"The two-headed eagle is defeated ..." On the 110 Anniversary of Portsmouth Peace

48
Oh, Rus! Forget former glory -
The double-headed eagle is defeated,
And yellow children for fun
Given the shreds of your banners.

Poet S. M. Solovyov.

23 August (5 September) 1905 of the year in the American city of Portsmouth was signed an agreement between the Russian Empire and Japan, which ended the Russian-Japanese war of 1904 — 1905. Russia acknowledged defeat and ceded lease rights to Japan on the Liaodong Peninsula with Port Arthur and Dalny, part of the South Manchurian Railway (UMZH) and South Sakhalin. Russia recognized Korea as a sphere of Japanese influence, withdrew troops from Manchuria, which went beyond the sphere of Russia's interests. The Japanese were free to fish along the Russian shores of the Sea of ​​Japan, the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. All Russian ships surrendered, as well as raised in Port Arthur and other places, remained with the Japanese and strengthened their fleet.

For the defeat of Russia in the war, China had to pay. The Qing government was forced to recognize all the provisions of the Portsmouth Treaty, including the transfer to Japan of leasing the Liaodong Peninsula with the Port Arthur and South Manchurian Railway. The Chinese agreed to build a railway from Japan from the mouth of the Yalu River to Mukden. They pledged to open 16 cities in Manchuria for international (i.e., Japanese) trade, including Jilin, Harbin, Hailar and Ainun.

Russia could continue the war

As has already been noted more than once in articles of the Military Review on the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, Russia was militarily and economically stronger than Japan and could continue the war further. The loss of Port Arthur, positional defeats and the retreat of the Russian Manchurian army, a terrible catastrophe of the Russian fleet in the Tsushima Strait inflicted huge damage on the prestige of the Russian Empire. However, even these defeats, largely caused by the pre-war mistakes of the Russian military-political leadership, which paid little attention to the general and military development of the Far East, did not put Russia on the brink of defeat.

Russia only entered into force. Troops came from Europe and weapon, and the Manchurian army was getting stronger every month, despite the retreat and indecision of the Russian command, in which the Rumyantsevs, Suvorovs and Skobelevs were not found, in order to inspire the troops and with a decisive onslaught to crush the enemy and throw him into the sea. But in this situation, the Japanese were doomed. Japanese commander Oyyama understood that he needed several more victories to weaken sharply, if not undermine Russia's military strength in the Far East. And if Russia moves to a "total" war and completely translates the best military units from the European part, including the guard, from the European part of Russia?

The Japanese army had exhausted all its offensive capabilities, and it was never able to crush the Russian army in a decisive battle, as the Japanese generals had hoped. The Japanese could no longer advance. The human reserves of Japan were depleted, as were the financial ones. There were almost no reserves, Japan could form another division with a half of the available scattered parts. 53% of the Japanese budget went to military needs, which ravaged and weakened the country. Victory at Mukden went to the Japanese side at an extremely expensive price. The Japanese army suffered heavy losses, especially the officer corps suffered. Japanese communications were greatly stretched, there was a shortage of ammunition. In the next battle, the Japanese army could be defeated and lose all their conquests in Manchuria and Korea. She could only run to Japan. And for Russia, even new defeats were not critical. Russia had every chance to win on the mainland and return Port Arthur.

Thus, if we compare the military and financial capabilities of Russia and Japan, then it is obvious that if the war continued, the Japanese would have been defeated. The Japanese command realized that the army was on a dangerous line, a new clash could lead to a decisive defeat. Therefore, the Japanese generals pressed on the government demanding to make peace while the situation was still favorable for Japan.

Not surprisingly, just three days after the victory in the Tsushima Strait, Japanese Foreign Minister Yutaro Komura instructed the Japanese ambassador in Washington to find out whether American President Roosevelt would not take on the mission of a mediator. Roosevelt 23 May (5 June) instructed US Ambassador to Russia George Meyer to get an audience with Nicholas II and "try to convince him that the continuation of the war is absolutely hopeless and could lead to the loss of all Russia's Far Eastern possessions."

The international situation was also favorable for the Russian Empire. England and the United States initially stood behind Japan, setting it first on China and then on Russia. The masters of the Anglo-Saxon world considered Russian civilization to be the main adversary in the Big Game, whose goal is to control humanity (the planet). However, the Anglo-Saxons did not like direct fights with a strong opponent, preferring to rake in the heat of others. So, England used to push Russia with Sweden, Turkey and France. In 1904, Japan was attacked by Russia, and then they were able to push Germany and Russia, the two most powerful opponents of the Anglo-Saxons in Europe, between themselves.

The Japanese empire would not have been able to wage a war without relying on the financial support of English and American capital. The British financed Japan and its military training before the war; in fact, they created a first-class navy. After the start of the war, in April 1904, the banker Schiff and the large banking house Kun, Loeb and Company, together with a syndicate of British banks, including Hong Kong-Shanghai, provided Tokyo a loan in the amount of 50 million dollars with a high percentage to support Japan (6% per annum); half of the loan was placed in England, half - in the United States. In November, 1904 in England and the USA was placed a new Japanese loan - at 60 million dollars (also 6% per annum). In March, 1905 was followed by the third Anglo-American loan, already at 150 million dollars (4,5%). In July, 1905, Japan received a fourth loan - 150 million dollars (4,5%). This allowed Japan to cover more than 40% of all the country's military spending, which reached 1730 million yen and continued to grow.

Thus, Britain and the United States actually stood behind Japan and poured their money into it, so that the Japanese would fight the Russians. The Japanese in this war acted as the "cannon fodder" of the Anglo-Saxons. Without British and American money, the outcome of the war would have been different.

Japan was exhausted by the war and could no longer fight. Japan spent about 2 billion yen on war needs and increased its national debt from 600 million yen to 2400 million, and the interest paid on loans annually was 110 million yen. The Russian Empire, on the other hand, almost did not experience economic and financial difficulties due to the war. The 1904 vintage was good. In 1904, industrial growth continued. Taxes came in peacetime, and the gold reserves of the State Bank continued to grow, and over 1904 it grew by 150 million rubles. Russia's military expenditures, which in the first year of the war amounted to about 600 million rubles, were partly covered by the free cash of the treasury (budgetary balances from previous years), partly by external loans. The subscription for two loans exceeded the issue amount several times. In May, 1904 was followed by a loan in France for 300 million rubles, and at the very end of 1904, in Germany for 232 million rubles. That is, in continental Europe, Russia had a solid rear — France and Germany were friendly toward Russia, and she could calmly continue the struggle in the Far East.

The political situation in Europe was favorable for Russia. After the Hull incident (1904 in October), the British government threatened Russia. Berlin immediately supported Petersburg. On October 27, German Kaiser Wilhelm II personally telegraphed the Russian Emperor Nicholas II, reporting that Britain intended to prevent Germany from supplying coal to the Russian navy. Wilhelm proposed to jointly put an end to this impudence. Create a "powerful combination" against England and together force France to join Russia and Germany to jointly repel the British. Russian Foreign Minister Lamzdorf, who adhered to Francopile attitudes, spoke out against this move. However, Emperor Nicholas II answered him: “I am now in agreement with Germany and with France. It is necessary to save Europe from the audacity of England ", - and October 16 telegraphed Kaiser Wilhelm:" Germany, Russia and France must unite. Would you draft a contract like this? As soon as we accept him, France should join her ally. This combination often crossed my mind. ” This alliance could save Europe from the great war the Anglo-Saxons were preparing.

In Berlin, immediately drafted a union agreement. It said: “In the event that one of the two empires is attacked by one of the European powers,” said the project, “an ally of her would come to her aid with all her land and sea forces. If necessary, the two allies will also act together to remind France of the obligations it has undertaken, according to the terms of the Franco-Russian treaty. ” The implementation of this idea led to the emergence in Europe of an anti-British continental bloc under the leadership of Germany and Russia, with the participation of France, or to the break of the Franco-Russian alliance, which was already harmful to Russia, as it made Russians "cannon fodder" in the hands of England and France. Unfortunately, Petersburg was not able to slip out of this trap. Agents of influence of England and France in Russia were able to persuade Nicholas II to abandon the alliance with Germany.

Then came the Moroccan crisis (from March 1905 to May 1906), which arose because of a dispute between France and Germany regarding control over Morocco. The case almost did not reach the war between Germany and France. It is clear that in such a situation, Russia had a calm rear in Europe, so both France and Germany were interested in its location. Russia could calmly continue the struggle in the Far East.

Talks

Russia could continue the war and win, but this scenario did not suit the Anglo-Saxons. England, spoiling relations with Russia, could not claim the role of mediator in peace negotiations. Then the Americans jumped. The first successes of the Japanese in the war were welcomed by the American government and the press. However, further events did not suit Washington. The Americans did not want to completely defeat Russia, which led to an excessive strengthening of the positions of Japan in the Pacific and in China, where Washington had its own interests, or a possible defeat of Japan.

So, in March 1904, when the war was just beginning, American President Theodore Roosevelt frankly said in a conversation with the German ambassador that The US is interested in Russia and Japan “possibly patting each other as much as possible and so that after the conclusion of peace such geographical areas do not disappear in which there is friction between them, so that they confront each other about the boundaries of the spheres of their interests as before the war. This will keep them in a state of military readiness and will moderate their appetites in other areas. In this case, Japan will not threaten Germany in Jiaozhou, and America in the Philippines. ”

The Russian leadership lacked a tough determination to continue the war. In connection with the defeat at Tsushima and the development of the revolutionary events in Russia, many felt that peace was necessary. 24 May (6 June) 1905 of the year in Tsarskoe Selo, a military meeting was held under the chairmanship of Nicholas II on the need for peace. Opinions are divided. The Minister of War, General V. Sakharov, said: “Under current conditions, ending the war is impossible. With our complete defeat, not having a single victory or even a successful business, it is a shame. This will drop the prestige of Russia and withdraw it from the great powers for a long time. We must continue the war not because of material benefits, but to wash away this stain, which will remain if we do not have the slightest success, as it has been up to now. ” The Minister of War was supported by State Comptroller Pavel Lobko, who noted that in the event of peace, “returning to Russia an army that was oppressed and not winning a single victory would worsen, rather than improve, the internal situation of the country”. Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich spoke in favor of negotiations.

Already on 25 in May 1905, the American Ambassador Meyer arrived at the Great Palace of Tsarskoye Selo and immediately requested an audience with the king. Meyer made a whole speech about the need for the early conclusion of peace. The king was silent as usual. As a result, Nicholas agreed to negotiations. 29 Jun. S. Yu. Witte was appointed Chief Commissioner for Peace Talks with Japan. Nikolai, to Witte, emphasized that he wanted peace, but not at any price, without territorial concessions and paying indemnities to Japan.

July 29 (August 9) in the resort town of Portsmouth on the Atlantic coast of the United States opened a peace conference. The Japanese delegation was led by Baron Yutaro Komura. His right hand in the negotiations was the Japanese envoy to the US, Kogoro Takahira. July 30 (August 10) after exchanging powers and short introductory statements, the head of the Japanese delegation Komura handed Witte a note with 12 points of requirements. The Japanese insisted on annexing Sakhalin with the adjacent islands, reimbursing military expenditures (contributions), restricting Russian naval forces in the Far East and giving out Japan as a prize to all Russian ships interned in neutral ports. Japan demanded free hand in Korea, the complete evacuation of Russian troops from Manchuria, the transfer of rental rights on the Liaodong Peninsula with Port Arthur and Dalny, and the assignment of the entire railway between Port Arthur and Harbin with coal mines. Tokyo agreed to keep the Chinese Eastern Railway behind Russia, but with a limited right to use the road only for economic purposes. The Japanese demanded unlimited fishing rights along the Russian coast of the Sea of ​​Japan, the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, and the Bering Sea, including rivers, bays, and bays.

The most difficult were questions about the contribution and ownership of Sakhalin. If Tsar Nicholas II was not prepared for territorial concessions and did not want to pay, then Witte was a more flexible politician and found out the options - only money or only territory. The Japanese wanted everything and demanded a huge amount of 1,2 billion yen.

The negotiations dragged on, which was nervously perceived by the military leadership of Japan. The Japanese military simply feared resumption of hostilities. The Japanese army could suffer a crushing defeat. The Japanese researcher Syumpay Okamoto noted that “Commander Manchurian army commander, irritated by the slow negotiations, urgently telegraphed his government so that it would soon make peace. Naval Minister Yamatoto was desperately pushing for concessions in the name of concluding peace ... ". The military understood that the Japanese armed forces could no longer confront Russia. August 28 held a joint meeting of Genro (informal council under the emperor), the government and senior military officials in the presence of Emperor Mutsuhito. Finance Minister Sone said that it was impossible to continue the war, since the Japanese Empire could not find additional sources to finance it. The outcome of the meeting was an indication of Komura “to reach an early agreement in the negotiations, even if it is necessary to abandon the demands of monetary compensation and territories”.

At the moment when the Japanese leadership was ready to abandon its main demands for territorial concessions, the Americans intervened again. Roosevelt sent a telegram to the Russian Tsar, where he put pressure on him. The American president expressed confidence in the insuperability of the claims of the Japanese empire and threatened that the continuation of the war could lead to the loss of all Russian territory east of Lake Baikal, that is, to stop the existence of Russia as a Pacific power. At the same time, the American ambassador to Russia, Meyer, began to persuade Nicholas II to make concessions, promising the United States to mediate in "persuading" Japan to abandon the indemnity. Not experienced in diplomatic art, Nicholas II as a whole remained silent, but then “in passing” noted that Russia could consider the possibility of concession to Southern Sakhalin. This information was immediately transferred to Washington and from there to Tokyo. As a result, the Japanese continued to demand territorial concessions.

Russia was inferior to Japan in the southern part of Sakhalin along the 50 parallel. Witte could only reject the transfer of all Russian ships interned in the ports of China, Indonesia and the Philippines. And the question of indemnity is not completely closed. The Russian government paid 46 million rubles in gold for the maintenance of Russian prisoners in Japan. 23 August (5 September) The Portsmouth Peace Treaty was signed on 1905.

"The two-headed eagle is defeated ..." On the 110 Anniversary of Portsmouth Peace

Russian delegation in Portsmouth. Sit S. Yu. Witte and Baron R. R. Rosen

Summary of the war

Russia suffered a major strategic defeat, having lost a significant part of its positions in the Far East. Moreover, Russia's weakness in the Far Eastern direction allowed Japan to develop success, which predetermined Japanese expansion in the following decades, until in August 1945 Russia took historical revenge. The plans of the Anglo-Saxons to bleed Russia and Japan and weaken Russia were implemented. At the same time, both Russia and Japan were dissatisfied with the outcome of the war and maintained enmity, to the delight of England and the United States. The “rehearsal” of World War I was successful, revealing Russia's weaknesses.

Most Russian people perceived the outcome of the war and the Portsmouth world as an insult to Russia. No wonder the leader of the Soviet civilization Joseph Stalin remembered this. He perfectly understood the need to restore positions in the Far East (South Sakhalin, Kuriles and Port Arthur).

The Japanese Empire lost about 135 thousand people in this war killed and died from wounds and diseases. About 554 thousand people passed through the treatment facilities of the wounded and sick. Russia's total losses in people amounted to about 400 thousand people, including those killed, wounded, missing and evacuated due to illness. Russia spent 2347 million rubles on the war and about 500 million rubles that are used to calculate the value of the railways, ports and the flooded fleet of both military and commercial fleets that went to Japan.

Among the main prerequisites that led Russia to defeat are: 1) Petersburg’s indifference to the cause of military and economic development of the Far East; 2) the lack of iron will of the military-political leadership of Russia in the conduct of war; 3) the degradation of the military elite of the Russian Empire, the supreme posts were occupied by mediocre careerists, people with connections, outspoken marauders (in plundering the country), generals and peacetime admirals unable to lead troops and fleets into battle; 4) financial, military-technical and political support for England and the United States, which were behind Japan; 5) the remoteness of the Manchurian theater from the European part of Russia, where the main military and economic resources of the empire were located.

Virtually no one answered for the "headlessness" of our generals and admirals. Witte, actually an agent of influence of the West, who played a huge role in the cause of Russia's involvement in the conflict with Japan, was elevated by Nicholas II to the count's dignity. For this he was maliciously nicknamed “the Count of Polusakhalinsky”. The chief of the fleet and the Navy Department, General-Admiral, Grand Duke Alexey Alexandrovich, who was responsible for the "excellent" training of our armed forces in the Far East, resigned while maintaining the rank of General-Admiral and departed for Paris. Favorite place of the then Russian elite. His rival in fleet management and at the same time an accomplice in the Manchurian financial adventures, Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich also went to the Cote d'Azur for several years.

The head of the Kvantunsky fortified area, Lieutenant-General Stoessel, the commandant of Port Arthur, Lieutenant-General Smirnov, the head of the land defense, Lieutenant-General Fock and the Chief of Staff of the Kwantung fortified area, Major-General Reis, Vice-Admiral Stark, supervisor Admirals Loschinsky, Grigorovich, Viren. The Supreme Military Criminal Court issued a verdict: Lieutenant General Stoessel should be put to death “through execution”, and Lieutenant General Fok was to be reprimanded. The court acquitted Smirnov and Reis, and the rest of the charges were rejected even earlier. Tsar Nicholas II softened the punishment to Stossel up to ten years in prison in a fortress. But Stoessel stayed in the Peter and Paul Fortress for only about a year and was released.

A similar situation was with the "heroes" of the Tsushima battle. Admiral Rozhestvensky was acquitted by a naval court, as he was seriously wounded in battle. The court found guilty of the criminal surrender of ships to the enemy and sentenced to death "through execution" of the commander of the detachment, Rear Admiral Nebogatov and three ship commanders. With all those sentenced to death, the king replaced the execution with ten years of imprisonment in a fortress. They served only a few months, and then released into the wild.


Negotiations in Portsmouth. From left to right: from the Russian side - G. A. Plсонsson, K. D. Nabokov, S. Yu. Vitte, R. R. Rosen, I. Ya. Korostovets; from the Japanese side - Adati, Komura, Takahira, Sato
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  1. +7
    5 September 2015
    we rehabilitated in the 45th ... Yes
    1. +2
      5 September 2015
      The first successes of the Japanese in the war were welcomed by the American government and the press.
      And with what enthusiasm the defeat of Russia was met by the intelligentsia, the bourgeoisie, all kinds of revolutionaries and other scum who wanted to defeat their country in both the Japanese and the First World War. Champagne flowed like water. What is not the cause of the defeat. Remembering the first Chechen company, the same garbage was. All spat to the backs of their soldiers and sundry.
  2. +7
    5 September 2015
    The head of the Kvantunsky fortified area, Lieutenant-General Stoessel, the commandant of Port Arthur, Lieutenant-General Smirnov, the head of the land defense, Lieutenant-General Fock and the Chief of Staff of the Kwantung fortified area, Major-General Reis, Vice-Admiral Stark, supervisor Admirals Loschinsky, Grigorovich, Viren. The Supreme Military Criminal Court issued a verdict: Lieutenant General Stoessel should be put to death “through execution”, and Lieutenant General Fok was to be reprimanded. The court acquitted Smirnov and Reis, and the rest of the charges were rejected even earlier. Tsar Nicholas II softened the punishment to Stossel up to ten years in prison in a fortress. But Stoessel stayed in the Peter and Paul Fortress for only about a year and was released.
    A similar situation was with the "heroes" of the Tsushima battle. Admiral Rozhestvensky was acquitted by a naval court, as he was seriously wounded in battle. The court found guilty of the criminal surrender of ships to the enemy and sentenced to death "through execution" of the commander of the detachment, Rear Admiral Nebogatov and three ship commanders. With all those sentenced to death, the king replaced the execution with ten years of imprisonment in a fortress. They served only a few months, and then released into the wild.


    Something that reminds me of ...
    1. +1
      6 September 2015
      It reminds me a lot, looks like.
  3. +5
    5 September 2015
    Yes it was count 2 different countries. In one war, they battled the Japanese long and bloody on land and at sea. Another time, the samurai did not even have time to say meow.
    1. 0
      5 September 2015
      Quote: ImperialKolorad
      Yes it was count 2 different countries.

      and different people?
      1. +2
        5 September 2015
        Quote: Andrey Yurievich
        and different people?

        The people are not different. The coach was different.
      2. +1
        5 September 2015
        Quote: Andrey Yurievich
        and different people?

        What do you think? 1905 is the people of the Russian empire, 1945 is the Soviet people. It’s superficial in definitions. And the deeper is the ideology of the country. The empires of the Romanovs and the USSR are completely different countries and a changed moral and psychological model of the human person. Which of them history is more viable in extreme conditions.
        1. +1
          5 September 2015
          The empires of the Romanovs and the USSR are completely different countries and a changed moral and psychological model of the human personality. Which of them is more viable in extreme conditions has been shown by history.

          Very interesting.
          Apparently the wars with Sweden, Prussia, France were a fun pastime. The Napoleonic campaign in 1812. was generally fun. The half-million army perished, because. the "navigator" has broken.
          Oh yeah ... well, the little things there. Countless wars with Turkey. Wars in the Caucasus.
          The Russian Empire was the most warring empire. Naturally contrary.
          Moreover, without much technological superiority ... over enemies.
          A unique and unrepeatable empire. Everything "else" just fades.
    2. -4
      5 September 2015
      God loves the trinity
      1. 0
        30 September 2015
        The 2nd time was in 1939
  4. +5
    5 September 2015
    And everywhere the "Englishwoman" crap
  5. 0
    5 September 2015
    Sorry for the Japs! They had victories, and defeats, try not to notice. - American school!
  6. +1
    5 September 2015
    We had to read about Japanese fishermen in various sources, these were predators who ruled in our waters as if they were their own.
  7. +3
    5 September 2015
    As my unloved professor Preobrazhensky said: "The devastation is not in the toilets, but in the heads." As in the Crimean War, the Russian Empire lost the war, not suffering a military defeat, but because of the internal state of society. They were carried away by too liberal ideas, "freedom", democracy on Japanese and British money.
  8. -6
    5 September 2015
    You can not compare 1904 and 1945.
    Or in 1945 dealt with the entire Japanese fleet? With the entire Japanese army?
    The main reason for the "semi-Sakhalin" is the maturing Maidan under the slogans of freedom and equality ALREADY IN RUSSIA. And besides, a new war in Europe was becoming more and more clear.
    The war with Japan was an exam, tough but necessary. On the eve of 1914.
    And the fact that the tsar did not look for "scapegoats" in shoulder straps, once again speaks of the systemic and objective lagging behind Russia. If such a situation under Stalin, they would have lost all generals by 1914.
    1. -3
      5 September 2015
      Quote: Lexi2
      Or in 1945 dealt with the entire Japanese fleet?

      Well, the Americans flew the fleet there, but they had to deal with the Kwantung Army, though it turned out to be rather weak, it was checked back in 1937
      1. 0
        5 September 2015
        but I had to deal with the Kwantung Army, though it turned out to be rather weak, it was checked back in 1937

        The entire color of the Japanese army and navy fought with the United States.
        However, the Kwantung Army was not weak. They prepared thoroughly for defense.
        By 1945, the Soviet army was the most warring army in the world, unlike the Russian army of 1904.
        So the defeat in the war of 1904 can be called conditional.
        Someone really needed to be called Russia-defeated.
        1. 0
          5 September 2015
          Quote: Lexi2
          The entire color of the Japanese army and navy fought with the United States.

          On the islands there was far from the whole army, I repeat this army was hollowed back in 1937, Zhukov was just there, and with a more backward arsenal and organization compared to 1945
          1. 0
            5 September 2015
            Zhukov was just there, and with a more backward arsenal and organization compared to 1945

            Tell me ...
            What was the hope of the soldier and officer of the Kwantung Army? Complete doom. The war with the USA is lost. On the part of the USSR, the forces of the best land army of the world are drawing together ...
            Do you consider USSR aviation to be backward in armaments? Air dominance is important.
            The detachment detachment on the chain is the Kwantung army.
            And compare the morale of the Japanese in 1904, the country simply dreamed of winning its first victory.
            2 armies of one country. With completely different motives for fighting.
            1. 0
              5 September 2015
              Quote: Lexi2
              What was the hope of the soldier and officer of the Kwantung Army?

              On the emperor, for a Japanese soldier, dying for the emperor is the highest honor

              "Do you also rank USSR aviation as backward in armament?"

              I compare the aviation of the USSR since 1937 and 1945, but you will not deny that the I-16 was not equal in capabilities for example La-7?
              1. 0
                5 September 2015
                On the emperor, for a Japanese soldier, dying for the emperor is the highest honor

                Yes Yes
                heaps of rifles and ammunition of the Japanese with the slogan for the emperor. laughing
                Well, the image of the Russian enemy did not "take root" among the Japanese. The Americans did not take so many prisoners. And they did not particularly want that.
                So it is possible .. surrender of the Soviet army was not seen as a shame, but as an opportunity to survive for further struggle.
                Remembering the surrender of the Germans to the Western allies in Europe.
                The mobility of the Japanese was 0. The units consisted of conscripts. Plus all kinds of "HIVI".
                The Kwantung army fulfilled its mission. In the hardest of 1941-42. For the USSR, the Red Army was constrained by considerable forces. Moreover, these forces were very significant on our part.
  9. -1
    5 September 2015
    Quote: Lexi2
    And besides, the new war in Europe was becoming more and more distinct.

    If Russia had concluded an alliance with Germany, and the war would have been completely different.
    1. +1
      5 September 2015
      If Russia had concluded an alliance with Germany, and the war would have been completely different.

      The Kaiser was also "wise". I wanted to "make" all the adversaries both on the seas and on land.
      But there are several major naval battles off the coast of Great Britain. Together with the Russian Navy. And a mustache.
      Without gas attacks and Verdun.
      This is how the Spanish "armada" was defeated in the 16th century. Spain ceased to be a superpower.
      So the words are one thing ... And the real land capabilities of the Kaiser are in fact another.
  10. +9
    5 September 2015
    But "nikolashka" was ranked among the saints. Fucked up Russia - s-s-u-k-a!
    1. -3
      5 September 2015
      To be more precise, he and the family were declared martyrs, i.e. martyrs, during the period of being not in power, but in prison. By the way, the Metropolitan of Nizhny Novgorod voted against the canonization of Nicholas, considering him a traitor to the fatherland. Indeed, the paradox of Russian loyalty is that our people do not forgive the ruler of kindness, considering this a weakness. If Nicholas II had not sent the Bolsheviks and others to exile and abroad, but shot him, he would have been a tyrant, but he would have been respected and, as a result, the 17 year would not have happened. And no one would know about Lenin and Stalin. And so, the tsar showed gentleness, as a result, the Bolsheviks destroyed a great empire, ruined millions of lives in civil war, famine and terror, and even Stalin became a hero for some because he tried to glue them back to the destroyed empire. So it turns out that in our country at the same time those who tortured are heroes, those who suffered are martyrs.
      1. +2
        5 September 2015
        Quote: Nikolai K
        as a result, the Bolsheviks destroyed the great empire

        It was not the Bolsheviks who started at all in March 1917, it happened to you in a strange way
        1. +1
          5 September 2015
          Formally, when Nicholas renounced power, the Bolshevik leaders rested in Switzerland and did not participate in the event. But it was they who hammered the nail into the coffin of the Russian Empire, first giving self-determination to national entities, and then signing a peace with the Germans. Initially, the idea of ​​world revolution prevailed among the Bolsheviks, and they did not have any meaning in nation-states, especially empires.
      2. +3
        5 September 2015
        The diaries of Nicholas II are very revealing. Upon learning of the defeat of the fleet at Tsushima, he was "very upset", and to distract himself, he went to have fun. These diaries are available on the Internet in the form of scans of pre-war editions, modern editions and photocopies of handwritten originals. The man was engaged in state affairs reluctantly, as if he were burdened by them. 20 minutes a day is a standard "working day". But he loved kayaking and walking. Was very dependent on "maman" and his wife.
      3. MrK
        -1
        5 September 2015
        Quote: Nikolai K
        If Nicholas II had not sent the Bolsheviks and others to exile and abroad, but shot him, he would have been a tyrant, but he would have been respected and, as a result, the 17 year would not have happened.


        About a sweet, kind and fluffy nicholas.
        As early as 19 of August 1906, a frightening “whip” was prepared in the form of the Stolypin Decree on “speedy” military courts, which were charged with the obligation to execute proceedings against rioters in no more than 48 hours, and the sentence should be executed no later than after 24 hours.
        For a year and a half - over 5 thousand people executed, including minor children, 43 thousands sent to hard labor, countless people arrested, searched, tortured ...
        The concept of "Stolypin tie", that is, the gallows, has become a household name in Russia.

        Here it is impossible not to notice that such “speedy” courts of Stalin are nowadays unequivocally condemned, whereas about the inventor of such “speedy justice” Stolypin his modern supporters, led by Nikolay K don't say a word, as if they don’t know anything about it !!! Or maybe they really don’t know ???
        In the 20 century in Russia there were two scoundrels and a villain in power - Nikolai 2 and Mishka Mechny.
      4. 0
        5 September 2015
        Quote: Nikolai K
        If Nikolai III did not send the Bolsheviks and others to exile and abroad, but would shoot, he would be a tyrant

        In order to shoot someone and show political force, you must have large eggs, which Nikolai did not have. He only had a big heart, which is detrimental to the empire, which they want to devour from all sides.
        If he had large eggs, and not small eggs, he would have pressed all the generals and admirals to the nail in Japan, tore off shoulder straps and stripped them anal virginityranks with privileges. It was necessary, he would have headed the bid and the campaign plan. And he was a soft-bodied, suggestible, not proactive and simply bad ruler, who first defamed two wars, then abdicated the great country that he had not created, plunging the people into the chaos of the civil war.
  11. +2
    5 September 2015
    The Russian leadership lacked a tough determination to continue the war. ... What kind of leadership is this and the world ... in 39-45 the other leadership behaved differently .. In the 90s ... just a little more and the Portsmouth Treaty would be repeated .. Now declared Kuril ours and Portsmouth will happen again ... Of course, do not forget N. Khrushchev and his agreements .. idiotic ..
  12. +2
    5 September 2015
    Japan may have strained, but it won the war on land, at sea and in the offices of diplomats!
    The result is important! He has been reached!
  13. +2
    5 September 2015
    The war, in fact, was not lost on the battlefield, but in offices. All this is sad - the truth was told by the one who said that "Better a lion at the head of a flock of rams than a ram at the head of lions."
  14. 0
    5 September 2015
    Empty article by an empty author. Where are the references to Witte being an agent of influence, if he just warned the imperial clique (Bezobrazovskaya) against an adventure in the East (where is the list of Japanese demands in the peace negotiations and what Witte achieved? Why does the author not mention that France, being Who didn’t help Russia with anything? Who is to blame for the mediocrity of our generals and admirals (excluding Makarov) and the confusion in command of the troops? Also, what kind of flow of weapons and troops does the author rave about if the king was afraid to transfer regular troops from the western borders. Kie pseudo-historians posposobsvtovali collapse of the USSR, and now grist to the mill of the United States and other liberals.
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. 0
        5 September 2015
        And it began to penetrate into Korea.

        Japan, as you might guess, was taken aback.

        Englishwoman as always shit. Classic.
        They pitted two sides. But who "coveted" this penetration ... so to speak for a better logistic flow. That is another question.
        That is, we are talking about a well-placed trap, into which Russia has fallen. And the demand for it is from a lot of state agencies-Planning and intelligence.
        Blaming everything on one person is naive and stupid.
        Rather, it is a miscalculation of counterintelligence. For lobbying for the interests of a foreign country is evident.
  15. +1
    5 September 2015
    Nicholas, but now saint ... Nda ..
  16. 0
    5 September 2015
    -Absolute disgrace of Russia ... -As well as in the Crimean War of 1853-1856 .. that was before this war with Japan ... -And there and there Russia had a strategic and military advantage ... -defended and could inflict tremendous damage to the attacking enemy, who was forced to land from the sea, from his ships ... -and so mediocre to lose ...
    -Unfortunately, the lesson of the Crimean War did not go to Russia then, and then everything happened again in the war with Japan ...
    - And in both of these wars Russia could win a landslide victory ...
    1. -1
      5 September 2015
      The absolute shame of Russia ... -As well as in the Crimean War of 1853-1856 .. that was before this war with Japan ... -And there and there Russia had a strategic and military advantage.

      Crimean shame? Now your rating will be "raised".
      In Crimea, all of Europe flew like a flea in one place. In Crimea, despite the fact that Austria-Hungary unequivocally pulled troops to the Russian borders.
      And nothing ... no one wanted to repeat the fate of Napoleon 1.
      All remained with their own.
      And here and there, Russia had a strategic and military advantage ... - it defended itself and could inflict tremendous damage to the attacking enemy, who was forced to land from the sea, from his ships ... -and so mediocre to lose ...

      To land? And do you take into account the difference in distance between the center of Russia and the Far East? What is the advantage !!!
      Apparently, the Germans from Qingdao also stupidly lost. And they don’t even remember this fact.
      1. +1
        5 September 2015
        Learn student! All of Europe carried soldiers and mate. resources through the seas and the sea))) But Russia could not pull them up by land, so the roads did not bother to build. And what the deliveries could deliver, they left without equipment, stealing mercilessly, spitting on Nikolai 1, menacingly shaking his fist, as right now - the cheeks are blowing on the screen, but the result is the same. a history double, we unfortunately have such a lot, cheeks are puffed up, and cowards are dirty.
        And yes, student, for the outlook - "We'll throw our hats", a phrase from those times, read the battle on Alma.
        1. -2
          5 September 2015
          smaug78
          Are you a dear man by chance, not in a Scottish skirt "brought" from over a dozen lands? Go wash your kilt.
          excellent pupil.
          shame.
          Hidden military fortifications with the Anglo-French cemetery on the contrary are a good option. IMHO.
          1. +1
            5 September 2015
            Read funny, E. Tarle, his Stalin allowed to publish and recommended. And your inflated cheeks immediately give ignoramus. Essentially have something to say or just want to spoil the air?
    2. 0
      6 September 2015
      -Yes, of course ... -Britans and Frenchmen drove on crappy steamboats (these steamers only sail along a calm river or a lake) across the ocean and seas to the top of their holds ... ... and artillery, and horses, and ammunition, and all military ammunition .., and the soldiers themselves ... -And how much could you load on such weak steamers of everything ..? -When there wasn’t even enough drinking water for all passenger people .. and horse feed and water ..? -People were compressed like herring in barrels ... -Circle was continuous unsanitary conditions ... -And then what were the medicines ..? -Only English rum and whiskey ... -People died in hundreds ... -And they were simply thrown overboard ...- Yes, it was just awful ...
      - Yes, and even these steamboats often burned out boilers, ran out of coal ... -And then there were no ports and docks along the route, where the steamer could stand for repair ... -No were there in these ports and spare parts for mechanisms and fuels and lubricants for cars ... -Yes and during any, even a small storm, water could flood the engine room and the boilers of the ship and the ship could explode ...
      - Why "talk" about the Atlantic Ocean .. when even during a storm in the Black Sea on November 14, 1854, during the Crimean War on the Black Sea, Russia's opponents suffered significant losses ... - The consequences of this storm were fatal for the allied fleet: sank more than 53 ships of the allies (of which 25 transports). Additionally, near Evpatoria two battleships (French 100-gun "Henry IV" and Turkish 90-gun "Peiki-Messeret") and 3 steam corvettes were wrecked, 1500 people were killed, the damage amounted to 60 million francs.
      - With normal commanders, Russia had a real chance to simply prevent this entire allied army from landing, and even bayonet to drop it into the sea and crush it to smithereens ... -But the Russian generals then slammed everything ... Alas ...
      1. 0
        6 September 2015
        Learn the story. Russia generally steamboats once or twice and miscalculated. And why was Russia so afraid of these crappy steamboats that it flooded its fleet? And the allies provided themselves with such shit, but we couldn’t get dry
  17. 0
    5 September 2015
    In the history of all people (and peoples), there are cases of encounters with a stronger opponent. A real man (read: real people) differs from the pseudo one in that having received by snot, he does not give up, but stands up. Sometimes several times.
  18. +2
    5 September 2015
    I read a lot about this war. In fact, it was unrealistic to win in the first months.
    Of course, they laughed coarsely on the first night of the outbreak of war. When in the raid we had unprotected ships. The attack of the destroyers brought down three of our main battleships from them. As a result, we could not prevent the Japanese from landing on the mainland, we did not cut supply channels, etc. The defensive fortifications in Port Arthur were unfinished. There was no communication with Russia as such, a one-track railway with a small capacity, and in general, wagons were transported across Baikal by ferries. Advanced units and guards stood in the European part. Plus, revolutionary balomutes in society (which Western sponsors generously supported by the way), this is all to the causes of defeat.
    And returning to the article, I completely agree with the author that the Anglo-Saxons again stood behind all this shame and all this tragedy, actively helping and supporting the Japs.
    1. 0
      5 September 2015
      And we, the silver-footed, stood next to us and poked around our nose while the Englishwoman with the Yaposhati conceived evil?
      1. MrK
        +1
        5 September 2015
        Thanks again smaug78. We always have someone to blame but not the country's leadership. The fact that the Anglo-Saxons acted and helped the enemies of Russia at all times is a fact.

        But who interfered with our tsar nicolashka to act also.
        German money, English money - and there is no country. I think it's not about the money. Try to arrange a revolution today in Canada, for example, by investing 50 billion dollars that way. And don’t make a damn revolution. So there were other reasons conducive to the emergence of a revolutionary situation.
    2. 0
      5 September 2015
      And returning to the article, I completely agree with the author that the Anglo-Saxons again stood behind all this shame and all this tragedy, actively helping and supporting the Japs.


      Port Arthur "divided" the forces of the Russian Navy. And the Japanese took advantage of this. (Or maybe they counted on it) So it made sense to own Port Arthur only with a strong rear and defense. And how can this be achieved with the superiority of the Japanese fleet?
  19. +1
    5 September 2015
    Quote: Nikolai K
    Formally, when Nicholas renounced power, the Bolshevik leaders rested in Switzerland and did not participate in the event. But it was they who hammered the nail into the coffin of the Russian Empire, first giving self-determination to national entities, and then signing a peace with the Germans. Initially, the idea of ​​world revolution prevailed among the Bolsheviks, and they did not have any meaning in nation-states, especially empires.

    In general, the Provisional Government launched a parade of sovereignty, recognizing the Ukrainian Rada. Then the same Council entered into an agreement with the Germans first than the Germans and the Bolsheviks began to blackmail.
  20. +1
    6 September 2015
    And it reminds me of the times of Gorbachev and his friend, an agent of influence of the Anglo-Saxons, Yakovlev and company. And other liberals who send congratulatory telegrams to the “emperors.” (The fish rots from the head, but is cleaned from the tail.)
  21. +5
    6 September 2015
    Correctly Nikolashka the gopher was spanked in 1918. This war alone deserves a bullet. And Iosif Vissarionovich - rehabilitated the country, tearing the Japs, "like Tuzik a hot water bottle" after 40 years. And all the screams about repression and tyranny retreat before this act. I think our soldiers in 1945 went to trample the samurai with enthusiasm, remembering 1905.
  22. +1
    6 September 2015
    Yes, it’s unpleasant and insulting, no matter how it was. But ... JV Stalin, a real emperor, and not like Nikolashka, although he studied at the seminary, was clearly not going to turn the other cheek after hitting the first. Rather, give a puff in response, then in the balls ... Well, something like that. Until now, the Yapas can only moan dejectedly about the "northern territories", where all the samurai spirit has gone ...

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