The work of the special department at the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces, coordinated with leading scientists who made efforts to create atomic weapons in the USSR, led to the implementation of a truly powerful project. This is a project to form an effective counterbalance to the nuclear potential of the United States of America. You can think for a long time on how the development of the national nuclear shield went, how much effort and money was spent on this, but in the end it was precisely this development that led to the fact that after the appearance of an atomic bomb from the USSR, nuclear weapons were not used in military conflicts never - anywhere in the world. And there is an opinion that if this type of weapon would remain only with the state, which even today does not miss the moment to declare its exclusivity, then nuclear strikes against those who disagree with US policy would be not uncommon ...
The appearance of the nuclear potential of the USSR made it possible to form a new stable system of the world order, in which each of the poles understood that in the event of an incorrect step, a crushing blow could follow - the very “otvetka”. This understanding and determined the relationship between the poles of force, and, by and large, continues to determine the relationship to this day.
The implementation of the military part of the USSR atomic project was begun long before the mentioned special department began to form at the General Staff of the USSR Supreme Soviet. So, in September, 1942, when the country was actually on the verge of existence due to events on the fronts, a decision was made in Moscow, which can be safely called a landmark. This decision (order) of the State Defense Committee in terms of the organization of work on uranium. The USSR Academy of Sciences was obliged to resume work on the study of the feasibility of the dependence of the use of atomic energy by splitting uranium nuclei. At the same time, the Academy of Sciences was placed in a tight time frame. Already by April 1 1943, academics were to submit a report on the possibility of creating an atomic bomb to the State Defense Committee.
The first page of the document, which was kept for a long time under the heading "Top Secret".
Before the first tests of the Soviet atomic bomb, colossal work was carried out to which thousands of specialists from the whole union and not only from the USSR were involved. New scientific centers were built, a closed city grew, in which all the technical conditions for achieving the goal were created. It should not be forgotten that the initial nuclear support of the country was forged in conditions when the country itself was in a state of war monstrous in its scope, and the term “Everything for the front, everything for Victory” was a real motto for the state and its citizens. At the same time, the government understood very well that if the project to create an atomic bomb was not translated into reality, the USSR would also turn into “fonya” ruins, since “allies” were aiming at weakening the Land of the Soviets.
The successful test of the first Soviet atomic bomb RDS-1 with a power of about 22 kilotons was carried out on 29 on August 1949 of the year at the Semipalatinsk test site. By that time (on the basis of the effects of the use of atomic bombs by Americans in August 1945), much was known about the destructive effect of atomic weapons. However, the effect of the explosion, as stated by the developers of the bomb and the responsible representatives of the Armed Forces, exceeded all expectations.
From the multi-meter tower, which was at the epicenter of the explosion, there remained a funnel with a depth of about one and a half meters with melted edges. The radiation level in the epicenter of the explosion reached a whopping value of 180 thousand X-rays / hour (0,5 Sv / s). With this dose of radiation, people without much risk to life could be at a distance of 3 km from the epicenter for no more than 20 minutes. Two three-story houses built as experimental structures at a distance of 800-900 m from the epicenter were completely destroyed. Cars were burned, funds were seriously damaged aviation, armored vehicles that were used to visualize the result of the impact of the shock wave and heat flux. The blast wave tore off the railway bridge, located at a distance of 1 km from the epicenter, and threw it about 30 meters, damaging the structure.
For obvious reasons, successful tests of the RDS-1 at the Semipalatinsk test site discouraged yesterday’s allies even to reflect on the possibility of a nuclear strike on the USSR.
The nuclear-missile potential of modern Russia and today many “friends” discourages testing the Russian Federation for strength. The Russian Federation has strategic missile forces, naval strategic forces and strategic aviation.
Last year, the US State Department published a report stating that Russia overtook the US in the number of active nuclear warheads, with approximately 1640 missiles ready to launch. The maximum distance that Russian missiles can provide for the delivery of a nuclear warhead is 16 thousand kilometers, which provides "coverage" of a vast territory.
The safety of the operation of nuclear weapons and the monitoring of compliance with international treaties are ensured by 12, the Main Directorate of the Russian Ministry of Defense.
Today, 12, the Central Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of Russia, reliably ensures the safety of the operation of nuclear weapons and the monitoring of compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The work on the rearmament of the Strategic Missile Forces is in full swing.
Thus, the latest mobile RK "Yars" with a divided head part with maneuvering blocks of individual guidance appear in Teikovsky, Novosibirsk, Tagilsky, Kozelsky and other missile formations. This is one of the reliable elements of domestic security.
"Military Review" congratulates nuclear security specialists on their professional holiday!