Military Review

Flying platform "De Lackner HZ-1"

31
Flying platform De Lackner HZ-1 can rightfully take its place among the most unusual aircraft in stories of humanity. Looking at this hybrid of a lawnmower and a helicopter, you involuntarily begin to think about the adequacy of the creators of the creature, but in the US 1950-1960 in the United States in all seriousness worked on the creation of such aircraft. All of them were a flying platform designed to carry one (maximum two) servicemen. It was assumed that with the help of such aircraft soldiers will be able to quickly move around the battlefield, to conduct reconnaissance and hunting for enemy spies. The flying platform De Lackner HZ-1 became just one model, which was created within the framework of this concept, while not one of the aircraft was adopted for service.


For army aircraft, reconnaissance has always been one of the main tasks, but the use of individual aircraft for these purposes did not always seem to be a rational waste of resources, and effective unmanned aerial vehicles simply did not exist in those years. At least this is how the creators of the De Lackner HZ-1 aerial single-deck platform, which was controlled by the pilot using tilts in different directions, thought so. The army even acquired several prototypes for testing, but as it turned out, it was much harder to control them than originally thought. Plus, the rotors located under the bottom of the vehicle could lift dirt and stones from the surface, directing them directly to the pilot's face if the flight was carried out at a small height above the ground. In general, the aircraft was quite controversial, if not more.



The first researcher who proposed the concept of individual helicopter-type aircraft was an American engineer, Charles Zimmerman of the National Aeronautical Advisory Committee. Considering the various options for such devices, he came to the conclusion that the screw and rotor in them should be placed not from above, but from below: such an arrangement allows for greater stability during flight. In addition, Charles Zimmerman suggested that to keep the aircraft in an upright position, it would be enough just a sense of balance that any adult has. He meant that set of reflexes, which allows a person not to fall while riding a motorcycle or a two-wheeled bicycle. In his opinion, the manual "kinesthetic" control was to be the basis for the controllability of the air transport they offered.

The aircraft of the type described in the middle of the 1950-ies was built by De Lackner. This unit, originally called the DH-4 Helivector, was later renamed HZ-1 Aerocycle and resembled a hybrid of a helicopter, a motorcycle, and an onboard motor. The aircraft was equipped with an engine power 40 hp, which was mated with two coaxially located screws. The screws with a diameter of 4,6 meter rotated in opposite directions, which avoided the rotation of the platform itself, on which the pilot stood. In this case, the pilot was located vertically directly above the rotating propeller blades (representing, among other things, mortal danger), being protected from falling only by seat belts. To control the device was provided for steering, similar to the motorcycle. With it, the pilot had to change the speed, direction and altitude of the HZ-1. In order to make a turn, it was necessary to tilt the entire aircraft in the right direction - just as it does on a motorcycle.

Flying platform "De Lackner HZ-1"


The first sample of an unusual aircraft rose into the sky in January 1955, after which the army immediately ordered a dozen samples. According to the experts of the company De Lackner, their aircraft could reach speeds of up to 105 km / h and carry 55 kg of payload in addition to the pilot. The device could be in the air for an hour. At the same time De Lackner HZ-1 was a very dangerous mechanism. In addition to the fact that the pilot was standing directly above the rotating screws, they were also located in the lower part of the apparatus. When landing or when flying at low altitude, they could easily tighten any debris or pieces of rock that could cause an accident of the device.

It was assumed that the US military will be able to effectively use this flying platform just after the briefing duration of 20 minutes. But test pilot Selmer Sandby, who tested the HZ-1, had a different opinion. In particular, he noted: "It was enough for me to have only one flight in order to understand: it would be damn difficult for an ordinary person to cope with this design." And the reliability of the flying platform at that time left much to be desired. During testing, the blades of different screws collided twice with each other, which each time led to the fall of the vehicle. One of these air incidents nearly ended with the death of Selmer Sandbay himself. In the end, all the identified shortcomings led to the closure of this program. At least one such flying platform has survived to this day, which is on display as a museum piece.



A similar aircraft, known as the VZ-1 Pawnee, was later created by Hiller Aviation engineers. The development also applies to the 50 years of the last century. The developers of this device also believed that the military would be enough, if not 20-minute, then at least a two-hour introductory course, which will help them learn to fly on their offspring. The difference with this design was that the screws, which were only 3 meters in diameter, were hidden inside the round case. In fact, they were tunnel type fans. Moreover, the tests carried out demonstrated that the VZ-1 Pawnee apparatus itself seeks to assume a vertical position during flight: the tilted edge of the flying platform developed a greater lifting force than the battened edge, for this reason it leveled off on its own. To change the direction of movement of the platform, it was enough for the pilot to slightly move his body in the desired direction, moving the common center of mass of the system. It was almost impossible to overturn the platform in flight.

Initially, the American military leadership embraced the development with enthusiasm and it was quite the results of the tests. Therefore, soon the company Hiller Aviation was issued an order for the creation of two larger vehicles of this type. However, in the end, this development was not brought to the serial stage. The program was closed after the military decided that the idea of ​​moving fighters through the air under advanced conditions seemed too fantastic and impractical. Indeed, such an aerocycle was too convenient a target for defeat from the usual rifle weapons.



Information sources:
http://www.arms-expo.ru/articles/129/61778/
http://www.popmech.ru/weapon/5939-eskadron-letuchikh-pekhotintsev-rozhdennye-letat-tak-i-ne-poleteli/#full
http://www.softmixer.com/2013/11/blog-post_4724.html
http://gearmix.ru/archives/1480
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  1. Tummyr
    Tummyr 11 September 2015 07: 05 New
    +14
    Slices of soldiers will fall to the ground. laughing
    1. serega.fedotov
      serega.fedotov 11 September 2015 07: 25 New
      +5
      Quote: Tumyr
      Slices of soldiers will fall to the ground.

      And the lighter which has fallen out of a pocket - kills onlookers!
      1. KERTAK
        KERTAK 11 September 2015 13: 41 New
        0
        Quote: Tumyr
        Slices of soldiers will fall to the ground. laughing

        stumbled and death. accidentally landed on an uneven surface and again death. something and death again fell into the blades.
      2. bastard
        bastard 11 September 2015 20: 56 New
        +1
        Quote: serega.fedotov
        And the lighter which has fallen out of a pocket - kills onlookers!

        And here is the work of Soviet students:
        The experimental single-seat flying platform MAI X-3 was developed at the student design bureau MAI in 1971 under the leadership of Vsevolod Pyatov. The power plant consists of eight engines from the Friendship chainsaw in two blocks, the total power of the power plant is 35.3 kW. The diameter of the rotors enclosed in the casings is 1.1 m. Weight without pilot - 68kg. The maximum design speed is 50km / h. Flight Duration - 30min.
        The problem of managing the apparatus created by students was originally solved. Rejecting the control knob, the pilot opened the shutters, mounted below the rotors on the covers, and the air flow thrown by them changed direction. In short, at the MAI X-3, the propellers also performed the role of aerodynamic rudders.
        1. bastard
          bastard 11 September 2015 21: 01 New
          +1
          Quote: villain
          And here is the work of Soviet students:

          And more "pampering" of students of the USSR:
          Ultralight, two-seat helicopter KhAI-27 "Kharkovchanin" (USSR, 1970). The engine is two-cylinder, motorcycle, M-63. Flight weight - 300 kg. The estimated ceiling is 2000 m. The maximum speed is 90 km / h. Range - 200 km.
          Published in "Youth Technology" No. 5 of 1983 and No. 4 of 1984
  2. 31rus
    31rus 11 September 2015 07: 08 New
    +1
    Thanks to the author, it’s interesting why it’s only advanced, but the near rear, and even the remote control, if finalized, there will be reconciliation, the issue of the price of this unit
  3. lilian
    lilian 11 September 2015 07: 47 New
    +1
    Yes, still an interesting device, it has many advantages. With an on-board computer and automation of some processes, it will become quite safe for mass use.
  4. atos_kin
    atos_kin 11 September 2015 07: 59 New
    0
    IMHO: Quadcopters will breathe new life into this idea.
    1. Assistant
      Assistant 11 September 2015 09: 26 New
      +1
      IMHO: Quadcopters will breathe new life into this idea.


      Maybe yes, and maybe no. All such projects: individual propeller-driven aircraft in the 1950s, jetpacks in the 1960s, faced two problems: firstly, they were too noticeable and too easy to bring down, and secondly, the price and complexity were too high for short ranges and payload.
      Here's what New Zealanders are selling now:
  5. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 11 September 2015 08: 49 New
    +2
    Stayed and minced!
  6. Penzioner
    Penzioner 11 September 2015 08: 59 New
    +1
    Nifigase meat grinder laughing
  7. VSkilled
    VSkilled 11 September 2015 10: 04 New
    +3
    The first researcher to propose the concept of individual helicopter-type aircraft was the American engineer Charles Zimmerman of The National advisory committee in aeronautics ...


    Brutal meat grinder. Initially, it is visible, with the naked eye, that - "crap."

    But the money "for development" - "mastered." It seems that only Zimmermans were sitting in this “committee”. A_merzsky version of "Skolkovo".
  8. Arktidianets
    Arktidianets 11 September 2015 10: 18 New
    +5
    Ka-56 more interesting
    1. KERTAK
      KERTAK 11 September 2015 13: 43 New
      0
      I wouldn’t refuse this baby myself
  9. Arktidianets
    Arktidianets 11 September 2015 10: 20 New
    0
    Landing transport container
  10. Taoist
    Taoist 11 September 2015 10: 31 New
    +2
    One question arises - what did the developer of this miracle smoke? Design logic is absent completely or rather everything is turned inside out.
    1. engineer74
      engineer74 11 September 2015 10: 58 New
      0
      He didn’t smoke, he read R. Heinlein, the term "mobile infantry" appeared in the novel "Landing Troopers" (EMNIP) (mattresses still can’t detach from the idea) and implemented it on advanced technologies! smile
      1. Taoist
        Taoist 11 September 2015 12: 05 New
        +2
        In the "star infantry" armored suit with a jump jet pack ... backpack engines would have done ... (by the way, they did in real life) And then the question "what for" turns the helicopter upside down? What would then cheerfully fight with the stabilization of this miracle?
        1. engineer74
          engineer74 11 September 2015 13: 01 New
          0
          Those. the task would be to look through this miracle ... They like to invest not in a real product, but in a "program" or "project", which in the future will lead to the creation of another Wunderwaffe, or not. smile
    2. Assistant
      Assistant 11 September 2015 19: 21 New
      -1
      One question arises - what did the developer of this miracle smoke? Design logic is absent completely or rather everything is turned inside out.


      Scientific research by experiment. Helicopters, invented in the 1910s - 1920s, went into production models only in the 1940s, just 10 years before the construction of the described model. Designers thought: what if, putting the circuit upside down, it will turn out to realize what no one else has managed to achieve. The result, in principle, is logical: it did not take off. Well, at least the factual material has been gained.
  11. Sargaras
    Sargaras 11 September 2015 11: 44 New
    0
    Dream extreme.
  12. Free wind
    Free wind 11 September 2015 14: 35 New
    -1
    Cool machine can work with modern technology. and the tester flew on it, although he never flew on this device. Any machine is deadly, even a meat grinder or a washing machine. No need to jerk.
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 11 September 2015 17: 10 New
      0
      Now explain to me “naive” that “cool” in the lower location of the bearing rotor? And why should one scratch his right ear with his left foot? If you have enough power, you can fly even on an iron ... why the heck is this?
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 12 September 2015 01: 03 New
        -1
        and the top screw ??? And the pilot can suck.
        1. Taoist
          Taoist 12 September 2015 08: 05 New
          0
          Where to suck? In a vacuum instead of a brain? What is the aircraft centering you know? How is the "center of mass" different from the "center of pressure"? And what forces act on the rotor?
  13. tchoni
    tchoni 11 September 2015 20: 32 New
    +1
    it’s such a joke, special, so that wound payments would not be paid. A wounded soldier falls from such a platform, and there the blades ......
  14. lilian
    lilian 11 September 2015 21: 20 New
    0
    Shkolota, stop shining with stupidity! Look at the first ever helicopters. What do you say? Through trial and error, the appearance of the current helicopter arose.

    You behave like the people of London, they fell out laughing when D. Henway wears a strange thing over him that is now known as an umbrella.

    In the photo is a prototype. That says it all. If the hopes placed on him are confirmed, they will release him; if not, they will not. Discovered shortcomings, defects, malfunctions, difficulties can be eliminated. For example, the danger of a screw underfoot, isn’t it possible to protect the pilot with a net?

    How many experimental aircraft in the USSR were built, but not mass-produced?
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 12 September 2015 08: 08 New
      +1
      Well, at the time of the "first whatnots" aerodynamics as a science did not exist - that's why they built "on a hunch." In the period described in this article, everything was already miscalculated. Therefore, it is completely incomprehensible even to me who has a complete aviation education what kind of benefits the designer of this cuttlefish tried to get by placing the main rotor from below.

      So this "cuttlefish" is nothing more than a technical curiosity and should be considered as such. And the time of ingenious self-taught people I'm afraid has passed ...
    2. tchoni
      tchoni 12 September 2015 21: 46 New
      +1
      Quote: lilian
      In the photo is a prototype. That says it all.

      In the photo - "elusive Joe" which is not entirely clear to whom and why.
  15. Fantazer911
    Fantazer911 12 September 2015 08: 00 New
    +1
    In the magazines of that time, Young Technician, Modeler Designer, Youth Technique, there were many different ideas for developing interesting things.
    There was an interesting theme: a hovercraft, that is, the name of the device was like an agronomist’s motorcycle, two motors from Izh, one created lifting thrust, the other pushed, the frame was like karting, and there was nothing cool about the theme and the real model,
    Today, Russia cannot be understood by the mind, there are a lot of developments that are local kulibins, it’s a pity that we are not interested in helping such kulibins who create interesting models on their knees, in America it’s somehow different, therefore they fled there before to realize their ideas, now everything is changing radically, the same weapons created in Russia or the former USSR, the best Americans would not say, America itself is a puzzle, Dollar was invented by Belarus, Hardy Davidsson was two Russian engineers Kharlamov and Davydov, and the list of inventions brought America grandmas at the expense of immigrants are endless, the same Comp and Pentium processor are ideas exported by the Pentkovsky engineer from the USSR.
    And so we live, we sell our own and our own and we buy.
  16. RiverVV
    RiverVV 12 September 2015 18: 50 New
    0
    Ashtrays - they exist !!! 111
  17. Toorik
    Toorik 13 September 2015 00: 26 New
    +2
    HZ-1 is a soldier blender !!!