Military Review

OAO Kuznetsov. Production of rocket, aviation and ground propulsion systems.

OAO Kuznetsov is a leading engine-building enterprise in Russia. Here, the design, manufacture and repair of rocket, aircraft and gas turbine installations for the gas industry and energy.

With these engines manned spacecraft Vostok, Voskhod, Soyuz, and Progress automatic transport cargo spacecraft were launched. 100% of manned space launches and up to 80% of commercial launches are made using RD107 / 108 engines and their modifications made in Samara. The plant’s products are of particular importance for maintaining long-range combat readiness aviation Of Russia. At Kuznetsovo, the NK-12 engines for the Tu-95MS long-range bombers, the NK-25 engines for the Tu-22M3 and NK-32 bombers for the unique strategic Tu-160 bombers were designed, manufactured and maintained.

Today, the Samara enterprise is faced with the task of restarting the production of NK-32 02 engines, increasing the production volumes of rocket engines, increasing the reliability of industrial engines for Gazprom, and developing promising aviation developments.

1. 55 years ago in Samara began to produce rocket engines in series, which not only raised the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin into orbit, but have been used by Russian cosmonautics and heavy aircraft for more than half a century. The Kuznetsov enterprise, which is part of Rostec State Corporation, united several large Samara factories. At first they were engaged in the production and maintenance of engines for Vostok and Voskhod rocket carriers, now for the Soyuz. The second direction of the work of Kuznetsov today is powerplants for aircraft.

OAO Kuznetsov is part of the United Engine Corporation (UEC).

2. Mechanical processing production.

This is one of the initial stages of the engine production process. High-precision processing and test equipment is concentrated here. For example, the DMU-160 FD milling machining center is capable of processing large-sized parts of complex shape with a diameter of up to 1,6 meters and weights of up to 2 tons.

3. The equipment is operated on 3 shifts.

4. Processing the stator rings of the NK-32 engine compressor on a turning-and-boring lathe.

5. The NK-32 is mounted on the Tu-160 strategic bomber, and the NK-32-1 in 1996 is installed on the Tu-144LL flying laboratory.

6. The installation speed allows you to process seams up to 100 meters per minute.

7. Metallurgical production.

This section is capable of casting blanks with a diameter of up to 1600 mm and a weight of up to 1500 kg, which are necessary for body parts of gas turbine engines for industrial and aviation use. The photo shows the process of pouring parts in a vacuum-melting furnace.

8. Fragment of the gating system after pouring.

9. Casting control by LUM-A method.

10. Type tests of the rocket engine valve in the conditions -55 ° C.

11. Tests are the process of cooling a bath of alcohol with liquid nitrogen to a specified temperature.

12. Site assembly models of blades in the model block.


14. Profile control compressor blades.

15. The calcining of ceramic blades in an electric furnace.

16. Putting ceramics on a blade model.

17. The process of induction soldering nozzle of the combustion chamber of the rocket engine. The process temperature is 975 ° C.

18. Installation of half-rings on the critical section of the combustion chamber of the rocket engine at the welding site.

19. Milling the fuel channels of the combustion chamber of the rocket engine.

20. "Outer jacket" nozzle combustion chamber taxiways with markings for X-ray control.

21. Assembling the steering unit RD. It is installed together with the main propulsion RD-107А / РД-108А for control and thrust vectoring.

22. Combustion chambers.

23. Now, about 12 thousand people work at Kuznetsov.

24. Assembly of the next prototype of the NK-361 engine for the Russian railway.

A new direction in the development of OAO Kuznetsov is the production of mechanical drives for the GTE-8,3 / NK power unit for the traction section of the main gas turbine locomotive based on the NCD-361 GTE.

25. The first prototype of a gas turbine locomotive with an NK-361 engine in 2009 during tests on an experimental ring in Shcherbinka held a train weighing more than 15 thousand tons, consisting of 158 cars, setting a world record.

26. Shop final assembly of aircraft gas turbine engines.

27. Assembly of the afterburner assembly of the engine NK-32.

28. The NK-25 engine is a turbojet engine for the Tu-22М3, the main Russian medium-range bomber. Along with the NK-32 has long been one of the most powerful aircraft engines in the world.

29. Binding engine NK-25.

30. Control of the NK-32 engine shell before assembly.

31. Afterburner fuel manifold.


33. Assembly fitters at work on the assembly of NK-14CT.

Gas turbine engine NK-14CT is used in the composition of the unit for the transport of gas. Interestingly, the engine uses natural gas pumped through pipelines as fuel. It is a modification of the engine NK-12, which was installed on the strategic bomber Tu-95.

34. Shop final assembly of serial rocket engines.

It assembles RD-107А / RD-108А engines developed by NPO Energomash. These propulsion systems are equipped with the first and second stages of all launch vehicles of the Soyuz type.
The principles of the RD-107 and RD-108 are similar, but the purpose is different. One hundred and seventh is on the first stage of the rocket, and one hundred and eighth - on the second.

35. The company's share in the rocket engine segment in the Russian market is 80%, for manned launches - 100%. Engine reliability - 99,8%. Launch vehicles with the engines of OAO Kuznetsov are carried out from three cosmodromes - Baikonur (Kazakhstan), Plesetsk (Russia) and Kuru (French Guiana). The launch complex for the Soyuzy will also be built at the Russian Vostochny cosmodrome (Amur region).

36. The full cycle of creating a rocket engine is about 10 months.

37. Check rocket engine configuration during assembly.

38. Preparation of the product for final delivery to control services and the customer’s representative.

39. Here, in the workshop, work is underway on the adaptation and assembly of the NK-33 rocket engine, designed for the first stage of the Soyuz-2-1в light-launch vehicle.

40. Engine NK-33 - one of those that was planned to destroy after the closure of the lunar program. The engine is easy to operate and maintain, and at the same time has high reliability. At the same time, its cost is two times lower than the cost of existing engines of the same class in terms of load.

41. The operation of heat shrinking protective tube wires aviation strand.

42. Preparing for the wiring of the wiring pins in the electrical connector of the aviation cable.


44. In the workshop of the final assembly of rocket engines there is an entire gallery with photos of Soviet and Russian cosmonauts who were sent to space on rockets with Samara engines.

45. Installation of the engine NK-14ST on the test bench.

46. Podstkovka oil system to the engine for testing.

47. Console test bench.

48. Piezometers. They are used to measure differential and low pressures when testing gas turbine engines.

49. System of noise suppression of test benches of gas turbine engines.

50. Rocket engine RD-107А / 108А on the stand. A few minutes before the start of fire tests.

It is possible to confirm almost 100% reliability of the product in only one way: send the finished engine for testing. It is mounted on a special stand and run. The power plant should work as if it is already launching a spacecraft into orbit.

51. For more than half a century of work at the Kuznetsov, about 10 thousands of liquid-propellant rocket engines of eight modifications were launched, which brought more 1800 launch vehicles of Vostok, Voskhod, Molniya and Soyuz types into space.

52. According to the minute readiness, water is supplied to the torch cooling system, a water carpet is created, which reduces the temperature of the torch and the noise from the engine running.

53. When testing an engine, registration is made about 250 parameters, which are used to evaluate the quality of engine manufacturing.

54. Inclined fire tests of a serial rocket engine at the test complex of OAO Kuznetsov in the village of Vintay.

55. The team of the settlement group processes the information received and issues a test report. According to the data obtained by the engineering staff, the test results are evaluated and a conclusion is made on its suitability for installation on the launch vehicle.

56. Preparation of the engine on the stand lasts several hours. It is tied up with sensors, testing their performance, pressure testing of highways, and comprehensive checks on the operation of the stand and engine automation.

57. Control and technological tests last about a minute. During this time, 12 tons of kerosene and about 30 tons of liquid oxygen are burned.

58. The tests are over. After that, the engine is sent to the assembly department, where it is disassembled, the components are tested, assembled, final inspection is carried out, and then sent to the customer - to JSC “RCC Progress”. There it is installed on the rocket steps.


Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Svetlana
    Svetlana 11 September 2015 06: 12 New
    The design of a tower gas turbine engine (see
    At the top of the tower is a nozzle apparatus with rotary nozzles, scapular crowns of a gas turbine,
    below - an air compressor and a low-speed electric generator, about the same as that used in hydropower, but with a larger diameter equal to the diameter of the tower. The stator with the ring rail track of this electric generator is fixedly mounted on the ground, and it is driven along it in a closed rail circle of the rotor carriage. Electric power is generated in the stator windings. The tower is held in the air by reactive lifting force and force from the wing blades attached to the walls of the tower.
    Instead of a shaft, the turbine and compressor are connected by a flexible connection - flexible corrugated walls of a hollow tower,
    similar to a flexible drill hose. Air compressors are located at the base of the tower. They are rotated by electric motors. Compressors pump atmospheric air into a flexible hollow tower. The air rises up the tower tube, is heated by the heat of the walls of the tower blackened outside. The blackened walls of the tower are heated by solar radiation. In the upper part of the tower, heated air is discharged through the rotary nozzles down and to the side, in a subgroup forming a single-cavity hyperboloid, on the annular blade ring of a single-stage air turbine. The turbine crown blades are fixed to the walls of the tower and rotate it. The rotation is transmitted down the body of the tower to its base to rotate the ring electric generator fixed at the base of the tower. Estimates show that with a tower diameter of 230 m the tower is 15 km long, the heating power of the tower walls with solar radiation is 3,4 Giga Watt. Approximately 50% of this power can be transferred into the electric power generated by the electric generator at the base of the
    1. SPACE
      SPACE 11 September 2015 08: 30 New
      Quote: Svetlana
      Design of a tower gas turbine engine

      Similar was reported in the journal Young Technician even ... twenty years ago, at the beginning of 90hg.
      And according to the article, it’s excellent and interesting, though many will pass by, thinking a little and then will again and again wash the bones of the small bipod Vasilyeva, EP how interesting it is, pah and lament over the collapse of the Russian industry, three haha, which is typical for many, much more interesting hysterically shout and delve into the guana that everything was gone, although this article is a drop in the ocean of information and says the opposite. But how many interesting ordinary and unique scientific, industrial and technological enterprises of Russia are there ...
    2. War and Peace
      War and Peace 11 September 2015 09: 46 New
      the production is hopelessly outdated, they just took it from Kuznetsov and invested almost nothing for many years, what can I say if only the last year, the NK32 and NK25 began to revive. Are the processing centers not ours, if they break down, will there be spare parts? Salaries are low - people simply have nowhere to go, they work for pennies, the designer gets 20 thousand. This is the state’s policy, you can steal, but they pay a penny for a good job. This plant is our pride, but it only makes a painful impression ...
      1. lukewarm
        lukewarm 11 September 2015 14: 06 New
        As a matter of fact, everything that is not connected with banks, “national” assets, and trade.
      2. Buffalo
        Buffalo 11 September 2015 22: 36 New
        Unfortunately, this is exactly so.
        In the private business, the earnings of a specialist of similar qualifications are not comparable anymore. A similar situation exists where the MiG-29 is produced. And in the 90s, factories often did not receive anything from the sale of aircraft for export. New equipment was not delivered there, and employees were often paid with barter - Korean cheap cars, VCRs, etc.
        Engineering - slaves of mental labor, blacks of industry, serfs, whose labor is paid slightly better than the labor of collective farmers who worked for workdays.
  2. atos_kin
    atos_kin 11 September 2015 07: 52 New
    The last century, but excellent reliability. It is very necessary to protect and increase. The equipment is already dying, instrumentation rests only on the qualifications of the staff. New capital investments are not visible in the photo. Interestingly, the salary at the enterprise is comparable to the salary of middle-level bank clerks.
  3. Platon
    Platon 11 September 2015 09: 50 New
    Sorry about the NK-65 did not say anything. The country needs a replacement for D-18
  4. Rus2012
    Rus2012 11 September 2015 09: 51 New
    Kuznetsov's "economy", it was the whole Empire. Self-sufficient and wayward ... She could stand up for herself and go “against the wind”. They themselves calculated, tested and produced whole classes of aviation and space technology themselves: from light modern "air piston engines" to taxiways.
    Calculation and production of multi-nozzle units of combustion chambers - their hobby! Only they could and could make such combustion chambers and "get away from unstable combustion" in both aircraft and rocket engines ...

    May God grant them full strength!
    1. igor67
      igor67 11 September 2015 18: 36 New
      [quote = Rus2012] "Economy" Kuznetsov, it was a whole Empire. Self-sufficient and wayward ... She could stand up for herself and go “against the wind”. They themselves calculated, tested and produced whole classes of aviation and space technology themselves: from light modern "air pistons" to taxiways.
      Yes, the Empire, and wayward, if they came to the factory for a repair kit for NK 12, God forbid after a salary, And it’s strange why suddenly NK12st, suddenly became NK14, from Soviet times, NK 12 was a gas blower.
      1. Koshak
        Koshak 11 September 2015 19: 25 New
        Quote: igor67
        And it is strange why suddenly NK12st, suddenly became NK14, from Soviet times, NK 12 st gas blower.

        NK-14st is a modified NK-12st, and it is a remake of the NK-12mv for a drive for gas compressors. In essence, the alteration concerned mainly KTA so that instead of kerosene, natural gas was used as fuel. At one time, the NK-12mv, which worked out all imaginable flight resources, went (after remodeling) to gas pumping stations.
        1. igor67
          igor67 12 September 2015 09: 41 New
          Quote: Koshak
          Quote: igor67
          And it is strange why suddenly NK12st, suddenly became NK14, from Soviet times, NK 12 st gas blower.

          NK-14st is a modified NK-12st, and it is a remake of the NK-12mv for a drive for gas compressors. In essence, the alteration concerned mainly KTA so that instead of kerosene, natural gas was used as fuel. At one time, the NK-12mv, which worked out all imaginable flight resources, went (after remodeling) to gas pumping stations.

          I am well acquainted with this alteration, as you put it, I have been assembling this engine for many years, but I repeat it was NK 12
  5. Ka-52
    Ka-52 11 September 2015 13: 19 New
    Thank you for the article! hi
    It was very interesting! More often than such articles and preferably with brief calculations, when created, who is the "boss", what are the working conditions, whether there is a modernization.
    1. g1v2
      g1v2 11 September 2015 13: 38 New
      I watched this article a few weeks ago on what we did. lol PM articles are late here.
  6. Buffalo
    Buffalo 11 September 2015 22: 41 New
    Respect to the author!
    Good photo story.