Roscosmos abandoned nuclear installation

Roscosmos will not create an interorbital tug with a nuclear electromotive installation. In the text of the draft space program, it is mentioned only in the context of the scientific and technical reserve for promising spacecraft, reports Lenta.ru report.


Roscosmos abandoned nuclear installation


Previously, with the help of an engine with a nuclear reactor, Roscosmos planned to make manned flights to the moon after 2030. In 2012, the idea was supported by the then head of the agency, Vladimir Popovkin.

“At present, astronauts will be sent to a natural satellite of the Earth not earlier than 2035 of the year with the help of an oxygen-hydrogen inter-orbital tug MOB-KVTK, which allows a cargo weighing up to 38 tons to be removed from near-Earth orbit to the Moon,” the publication notes.

Nuclear engines, if they find their use, are supposed to be used for more distant flights, for example, to Mars.

The project entitled “Creating a transport and energy module based on a megawatt-class nuclear power plant” was approved by the president’s commission at 2010. The engine was assigned to Keldysh Center and the RSC Energia was assigned to the vehicle. The project was allocated 17 billion rubles.

In Roskosmos they do not comment on the situation, and in the “Keldysh Center” they say that they continue to work in accordance with their previous commitments.

According to a competent source, work on a nuclear installation can be "transferred to a closed (military) part of the Federal space program."
Photos used:
Russian atomic community
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  1. Finches 2 September 2015 13: 17 New
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    I see ... Money is over! As there Saltykov-Shchedrin:"The balancer was let down, the phytane was given out, they were recorded in loro and nostro, and the money was bye bye" laughing
    1. meriem1 2 September 2015 13: 19 New
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      no !!! just encrypted. Looks like a breakthrough technology has come to the fore.
      1. Finches 2 September 2015 13: 22 New
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        In theory, such programs would not have to be very open!
      2. Inok10 2 September 2015 13: 41 New
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        Quote: meriem1
        no !!! just encrypted. Looks like a breakthrough technology has come to the fore.

        .. judging by this phrase ..
        According to a competent source, work on a nuclear installation can be "transferred to a closed (military) part of the Federal space program."
        .. MO RF saw, said .. thing! .. let's syudy, imagine something else for yourself .. and absolutely true .. hi
        1. scientist 2 September 2015 15: 13 New
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          Quote: Inok10
          MO RF saw, said .. thing! .. let's syudy, you’ll come up with something else .. and absolutely right

          The point is not the desire of Moscow Region, but the commercial component. Unlike the Moscow Region, Roscosmos, like any other commercial company in the World, simply cannot afford the huge costs of such global projects. Also, at one time a rocket was created for Gagarin, based on the ballistic R-7.
          And the Moscow Region will quickly find effective military applications of a nuclear power plant, and when the technology is developed as with the R-7, it will be transferred to Roskosmos or Minatom.
      3. volgroo 2 September 2015 15: 36 New
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        I remembered about Wang. I said so. Only Russians can fly to Mars and the Moon. Probably due to this engine. Others will not.
      4. World Cup 2014 2 September 2015 15: 53 New
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        tape.ru can only issue fakes.
    2. Alexey M 2 September 2015 13: 23 New
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      I’m wondering where did Korolev want to fly to Mars?
      Somehow, space has lately been blown away all over the world. All plans have been postponed to 2030, China has generally quieted down, although it threatened to make its own station. The Americans shuttled, and there aren’t new ships yet. People are trying to, but the result whiter than modest.
      1. Albert1988 2 September 2015 13: 33 New
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        Quote: Alexey M
        Somehow, "space" has recently been blown away all over the world.

        Americans seem to be bringing their superheavy rocket SLS - Space Launch Sistem, but the question arises - is there a carrier, but what will be removed with its help? So you are most likely right (sadly enough to admit this) - you should not expect bright and ambitious space projects in the near future ...
      2. A-Sim 2 September 2015 13: 53 New
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        The feeling of an imminent and inevitable world conflict freezes ...
      3. gridasov 2 September 2015 14: 30 New
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        You quite rightly noted that space topics were suspended in many directions. But the answers are quite simple. People can be fooled, but not infinitely. Space technologies have reached critical levels, after which it is impossible to move forward because everything is simply collapsing, and according to the scientific process, there is a destruction of processes that would have to be developed, and they change the vector to the side, to put it mildly the opposite. The desire of customers to create heavy rockets with a high payload rested on the inability to tear them away from Earth. What is the problem? In turbo-beer pumps that operate on physical principles that cannot be analyzed. And they just “lock up” these processes. The desire to deliver more movers pulls the problem of weight and fuel volume. They don’t know how to overcome this mathematical dependence in the practice of life, because with some experiments they will spin around or pound the water in the mortar and poke into the wall like blind kittens. Without deepening the analysis and methodologies for understanding complex information-capacitive processes, it is impossible to understand even in which direction to move.
      4. donavi49 2 September 2015 14: 49 New
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        For the sake of competition, well, and various studies. However, then little knew about the same Mars. Now the whole package of tasks that faced the missions of the Queen and NASA is solved by rovers and orbital robots.

        It is much cheaper to remove them, they do not need oxygen, water, food, they are not afraid of radiation. Robotics ousted astronauts from most of their tasks.

        Therefore, everyone cooled to the lunar base - why? Current technologies do not allow the efficient use of lunar fuel and the project is unbearable today even for the whole world, this is precisely if we talk about stable and mass production and delivery to Earth.

        On Mars, the benefits are even more foggy. In the sense of none. It’s better to collect and send robots, what the Europeans and NASA actually do.

        Fly on - there is no technology even for robots.

        Therefore, such stagnation. The entire necessary research package with people is provided by the ISS. The rest is robots.
        1. gridasov 2 September 2015 15: 10 New
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          The human brain works according to a more advanced analysis technique than any known device. Therefore, in the analysis of new, I would say critical flows of information, since a person has never had contact with many at all, it is more profitable to use a person because the objectivity of information will be more accurate.
          I repeat once again. We can obtain information within such limited parameters that it loses its meaning, in general, in such expeditions.
          We can also say that within the framework of our planet, such "spaces" are more than enough to first work out the technologies here, and then in outer space.
          1. Alexey M 2 September 2015 15: 21 New
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            Here we can already talk about all the general degradation of SCIENCE.
            Look at the modern scientific world. IT TECHNOLOGIES occupy the largest part.
      5. region58 2 September 2015 16: 43 New
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        Quote: Alexey M
        Somehow, "space" has recently been blown away all over the world.

        A rude century, rude manners, no romanticism ... (c) sad But in essence - in my opinion, they decided that there would be nothing for a man to do machines, because it is expensive and troublesome.
      6. KaPToC 2 September 2015 22: 48 New
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        Quote: Alexey M
        I’m wondering where did Korolev want to fly to Mars?

        The enormous tension of the forces of the whole planet to send one (several) people to Mars? For industrial space exploration, the energy of chemical fuel is not enough, even for the exploration of the moon.
      7. Ze Kot 2 September 2015 23: 20 New
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        Quote: Alexey M
        I’m wondering where did Korolev want to fly to Mars?



        So one way is not so difficult smile
    3. RiverVV 2 September 2015 14: 03 New
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      Well, the dough was allocated a little. What is 17 lard? Just tin mock riveted enough.
  2. mishastich 2 September 2015 13: 18 New
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    How about just being kept secret? soldier
  3. rotmistr60 2 September 2015 13: 19 New
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    work on a nuclear installation can be "transferred to the closed (military) part of the Federal Space Program."

    Such developments simply must be closed. And so in due time so many of our secrets flowed west that the damage done by this could not be counted.
    1. castle 2 September 2015 13: 38 New
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      For example, the Tu-4 (a copy of the American B-29), the A-4 rocket (a copy of the German V-2), the RD-10 engine (a copy of the German Junkers Jumo 004B), the RDS-1 bomb, and much more from Soviet developments flowed west. I jerk, but you don’t give us another way.
      1. Amurets 2 September 2015 13: 57 New
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        By the way, rocket-4 and V-2 are one and the same. But these developments and many others sharply moved not only the science and technology of not only the USSR, but also the USA where most German developments fell. And it’s not known what could have fallen on our heads if Hitler had not banned developments that could not have been completed in more than six months. So don’t have to jerk. Without Werner von Braun’s work, the Americans would not soon fly into space. And don’t think that Americans didn’t use our products. It’s just not advertised.
    2. Nick 2 September 2015 13: 41 New
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      Quote: rotmistr60
      work on a nuclear installation can be "transferred to the closed (military) part of the Federal Space Program."

      Such developments simply must be closed. And so in due time so many of our secrets flowed west that the damage done by this could not be counted.

      Most importantly, our scientists continue to generate new “secrets”
  4. Engineer 2 September 2015 13: 24 New
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    Why would the Keldysh Center again reinvent the wheel, if KBHA already has RD0410? And what about their magnetoplasmodynamic engines?
    1. Wedmak 2 September 2015 14: 51 New
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      If memory serves, the thrust of such an engine is small and it is suitable only for small spacecraft.
      1. gridasov 2 September 2015 15: 17 New
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        Of course! However, the engine itself does not show its effectiveness, not for the level of application under which it is planned, but the ideology in it. She is completely unproductive. The balance of processes that are the basis for the creation of energy of the necessary effect does not fit into the part that forms the intensity of the return and the entire complex of the preliminary stage.
  5. MIKHAN 2 September 2015 13: 25 New
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    Quote: mishastich
    How about just being kept secret? soldier

    Apparently the way it is ....

    work on a nuclear installation can be “transferred to a closed (military) unit

    They obviously came up with something!
  6. Jurkovs 2 September 2015 13: 28 New
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    Well, here's another load for the Angara-5 evaporated. At the end of the year, the President will approve the expenses for the period 2016-2030, (they say the dates on the Moon will shift sharply to the right), see if Angara itself remains there.
    1. Albert1988 2 September 2015 13: 35 New
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      Quote: Jurkovs
      Well, here's another load for the Angara-5 evaporated.

      And who told you that? In the article, in general, the headline is extremely inconsistent with the content - some newspaper wrote that the project supposedly was closed, only the project developers for some reason do not know about it ...
  7. Amurets 2 September 2015 13: 37 New
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    Oxygen-kerosene engines have reached the limit of perfection. I don’t know how we are working out oxygen-hydrogen. They postpone Angara launches on Vostochny. And now nuclear engines have been postponed. Yes, our affairs in space are unimportant. Or maybe they are thinking of flying under a solar sail?
  8. Diviz 2 September 2015 13: 42 New
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    Only breakthrough technology should save money. This prevents others from working. Such a mess. World War 3 will begin; I won’t be surprised if we have flying saucers.
  9. Izotovp 2 September 2015 13: 52 New
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    For the Martian program, an on-board nuclear reactor was developed to a large extent as a power source, and not as a mover.
  10. Mountain shooter 2 September 2015 14: 07 New
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    We were not talking about a nuclear engine. Nuclear power plant for powering plasma engines. Engines are slowly growing in power - there are already 10 kW. Our engines are ahead. The movements were strong with the Nuclear Power Plant, but there they were not talking about a reactor with a coolant and a turbine, but about thermocouples with nuclear fuel. Only while everything was either difficult or dangerous (if the weight was reduced due to protection). No breakthroughs along this path have yet been seen, work is underway, technologies, materials, etc. are being improved. There, a high-current electrician is also needed, with low losses, and excess heat must be utilized by radiation, and a lot of heat ...
    1. Svetlana 2 September 2015 23: 20 New
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      The use of 3rd-generation high-temperature superconductors in magnetic coils of thermonuclear reactors (TNR), similar to tokamaks and spheromaki, will make it possible to obtain stronger magnetic fields (200 KiloGauss constant magnetic fields and 10 MegaGauss pulsed) in plasma chambers to hold plasma and switch to neutron-free thermonuclear reactions proton beams with lithium or boron plasma. The mass of radiation protection will be reduced, which will make it possible to use TNR on aircraft.
      1. gridasov 2 September 2015 23: 43 New
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        Commenting on you, we can only say that all accelerators in the form of Tokomakov, Spheromakov form and have a fundamental design error, namely, that which proceeds from the fact that a torus is a derivative of a sphere with converged critical bipolarization nodes to a place where space can form the maximum voltage of this polarization. Therefore, it is difficult to talk with people who do not understand where and why SPIN arises from. And this means that the density of magnetic force flows forming the polarization of the so-called .el magnetic forces cannot be obtained in these devices, if you form the movement of el. particles on such vectors that are being organized now. And this is completely obvious and justified. You just need to know the elementary topology of space in the form of the formation of magnetic forces in it. streams.
    2. gridasov 2 September 2015 23: 34 New
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      In addition to Brown, the Germans had other specialists who took a slightly different path of development, not even rocket science. in general, the concept of organizing a highly efficient flight in different environments. Everything, even open data, indicates what was being done and why. Look at the property of a known substance - liquid metal. Its key property is probably not worth repeating. This substance with the pronounced properties of a highly radioactive substance. But which is not such in a passive state. Create conditions for him and get so much email. magnetic energy of a new quality, which is in excess and can be removed to the surface planes of the aircraft. In addition, it is not exhaustible because it works in a closed loop and does not emit life-threatening radiation. Most likely, it does not emit, since a significant part of the energy goes to the transformation of atomic-molecular transformations. In this case, there will be no chemical reactions like the interaction of two component or multicomponent chemicals. reactions. All processes of energy release, in the form of necessary, are the result of a change only in the state of this substance. And so that there is no heat generation, form the magnetic force flows in such a way that they harmonize along the direction vectors. Therefore, everyone would have to figure out what to take for a nuclear engine, propulsion or power plant. All this is one and the same, but at different levels of application potential, but in one principle of organizing the process in them.
  11. Aleksandr1959 2 September 2015 14: 10 New
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    As for the development and testing of NRE, you can read the links: http://everythings.narod.ru/tech/russia_star_yard.htm
    http://rocketpolk44.narod.ru/stran/yrd.htm
  12. gridasov 2 September 2015 14: 10 New
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    What is the essence of the so-called nuclear installations on radioactive material in general, if we are talking about such a thing? The fact that in a radioactive substance is hidden potential energy or electron density. magnetic processes in a certain scale of these perturbations, distinctive from the external background of interactions. However, a lack of understanding of that. that in addition to certain critical states of matter such as solid, liquid, gaseous, there is also a dynamic state. Therefore, the conversation can and should go not only about the fact that "weakly radioactive" substances can be increased in the potential of internal nuclear or, more precisely, email. magnetic interactions at the nuclear level, but also from radially directed radiation vectors of the corresponding perturbation parameters, turn into linear. Thus increasing the energy density in the bipolar direction. And that is not all. The ability to overcome or achieve supersonic speeds in the device and at the same time ensuring its stability of rotation without destructive centrifugal processes allows us to turn practically any solid phase material into a radioactive one using our technology, raising the potential of its internal interactions at the nuclear level. We have to greatly simplify the presentation of the mind of the subsequent reactions of opponents. In general, nuclear technology cannot be abandoned since this will exacerbate the process of deepening knowledge.
    1. Vladimir 1964 2 September 2015 14: 31 New
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      Yes, you, gridasov, well done, did not understand anything, but how it sounds, how it sounds ..... cool !!!
      1. gridasov 2 September 2015 14: 55 New
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        I can recall that in the framework of modern science it is known that the electron changes mass when it is accelerated. This is not what I came up with! Now imagine that any object of space with dimensionality or relative dimension, then it must have a polarization structure, which in turn is described by the properties of magnetic force flows. Now imagine that any substance is a structure of interactions not just of electrons that make up the fractal structures of atoms and molecules, but of groups of differently polarized levels of such electrons. particles. So here. How to change the potential energy of any substance consisting of groups of these elementary particles at all radial levels. The answer is clear. And everyone successfully uses this method, including in nuclear accelerators. But at the level of simple interactions, so to speak, it is necessary not to shoot at “targets” and get an excess of energy, but to perform a no more complex action to get the transformation of ordinary matter and get an excess of energy, and also without intermediate stages of its transformation. Cosmos simplifies all these effects since the background gravitational effect from the EARTH disappears. The experiments conducted in orbit with all the evidence confirm our reasoning. Just scientists involved in this consider everything in a slightly different method and perception and analysis.
      2. Ze Kot 2 September 2015 23: 32 New
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        Quote: Vladimir 1964
        Yes, you, gridasov, well done, did not understand anything, but how it sounds, how it sounds ..... cool !!!



        Combine radiation from several sources into one beam to increase power. And to make radioactive any other materials to gain new opportunities.
        1. gridasov 2 September 2015 23: 52 New
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          In principle, you are absolutely right. Only it’s still simpler — one source of momentum with a diluted stream and a spin attached to it and then again reduced to a point gives enormous energy in the form of a huge voltage between the ends of such a device. In fact, we are now talking about a DC transformer. I considered this development ten years ago. Otherwise, this device works on the principle of creating a standing wave, which does not work according to the amplitude of the pendulum, but to increase the rotation moment or spin of the magnetic flux. By the way, this device is very simple and can be used to send email. energy over long distances without step-up transformers, like substations.
    2. sir.jonn 2 September 2015 14: 37 New
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      Quote: gridasov
      What is the essence of the so-called nuclear installations on radioactive material in general, if we are talking about such a thing? The fact that in a radioactive substance is hidden potential energy or electron density. magnetic processes in a certain scale of these perturbations, distinctive from the external background of interactions. However, a lack of understanding of that. that in addition to certain critical states of matter such as solid, liquid, gaseous, there is also a dynamic state. Therefore, the conversation can and should go not only about the fact that "weakly radioactive" substances can be increased in the potential of internal nuclear or, more precisely, email. magnetic interactions at the nuclear level, but also from radially directed radiation vectors of the corresponding perturbation parameters, turn into linear. Thus increasing the energy density in the bipolar direction. And that is not all. The ability to overcome or achieve supersonic speeds in the device and at the same time ensuring its stability of rotation without destructive centrifugal processes allows us to turn practically any solid phase material into a radioactive one using our technology, raising the potential of its internal interactions at the nuclear level. We have to greatly simplify the presentation of the mind of the subsequent reactions of opponents. In general, nuclear technology cannot be abandoned since this will exacerbate the process of deepening knowledge.

      Hyperboloid engineer Garin.
      1. gridasov 2 September 2015 15: 02 New
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        If this was not a priority for those who will possess such technologies, then it is quite easy to lay out simple material in an accessible form of understanding for those who, at least, desire it. Therefore, I understand your irony. But we are talking about things that modern technologies of metal processing, etc. will allow us to build equipment in the basic version within a day, and not years and decades. Therefore, I would not associate the specifics of knowledge and techniques with works of art
        1. sir.jonn 2 September 2015 15: 21 New
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          Quote: gridasov
          Therefore, I would not associate the specifics of knowledge and techniques with works of art

          For all the variety of principles for constructing technical solutions, the unprecedented influence of artistic expositions on this product cannot be ruled out, otherwise the works of theorists who have immortalized and have proved their name precisely thanks to literature can be called insignificant.
          1. gridasov 2 September 2015 15: 32 New
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            I dare not agree with you. Indeed, many writers, science fiction writers, artists and other creative people at the core use the same method of environmental analysis. Just on extradition, like a transformed analysis, it looks as individual as the creator sees it. After all, to get information about a person it is enough to look at his reasoning and creativity, if any. I just didn’t think of moving away from the main topic of discussion, so I used these words.
            1. sir.jonn 2 September 2015 16: 04 New
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              Quote: gridasov
              I dare not agree with you. Indeed, many writers, science fiction writers, artists and other creative people at the core use the same method of environmental analysis. Just on extradition, like a transformed analysis, it looks as individual as the creator sees it. After all, to get information about a person it is enough to look at his reasoning and creativity, if any. I just didn’t think of moving away from the main topic of discussion, so I used these words.

              I just wanted to shorten your comment on the work of my beloved A.N. Tolstoy in my childhood, because he publicly transformed the idea of ​​parallel radiation capabilities into the masses.
              1. gridasov 2 September 2015 16: 24 New
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                I totally agree. And there are still very interesting aspects of working with information that can be convicted into codes, numbers, their flows, a set of numbers as algorithms, and therefore whole system processes, which can have both dynamics and potential. Indeed, all modern mathematics in its fundamental part is built on the search for a unified and correct solution. Right? And I agree with you. which is true. BUT!!! it turns out that the disposition of one and only correct solution having no alternative cannot be perceived as the only logically evaluated solution. That is, the position of a single look at such a decision makes it possible for another person to protest this position (to any extent its assessment) since this person is already in a topologically different space and its place, which is already determined by a complex of other interactions. That is, logically, we are already considering the same mathematical solution as a system of symmetries. And it means, in addition to the binary alternative, there may be a system based on all the numbers of the series. What does it mean ? This means that mathematics based on the search for one and only correct solution cannot give an objective idea of ​​this solution. That is, for simple static circumstances as solutions, this can be used wherever you go, but for highly dynamic turbulent ones, just like that. Consider all that I'm talking about is mathematics, not the fruit of philosophical reasoning.
                1. sir.jonn 2 September 2015 17: 27 New
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                  Quote: gridasov
                  What does it mean ? This means that mathematics based on the search for one and only correct solution cannot give an objective idea of ​​this solution.

                  Yes, without a bazaar. The blame for the inconstancy of numbers, which is justified by many unknowns in any process, including the specific behavior of derivatives of nuclear fusion. Full analysis needed, "
                  Quote: gridasov
                  highly dynamic turbulent
                  processes
                  and it would not be useless in the near future, including the period until these studies are applicable in the processes we operate.
                  1. gridasov 2 September 2015 18: 12 New
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                    In this lies the undisclosed secret of numbers, which has been used since those numbers as an element of calculations. forgot about another function of numbers. The numbers are just the same if you give them the properties of a vector in mathematical space and the "potential" in relation to each other. What then? Then any number will always have a completely accurate disposition in the relative space of their interactions with the same complexes. And then the number with variables will always be constant in every dynamically changing system. With the variable property of numbers, you can do static and low-grade calculations. And highly dynamic processes can be analyzed only and only with the function of the number as constant and always and under any conditions determined by place and value. Then speed as such has a completely different definition and space is analyzed by the distribution processes of the algorithmic flows of these numbers in their pure expression, not by vectors, but by properties contained in the essence of the number itself. This is unbelievable, but do not think that I came up with it, personally. I only have the ability to see and analyze what others cannot. No more. Therefore, I tell you that any number can be expressed, namely, by the structure of the position of all nat. a series of numbers. We write numbers linearly and sequentially. They write numbers radially and build a recording system on the principle of interconnected variation. That is, space is evaluated as potential in its variations of transformations. Moreover, it is always dynamic in its mathematical, so to speak, transformations, and therefore dynamic in changes. That is, for a general understanding, one can look at a person to understand how not what his genome is built, but how each and not a cell works, but a molecule and an atom. After all, everything is interconnected in all vectors and in the potential of these points. It is also obvious that the din method of such a mat. analysis does not exclude another. They are compatible and apparently have the boundaries of milestone jumps.
                    So far, it is possible to substantiate hydro-gas-dynamic turbulent processes and define them in development algorithms. And this is cardinally enough to change a lot. And it went and went interspersed with what it would provoke as a positive reaction and vice versa.
  13. Gomel 2 September 2015 15: 24 New
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    Of all the articles, the most accurate and true is the last paragraph.
    such a breakthrough business was naturally transferred to the military unit and naturally accelerated the work and naturally will not comment. The Gorbachev-Yeltsin time of openly spreading secret information has passed.
  14. MolGro 2 September 2015 17: 01 New
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    "Transferred to the closed (military) part of the Federal Space Program."
    Apparently the result exceeded expectations and the military dragged the project away!
    By the way, it also happened on antimatter after they found a way to capture it, all references disappeared. For this reason, we are building new accelerators) !!
  15. for
    for 2 September 2015 17: 17 New
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    There is nothing to transfer to the military field, and there is nothing to secret.
    Normal engineering task.
    And in such an elegant way, the scientists decided to "save face", they say we would have done, only here you see, the bad and narrow-minded officials cut off the financing.
  16. srelock 2 September 2015 21: 42 New
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    "Director of the Keldysh Center Anatoly Koroteev noted that Roscosmos has not yet informed him about the refusal of development work on the nuclear engine.

    - If Roscosmos sent such an option to the PCF for approval, then let it coordinate it. But we continue to work on a project approved by the Russian President’s Commission on Modernization and Technological Development of the Russian Economy, ”says Koroteev. - This project is designed until 2018, we have funding for it, and I see no reason to cry ahead of time. Will there be nuclear topics in the final version of FKP-2025 - this is another question. But the project was discussed at a very high level, and we were advised to expedite the work, but there was no talk of taking the money. Yes, there are a lot of difficulties during the implementation of this project, but I don’t see financial problems yet. "

    Adapted from the original article http://izvestia.ru/news/590819
  17. shinobi 3 September 2015 04: 17 New
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    The electron-nuclear installation in the form in which it was offered a very low efficiency. The only plus in the small amount of reactive mass for plasma dvigunov. The absence of radioactive exhaust, a positive moment, but low thrust and the difficulty of cooling nullifies the advantages. The deadlock path. Most likely will be in further procrastinate the topic of double-circuit nuclear dviguns with a closed reactor core of the primary circuit and gas-dynamic cooling by the reactive mass (working fluid) of the secondary circuit. Winning in overall dimensions and simplifying cooling systems.
    1. gridasov 3 September 2015 09: 54 New
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      Right word, talk about nothing. Because . that a process model is being considered. and only then the model of organization of this process in the device is considered. And not otherwise. That is, such a device or model is not only not effective, but also with a complete lack of quality factor. Otherwise, it simply does not have a temporary resource of use.
  18. meriem1 3 September 2015 15: 03 New
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    And latent all minus. They do not believe in their homeland. Everything is measured by Americans (((Disgrace !!!