culture, but can also be associated with the terrorist underground.
- photo: https://news.mail.ru
Such a negative reaction of the Czech and Slovak leadership could not be ignored by the European Union and the states of Western Europe that supported it. In particular, 7 in September 2015, Austrian Chancellor Werner Fayman met with Slovak Prime Minister Robert Fico and Czech Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka, at which he once again tried to convince the leaders of the Czech Republic and Slovakia to accept the quotas. However, the Austrian Chancellor did not find understanding between Fico and Sobotka and criticized the position of Bratislava and Prague for their unwillingness to participate in resolving the migration crisis. But Slovak and Czech leaders defend quite reasonable positions. First, they are trying to explain to the EU leadership that the refugees themselves do not want to stay in the Czech Republic, Slovakia or Hungary, as they are attracted by the richer countries of Western Europe. Secondly, it is advisable not to smuggle refugees from one country to another, but to strengthen the external borders of the Schengen countries and the European Union, as a result of which the influx of refugees from disadvantaged regions of the world and hot spots will be reduced. Otherwise, if the borders are not strengthened, the migration to the territory of Europe will grow - every day several thousand migrants arrive in European countries. By the end of 2015, no less than 850 of thousands of migrants are expected, mostly from Syria and Afghanistan, where hostilities do not cease.
Poland is opposed to the introduction of a quota policy, although not as zealously as Hungary. President Andrzej Duda talks about the low effectiveness of quotas in the actual resolution of the migration crisis in Europe. The very idea of accepting refugees is very dissatisfied with the homogeneous ethnic and confessional population of Poland. Many Poles express ideas that are openly hostile to migrants and the government fears that if agreed with EU policy, it will not only be left without the support of the country's population, but also provoke an explosion of public discontent, possibly - and people will go to the streets. As it is known, initially the head of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker, reported that Poland should accept 12 thousands of refugees on its territory. This decision caused a sharply negative reaction from the Polish leadership. In the end, the Poles agreed to accept thousands of refugees 2. However, later, Polish Prime Minister Eva Kopach said that the country's potential for accepting migrants, of course, exceeds the announced number of thousands of people in 2, but in order for Poland to accept more refugees, the European Union must meet certain conditions. While Poland and the European Commission have not reached an agreement, the Polish leadership is developing action plans for the government and special services in the event of a sharp increase in the number of migrants in the country.
EU "will save" Ukraine?
Western European countries are indeed in a state of near catastrophic. The scale of the influx of refugees from the Middle East and African countries is such that they force state leaders to hope for a solution to the problem only by the common efforts of the European Union. It was then, in order to unload Germany, Hungary and Italy, the European Union and introduced a system of quotas for the accommodation of refugees. Within only one day of September 6, 2015, in Munich alone, 11 thousands of refugees arrived. Most of the migrants arrive in Germany from the Balkan direction and concentrate on the territory of Bavaria. German Chancellor Angela Merkel is an ardent supporter of quotas for the placement of refugees in EU countries, but at the same time, she does not refuse to accept refugees from belligerent Syria - regardless of the country in which they applied for political asylum. Spain agreed to the adoption of 17680 refugees, and this number even exceeds the quota in 14931 of a person that the European Commission has defined for Madrid. France has a quota of 40 000 people, and in the near future, the first buses from Germany are expected to arrive in the country - about a thousand refugees from Syria, Iraq and Eritrea will enter the French territory. French President Francois Hollande agreed to place on the territory of the country another 24 000 people over the next two years.
Meanwhile, the EU still has one more unused trump card - this is Ukraine. A large territory of Ukraine can play a very useful role for the European Union countries in accommodating refugees. Moreover, the Ukrainian leadership is most dependent on the European Union and the United States and cannot even hint at the conduct of an independent policy, including on the issue of accepting refugees. Speaking with his Italian counterpart Matteo Renzi, the Prime Minister of the Kiev government Arseniy Yatsenyuk expressed his willingness to place on the territory of Ukraine African and Middle Eastern refugees who could replenish the labor resources of Ukraine. Of course, in response to his proposal, Yatsenyuk is awaiting the receipt of regular financial subsidies from the European Union. The question arises as to how poor and belligerent Ukraine will accommodate refugees if it has nowhere to put its own refugees fleeing the bloody war in the Donbas. Thousands of refugees from Donetsk and Lugansk are currently on the territory of the Russian Federation and are not able to return home - there is war. It is not excluded that the Kiev government will use African and Middle Eastern refugees, firstly, to extort regular cash inflows from Western countries, and secondly, to provocations against Russia and the New Russia republics. Who knows if thousands of militants of the same IS will come to Ukraine under the guise of refugees from “hot spots”, who can be used in the Donbas and to enter the Crimea?
In any case, the problem with the massive influx of refugees, which today is shaking the whole of Europe, is a direct result of the bloody policy in the Middle East, in Africa, in South Asia, which the West has been pursuing over the past decades. Thanks to the efforts of the United States and the European Union, even if authoritarian, but politically stable regimes in Iraq and Libya were destroyed, a bloody civil war in Syria was unleashed and the political situation in Yemen was destabilized.