Odessa answered Nevada

The fundamentals of the use of atomic, heavy rocket and rocket artillery were determined at the 1956 training of the year.


The rapid development and introduction of nuclear to the artillery of the Ground Forces weapons led to a fundamental change in the theory of its combat use.

Already at the end of the 50-s, in the operational and tactical level, barreled, rocket and rocket systems with different firing ranges (launch) were developed and put into service, adapted to ammunition in both special and conventional equipment.

Odessa answered NevadaBarrel artillery was represented by artillery systems, 406-mm 2-3 self-propelled guns and 420-mm 2B1 self-propelled mortars specially designed for the use of nuclear ammunition. Included in the artillery regiment of a special power reserve of the High Command, they received a proper name - atomic artillery.

The priority in the development of methods for the combat use of systems adapted for YaB belonged to the United States. After testing 1953-mm atomic guns at the Nevada test site in 280, the Americans gained invaluable experience, having been ahead of the USSR in this area for several years.

According to the views of the US command, atomic artillery and unguided short-range ballistic missiles (BDB) were a powerful means of supporting troops both in the offensive and in the defense. In battle, they were planned to assign those tasks that could not be quickly and effectively solved by conventional fire weapons. In the offensive, the nuclear artillery battalions and batteries of the BRBD performed the following tasks: conducting nuclear training, suppressing reserves in the depth of the enemy’s defenses, and conducting a counter-battery struggle. In addition, it was thought that tactical means of a nuclear attack could be used to perform other tasks arising during the course of a battle, but firing on the prohibition of advancement and deployment was considered extremely ineffective. In defense, the tasks of tactical nuclear weapons looked somewhat different. Divisions of atomic artillery and BDB were to conduct atomic counter-training, participate in the support of counterattacking troops, cover the withdrawal of forces, etc.

From year to year, the threat of the use of US nuclear weapons has become more and more real. This forced the USSR to take retaliatory measures.

The first military exercises with real use of nuclear weapons were conducted in 1954-m at Totsky training ground, and in 1956-m - near Semipalatinsk. In both cases, a bomber was used as the delivery vehicle for YAB. And in the beginning of 60-x on Novaya Zemlya, exercises were conducted with testing of the 8-11 OTRK system.

In 1956, an experimental exercise took place in Odessa VO, during which two basic questions were worked out on the organization and conduct of an army offensive operation in the conditions of use of nuclear weapons. In addition, the tasks of planning and combat use of atomic, heavy reactive and rocket artillery were solved for the first time.

Field Army, which operated in the direction of the front of the main attack, in addition to conventional forces and resources were assigned to a special power division RVGK, armed with which consisted of atomic artillery systems (three 2A3 guns and three mortars 2B1), and Division of unguided rockets (12 PU 2K5). The RVGK engineering brigade conducted military operations in the offensive zone of the army.

The teachings showed that the compounds and parts of atomic, heavy rocket and rocket artillery should be used to perform the following tasks:

- destruction of the enemy’s nuclear attack tactical means, storage depots and atomic weapon assembly workshops,
- fighting with artillery and radar tools,
- suppression of manpower and fire weapons located in defensive positions,
-determination of reserves in areas of concentration during the process of advancement and deployment,
-conducting counterattack (counterblow),
-destruction aviation enemy at airfields,
- violation of troop control and rear work.


The main targets for the atomic and heavy rocket artillery were the atomic attack and artillery of the enemy, manpower and fire weapons in the battalion defense areas and company strong points, division reserves, command posts of the first echelon divisions, radar stations, counterattacking and counter-attack groups.

The most typical for rocket artillery were the tasks of destroying short-range and medium-range radar weapons located deep in warehouses and bases for assembling atomic ammunition, suppressing operational reserves in areas of concentration and loading and unloading sites, command posts of operational associations, and destroying railway hubs and supply stations, sea ​​ports and other objects of the enemy’s operational rear.

The teachings led to the conclusion that atomic artillery has the greatest accuracy, but a relatively short range. A significant advantage of nuclear artillery over heavy rocket and rocket was that it took less time to prepare for opening fire.

As a result, the fundamentals of the combat use of atomic, heavy rocket and rocket artillery in the offensive operations of the army were determined, the tasks for nuclear weapons were clarified, typical targets for nuclear strikes were determined, recommendations on the choice of charge power for hitting targets were developed, common approaches to combat planning were developed I WOULD.

The above-described systems in service with the MTA of the Ground Forces are long gone. More than twenty years ago, tactical nuclear weapons with no response from the United States were withdrawn from the territory of Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Nuclear artillery shells are disposed of, and nuclear combat units (TAC) for tactical missiles (this is a third generation fuel dispenser) are mothballed in Russia.

Formally, the United States and the United Kingdom announced the cessation of the use of short-range ballistic and cruise missiles with YABCh, as well as artillery shells in special equipment. At the beginning of the 90-s, these munitions were exported to the Americas, but since they did not fit under any of the treaties, they most likely were not eliminated.

US disposal of medium-range missiles was a kind of fiction. It is known that a certain amount of ABM from MGM-31C "Pershing-2" was adapted for other carriers: of them, bombs were made in special equipment that can be used by both strategic and tactical aircraft. Currently, the United States has a significant arsenal of such nuclear bombs. More than 400 of them are on eight air bases in six European NATO countries: Belgium, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Turkey. On the basis of a special agreement “on the division of nuclear responsibility”, the Pentagon not only stores its tactical nuclear weapons in Europe, but also conducts exercises with national air forces on delivering air strikes with these ammunition. This fact is a gross violation of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which the United States and its allies practically ignore.
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  1. yuriy55 12 September 2015 09: 03 New
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    It is no secret to anyone that the United States, signing at various times various treaties on restrictions (reductions, non-distribution), tried to impose its will only in order to be in a privileged, advantageous position, not caring about the interests of the other side. Therefore, such answers in such situations are simply the usual and correct way out ...
    what
  2. Old26 12 September 2015 11: 03 New
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    MINUS article. Why come up with the teachings of what was not. Namely
    The combined arms army operating in the direction of the front’s main attack, in addition to conventional forces and means, was given a special-strength division of the RVGK, which was armed with atomic artillery systems (three 2A3 guns and three 2B1 mortars), and a division of unguided missiles (12 PU 2K5) In the offensive zone of the army, the engineering team of the RVGK was fighting.
    1. gjv
      gjv 12 September 2015 13: 02 New
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      Yes, they were made in 1957, and "participated" in the exercises in 1956 ...
  3. ia-ai00 12 September 2015 11: 43 New
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    As there were am_kosa bandits who destroyed in the XNUMXth centuryОmost of the indigenous population of America, and the rest was driven into a reservation, remained bandits, the same ruthless, vile, bloodthirsty ... am
    I think their words and promises need to be trusted less than the smile of an oriental man.
  4. Old26 12 September 2015 12: 02 New
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    Quote: yuriy55
    It is no secret to anyone that the United States, signing at various times various treaties on restrictions (reductions, non-distribution), tried to impose its will only in order to be in a privileged, advantageous position, not caring about the interests of the other side.

    Absolutely everyone does this, because even in such agreements they primarily take care of themselves, and not about the “partner” with whom you signed the agreement. It is the professionalism of the negotiators that in many respects decides what kind of agreement will be. Plus, each side tries to win the maximum for itself and sometimes goes for minor violations (if it is not caught by the hand).
    We also made maximum use of the agreements signed by Brezhnev. Sometimes the Americans "grabbed our hands", and then we were forced to ruin what we did, sometimes not, the Americans could not prove our violations.

    Some provisions (phrases in the article) do not stand up to criticism at all.
    For example, the phrase
    Utilization of US medium-range missiles was a kind of fiction. It is known that a certain amount of nuclear warheads from the MGM-31C "Pershing-2" was adapted for other carriers: they made air bombs in special equipment that can be used both by strategic and tactical aircraft.

    The author started about one thing, finished another. Rockets have been disposed of in accordance with the provisions of the contract? Were. What is fiction here? And the fact that the Americans did not destroy the physical packages and used them in other ammunition is no violation of the INF Treaty. By the way, we know about the USA, but what about ours with almost one and a half thousand physical packages from the Pioneers blocs? Disposed of or used in other ammunition? The story is silent about this.

    Another phrase
    On the basis of a special agreement "on the division of nuclear responsibility", the Pentagon not only stores its tactical nuclear weapons in Europe, but also conducts exercises with the national air force to deliver air strikes with these munitions. This fact is a gross violation of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which the United States and its allies practically ignore.

    At one time, we stored nuclear weapons on the territory of the Warsaw Pact countries. Also under agreements with these countries. And they taught action in the conditions of the use of WMD by representatives of other ATS armies. Was that a violation too? After all, the term proliferation implies the transfer to another country or the nuclear weapon itself or the technologies for its manufacture. Not training. Moreover, even these ephemeral agreements "on the division of nuclear responsibility" are nothing more than a piece of paper. Even with respect to their allies, the Americans never gave them control of nuclear weapons. Read this for the US-France in the 50s. It seems that the Americans delivered the nuclear weapons to the French, the bombs were on French planes, and all the codes and the right to use were left to the Americans. And training - so you should not act on the principle of "go hunting - feed the dogs." You always need to learn in advance, even if it doesn’t come in handy.
  5. DJDJ GOSHA 12 September 2015 12: 57 New
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    Yes, a good 3BV3 shell! I also liked the shooting because I kept the battery thermometer.
  6. yuriy55 13 September 2015 05: 30 New
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    Quote: Old26

    .We once stored nuclear weapons in countries Warsaw Pact. Also under agreements with these countries. And they taught action in the conditions of the use of WMD by representatives of other ATS armies ...


    I doubt, however. Location missile divisions and artillery units on the territory of the SVD and storage of nuclear weapons, - two big differences. Here, the "former neighbors" weren’t entrusted with nuclear warheads (when the USSR was torn apart), and you are talking about some countries where Soviet troops were located as military bases (with reference to comparison !!!)
  7. Old26 13 September 2015 16: 24 New
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    Quote: yuriy55
    I doubt, however. The location of missile divisions and artillery units on the territory of the SVD and the storage of nuclear warheads are two big differences. Here, the "former neighbors" weren’t entrusted with nuclear warheads (when the USSR was torn apart), and you are talking about some countries where Soviet troops were located as military bases (with reference to comparison !!!)


    I mean groups of troops in the Warsaw Pact countries. The same GSVG SGV, YuGV. But you do not think that the missile division was, for example, in the GDR, and the nuclear weapons base was for missiles in the USSR? laughing
    And I do not say that they trusted, but the exercises were held, as they are now in NATO.

    Let me quote one

    The peculiarity of the “foreign” military storage bases was that some of them also contained nuclear warheads, which should have been transmitted in case of hostilities in terms of combat use (Air Force and Airborne Forces) Warsaw Pact Allies (in Czechoslovakia - the Yavor plan, in Poland - the Vistula plan, East Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria).


    To transmit without first teaching - you understand, Yuri - is nonsense. And this was not considered a violation of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. So it is now. The US is training allies, but for some reason we now believe that they are violating the nuclear non-proliferation treaty