From the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union
Back in the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov, 30 on April 1649, the “Orders of Grad blessing” were introduced, which also contained the first attempt at legislative support for the protection of public order on the streets of Russian cities. The document stated: “and drive around the streets and along the lanes, on the day and at night, in unceasing conditions. And for safeguarding in all the streets and along the alleys, to paint them lattice accessories and guards; and walk and take care of the streets and alleys in the day and at night so that there is no theft and fornication in the streets and in the lanes of battle and robbery and taverns and tobacco and inago. ” Under Peter I in the Russian Empire, the police were created and the duties of police officers responsible for the protection of public order in the cities of the country were distributed. 8 September 1802 was created by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, which was assigned to the tasks of ensuring public order and fighting crime. Two years later, in 1804, the Minister of Internal Affairs of Russia, Count Viktor Pavlovich Kochubey, ordered the creation of an external part of the police, and on July 3, 1811 issued the “Regulations on Internal Guard”, according to which the duties of the internal guard of the Russian Empire were to capture thieves , the pursuit and destruction of robbers, the pacification of disobedience and violence, the capture of fugitive criminals, the protection of order at fairs and festivals. Thus, the legislative framework for the protection of public order was improved. The internal guard was subordinate to the military department and the provincial commanders, it consisted of eight districts under the command of district generals. The district of the inner guard covered from 4 to 8 provinces, in whose territory two brigades were stationed. In total in the Russian Empire there were twenty brigades of the internal guard.
March 30 The 1816 of the year The internal guard of the Russian Empire was transformed into a Separate Internal Guard Corps, and on April 4, the corps commander was approved by E.F. Komarovsky. In February, 1816 issued a provision “On the establishment of internal-guard gendarmes”. The gendarme guard included capital divisions numbering 1817 people and gendarme teams 334 people in 31 cities of the Russian Empire. The capital divisions were deployed in St. Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw (the Warsaw Division was created somewhat later than the St. Petersburg and Moscow divisions). With regard to the police guard, the first mention of it falls on 56, when the Regulation on the Metropolitan Police was approved. The city police at that time carried out the guard service in the police booths, from which the name of the guardians of the order, “wardens”, appeared. In 1838, the formation of police teams in Russian cities began. The teams were staffed by lower military ranks headed by a non-commissioned officer. Each team of 1853 police and non-commissioned officers accounted for 10 thousands of residents, for 5 thousands of residents accounted for 2 police officers of the lower ranks. The town guarding service was subordinate to the guards. The shrines were subordinated to the police stations led by the bailiff, the bailiff assistant and the clerk. In turn, the janitors were subordinate to the policemen, who performed not only the functions of cleaning and improving the streets, but also the former police officers who were monitoring the maintenance of public order.
The security system in pre-revolutionary Russia functioned quite regularly and efficiently, but the revolutionary events of February and October 1917 contributed to the actual destruction of the old law enforcement system. However, Soviet Russia also needed a structure capable of becoming a reliable tool in the fight against crime. 28 of October (10 of November) 1917 of the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs of Soviet Russia issued a decree “On the working militia”, which stated: 1) all the Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies establish the workers' militia; 2) workers' militia is entirely and exclusively under the authority of the Council of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies; 3) The military and civilian authorities are obliged to contribute to the arming of the workers' militia and the supply of technical forces to it, including the supply of state police. weapons". However, no serious steps towards the formation of specialized structures for the protection of public order in the period under review have not yet been made. In fact, the protection of public order was in the hands of the Red Guard, staffed by workers, soldiers and sailors and subordinated to the organs of Soviet power. On the ground, numerous and completely heterogeneous formations were created, responsible for protecting public order and fighting counter-revolution — these were all kinds of guard detachments, the Red Guard detachments, and workers' detachments. At first, professional employees in such units were absent, and the units themselves carried out both military functions and functions for the protection of public order. In December, 1917 was created by the All-Russian Emergency Commission (VChK), which became the state security and counter-revolution body, but also assumed responsibility for combating crime in the young Soviet state.
5 June 1918 was published a draft Regulation on the national workers 'and peasants' protection (Soviet militia). This project envisaged the need for the formation of workers 'and peasants' guards (the Soviet police). It was emphasized that the police should exist separately from the army and submit to the tasks of protecting the revolutionary order and the rule of law. October 12 The People’s Commissariat of Justice and the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the RSFSR approved the Instruction on the organization of the Soviet worker-peasant militia. This Instruction outlined the main nuances of the organization and activities of the police in Soviet Russia, which became the state body for the protection of public order in the country. The militia was recognized by the class organization, which was emphasized in its name - the workers 'and peasants' militia, as well as in the main tasks that it had to solve. It was emphasized that “the Soviet militia is on guard of the interests of the working class and the poorest peasantry. Its main duty is to protect the revolutionary order and civil security. ” At the same time, the police was considered as an organ of the executive workers 'and peasants' power and, therefore, was in dual subordination - both the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs and local Councils of People's Deputies. In October, 1918 was reorganized by the Police Directorate, which was transformed into the General Directorate of Police. The provincial and district administrations of the workers 'and peasants' militia were created on the ground, while the provincial towns could have their own municipal militia departments. The station headed by the local police chief subordinate to the senior police officers and police officers became the local police unit in the field. Separately, the units of the criminal investigation department, responsible for the direct fight against crime.
Preservation system in the pre-war USSR
The revolution and the Civil War triggered a rampant crime in Russian cities, while the new authorities at first could hardly control the situation. Despite the fact that 2 March 1919, the Presidium of the Cheka approved the "Regulations on the troops of the Cheka," and the 1 of September 1920, the Council of Labor Defense of the RSFSR adopts a resolution "On the creation of the internal service forces of the Republic (VNUS)" quite complicated. Sentinel policemen shot literally dozens. So, 24 January 1919 went down in history as a “black day” of the Moscow police. During the night, 38 police officers were killed - the gangsters from the Koshelkov grouping drove around the posts in a car and, causing police station guards, shot them point-blank. From the hands of the "purse" killed 22 policeman. 16 militiamen killed the gang of Safonov (Sabana) that night. To increase the effectiveness of measures to protect public order, in the republics, regions and cities, militia units were created. For example, September 29 1920 was created in the Byelorussian SSR to perform tasks to ensure law and order and the safety of citizens, to prevent and suppress disturbances of public order on the streets and in other public places of the city of Minsk. 30 September, he joined the service of public order in the capital of the BSSR. November 30 A separate police brigade was formed in the BSSR, including the 1920 police battalion. She was engaged in carrying out a military service, patrolling, participation in operations against criminal elements.
After the “Instruction to the post police officer” was adopted in 1923, the streamlining of the activities of the units for the protection of public order began.
In 1926, the police patrol units served in almost all major Soviet cities. Police officers and police patrols were assigned tasks to maintain order on the streets, in parks, gardens, squares, and other public places in Soviet cities and towns. Soviet policemen wore uniform uniforms - white. At that time, the powers of the patrol and patrol police were not yet divided. Therefore, the police guards and regulated traffic, and followed public order. Therefore, the police baton, a red color with a yellow handle that was used to regulate traffic, was a constant attribute of the policeman on the guard. Militiamen in the 1920-e-1930-s. They were an obligatory attribute of the main streets of large Soviet cities and in fact became the face of the Soviet militia. 25 May 1931 The Council of People's Commissars of the USSR adopted the Regulation on Workers 'and Peasants' Militia, which provided for the division of the police into departmental and general. The general militia was responsible for the protection of public order, the fight against crime, the supervision of the observance of traffic rules, processions and demonstrations. That is, the tasks of the patrol and guard service today were under the jurisdiction of the general militia.
Soviet militia during the war
The Great Patriotic War became a serious test for the Soviet militia. During the war, the functions of the police were significantly expanded and complicated. The police units were assigned the tasks of combating desertion, alarmism and looting, with theft of military and evacuated goods on vehicles, operational work to detect and detain enemy spies and provocateurs, to ensure the evacuation of the population, Soviet enterprises and institutions, cargo. From the first days of the war, the Soviet militia in the front-line cities and towns entered into battle with the German fascist aggressor. Much of the police officers were mobilized to the front, and it was this very moment that caused a massive increase in the number of women serving in the police. Only in Moscow, by decision of the Moscow City Party Committee, 1300 women who served in state institutions and organizations were mobilized to the police. Before the start of World War II, 138 women worked in the Moscow police, and during the war the number of women in police uniform in Moscow increased to four thousand. In Stalingrad, 20% of city police officers were women.
The Main Directorate of Militia of the NKVD of the USSR decided to cancel all vacations of police officers, the external police service was to act in cooperation with the police assistance brigades, fighter battalions, and troop units. As for the state automobile inspection, it directed its forces to ensure the mobilization of road transport for the needs of the fighting army. During the war, the tasks of protecting public order became much more complicated, helped by the growth in the number of evacuees and displaced persons, refugees, the emergence of such potentially criminal groups as deserters from the ranks of the regular army. In addition, the police had to identify those who evade mobilization, as well as sympathizing with the enemy. At the same time, the real possibilities of the police were reduced due to the dispatch to the front of a large number of the youngest and healthiest militiamen fit for combat service. By the way, at the front, police officers mobilized in the NKVD and the Red Army units showed the highest examples of courage and military skills. Many police officers were in the partisan detachments, served in intelligence units. Policemen participated in the battles for Moscow and Leningrad, in the defense of Odessa, Sevastopol, Kiev, Tula, Rostov-on-Don, and Stalingrad.
On June 24, 1941, a resolution was adopted by the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR on measures to combat parachute assault forces and saboteurs of the enemy in the frontline. In accordance with this decree, fighter battalions were created in the frontline areas, which were manned and operated under the leadership of the territorial internal affairs bodies. The most important task of such battalions was to counter enemy saboteurs and paratroopers, protect key industrial and communication facilities, and help protect public order. According to the data as of August 1, 1941, 1 fighter battalions were created, numbering 755 thousand people. More than 328 thousand workers were in fighter battalion assistance groups. At the very beginning of the war, a separate motorized rifle brigade for special purposes of the NKVD of the USSR (OMSBON) was formed from among the NKVD military personnel, police officers, and athletes, which turned into a key center for forming and sending reconnaissance and sabotage groups and detachments to the enemy rear. For four years of World War II, 300 detachments and groups, with a total number of 212 people, were sent to the rear. The OMSBON conducted 7316 military operations, destroying 1 Nazis, including 084 leaders and 137 agents of the Hitler special services. In the capital of the USSR, police patrolled the streets together with the outfits of the military commandant's office of the Moscow garrison, and on the main highways near Moscow, outposts were formed from the number of police officers who controlled all the entrances and exits from the capital. The personnel of the police in Moscow and the Moscow Region were transferred to the barracks position - to improve the performance of public policing. The militiamen made a great contribution to the defense of Moscow from enemy raids aviation. So, only on the night of July 21-22, 1941, 250 German planes took part in a raid on Moscow, but the coordinated actions of the Moscow air defense forces made it possible to practically repulse the attack of enemy aircraft and bring down 22 enemy aircraft.
For the defense of Moscow during the Nazi air raid, the USSR People's Commissar of Defense was commended to all the Moscow police personnel, and by special Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council on 30 July 1941, 49, the most distinguished police officers, operational officers and political workers of the internal affairs bodies were awarded orders and medals Police officers took part in ensuring public order during enemy air raids on other Soviet cities. Unfortunately, much less is known about the exploits of the Soviet police during the Great Patriotic War than about the exploits of the Red Army soldiers. Meanwhile, history knows many examples of enviable heroism shown by employees of the internal affairs agencies during the difficult years of the Great Patriotic War for the Soviet Union. Thus, it is well known about the feat of the defenders of the Brest Fortress, but very few people are aware of the participation of police officers in the defense of the Brest station itself.
Feat at the station "Brest"
During the onslaught of the Hitlerites, the head of the linear police station at the Brest station, Andrei Yakovlevich Vorobev, was able to quickly organize his subordinates to defend the station and oppose the enemy together with the 17 border detachment and the 60 railway regiment of the USSR NKVD. About the Vorobiev little is known. Andrei Yakovlevich was born in 1902 in the village of Sudenets in the Smolensk region, worked as a shepherd, and from 1923 he served in the special purpose division of the OGPU in Moscow. An ordinary peasant boy, who became a militia commander and hero of the Great Patriotic War. In 1938, he was transferred from the state security organs to the Workers 'and Peasants' Militia and, until 1939, served in Smolensk as Deputy Head of the Railway Militia. In 1939-1940 served as deputy police chief of Brest, and in 1940 he headed the linear police department at the Brest Central station. Militiamen fortified themselves on the western bridge and kept railway depots and warehouses under fire, which made it possible to stop the advance of the Nazis. The head of the department Vorobiev ordered to save ammunition and shoot only at the target, but when saving cartridges, the police fought off the enemy’s attack several times before they were forced to retreat to the station area. During the battles with the Hitlerites, police officers died: the policemen F. Statsyuk, A. Golovko, L. Zhuk, A. Pozdnyakov, the senior operative officer K. Trapeznikov. As a result of the shelling and bombardment of the station, a fire broke out, which allowed the Nazis to surround the station building. Militiamen went down to the basement and from there fired at the enemy, holding the defense for two days. On the third day, the Nazis were able to pour a barrel of gasoline into the basement of the station and set it on fire, after which the fire started.
- A.V. Sparrows
25 June 1941 Vorobiev headed by the surviving subordinates went on a breakthrough from Brest to the area of the town of Kobrin. During the breakthrough of the environment, most of the policemen died. Sam A.Ya. Sparrow tried to break through to his home to say goodbye to his wife and son, but at that moment he was captured by the Nazis and executed in early August on the banks of the r. Muhovec - not far from Brest. The son of Andrei Yakovlevich Vorobyov, Vadim Andreevich Vorobyev, recalls: “Under cover of smoke that stretched from burning buildings on Graevka, part of the station’s defenders managed to break through to Brest-Polessky station and then go to the forest. Some of them joined the Red Army. Militiamen Andrei Golovko, Pyotr Dovzhenyuk, Arseniy Klimuk tried to break through the window of the boiler room, where they threw coal on the Graevsky side. Failed, the Germans shot at them. Many died. Other military fate spared. And everyone with whom I spoke recalled the courage of my father. And now, after decades of peace, I think: the defense of the Brest Fortress is a feat known, popularly appreciated. But did the defenders of the station show less courage? Yes, they had thinner walls, and there were fewer of them themselves, and the defense time was not weeks, but days were measured, but the heroism of the Soviet man was manifested with the same heat ... ”(quoted in: Efimov V. True to duty. Narration about the heroic defense and courageous defenders of Brest Tsentralny railway station in June 1941).
Soviet police after the war
As the occupied territories were liberated and the Nazis were pushed back to the west, the Soviet militia had a lot of new work to do. It was necessary to identify hiding traitors and policemen who served the Nazis, to eliminate the numerous criminal gangs, to fight the anti-Soviet underground. Particularly difficult was the situation in the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSR, in the Baltic States. Here there were numerous and well-armed detachments of anti-Soviet rebels, who during the war years either collaborated with the Nazis or fought on two fronts - against the Nazi occupiers and against the Soviet government. The fight against such formations became one of the main tasks of the Soviet police, which they solved together with the military of the internal and border troops, the Red Army. The struggle against street and common criminality also demanded great effort. The complex operational situation demanded that the leadership of the Soviet law enforcement agencies further improve the activities of the external police services.
In March, the 1946 of the NKVD of the USSR was renamed the USSR Ministry of the Interior, and on 4 of October 1948, the new Charter of the police sentry service was put into effect, which further streamlined the police patrol service. The activities of units that carried outward service, submitted to a single plan. Permanent officers were assigned to the posts, and night patrols were strengthened by attracting not only the rank-and-file and non-commissioned officers of the police, but also officers and military personnel of the internal troops and the Red Army. In 1949, the police were reassigned to the USSR Ministry of State Security, which included the functions of criminal investigation, police service and the fight against theft of property. Only in March, the 1953 of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of State Security of the USSR were merged into the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs. Stalin's death and the arrest of L.P. Beria played a crucial role in the further reform of the internal affairs bodies of the USSR. A large-scale reduction was carried out - 12% of employees were fired from the bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, and the 1342 employee was arrested and put on trial, and 2370 employees received various administrative penalties. In 1954, the USSR State Security Committee was separated from the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, which was assigned state security functions, while public order protection remained with the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs. In January, 1960 was eliminated by the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, and its functions were transferred to republican ministries of public order (MEP). However, in 1968, the MOOP was renamed the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR was restored. 19 November 1968. The police were transformed into internal affairs agencies that performed the functions of: 1) police, 2) investigations, 3) fire protection, 4) private security, 5) inspection of corrective works. On the basis of the disbanded Main Police Department of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, the following were created: the Criminal Investigation Directorate, the Anti-Theft Control Administration of Socialist Property, etc., each of which was responsible for a specific area of law enforcement.
In 1969, the departments of administrative service of the militia were created as part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, and in 1976 they were reorganized into departments and departments of public order. 7 July 1972 was issued an Order of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, in accordance with which the Instruction on the service of special motorized police units was put into effect. The SMCM was a line unit that was part of the Internal Troops of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, but was operatively subordinate to the leadership of territorial internal affairs agencies while serving in the protection of public order. Recruitment of special motorized parts of the militia was carried out according to the type of the Internal Troops of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs: private and non-commissioned officers - recruits, officers - graduates of military schools of internal troops. 16 August 1973 issued an order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR "On the creation of joint divisions (motorized platoons) of the police in the city and district departments of internal affairs", in accordance with which night police units and external services were created, and where the number of police did not allow independent divisions, it was supposed to create them at the expense of divisions of private security. 20 July 1974 was adopted by the Charter of the police patrol service, approved by the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs and represents the main regulatory document governing the principles of activity and the legal status of the Soviet police patrol service. In order to improve the protection of public order in cities, towns and other localities on the territory of the Soviet Union, 2 August 1979 adopted a special resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the Council of Ministers, in accordance with which police patrol units were created in the field.
Operational regiments - battle reserve of the metropolitan police
In the capital of the country, in addition to the usual PPSP units, there are also operational police regiments. Their history goes back to the Equestrian Division of the Moscow Militia named after the Commissariat of Communications and CENTRAN created in the spring of 1918. The tasks of the equestrian police division included the protection of public order in the central part of the city and on its outskirts. The division was in charge of the protection of railways within and outside the city, fighting not only against bandits, but also against speculators. 1 April The 1922 Division was honored with a high award - the Honorary Red Banner, which at the People's Commissariat of Communications gave the command of the division itself the Cheka chairman of the Cheka. Dzerzhinsky. In 1930, the division was renamed the squadron and entered into operational subordination to the police officer on duty in Moscow, becoming the main operational unit of the Moscow police. By this time, political and equestrian training developed in the subdivision, they also began to master motorcycle training. The cavalry squadron took part in the protection of public order during the defense of Moscow during the Great Patriotic War. The squadron formed a special flying squad that became part of the division of General L.M. Dovatora and went to the front. During the war, the squadron was engaged in patrolling Moscow streets and guarding objects, and also put up anti-sabotage posts on Volokolamskoye Highway. In 1943, an entire cavalry regiment was formed as part of Dovator's division on the basis of the Flying squad. In the post-war period, a cavalry police regiment stationed in Moscow was engaged in protecting public order at public events and patrolling remote suburbs of Moscow. In 1947, the guard service on Red Square and at the VI Mausoleum was added to the regiment's task list. Lenin. In 1957, the regiment guarded the International Youth Festival in Moscow. Mid 1950's was marked by the disbandment of cavalry units and units in the ranks of the Soviet Army. At the same time, the cavalry units within the internal affairs bodies were also hit.
In 1959, the cavalry regiment of the militia was disbanded, and only one squadron of mounted police was left “on horseback”. The latter, however, showed itself very well when serving in the protection of public events. Thus, in 1961, the squadron guarded the order when the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin was honored, and in 1967, he participated in a parade in honor of the 50 anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution. By 1970. the squadron remained the only unit of the "militia cavalry". The division received all-Union and even world-wide fame, as its employees participated in ensuring the security of foreign delegations and international festivals. For example, in 1980, the squadron served for the maintenance of public order during the Moscow Olympics - 80. With the help of police cavalrymen, public order was restored during the funeral of Vladimir Semenovich Vysotsky, which was characterized by a large gathering of people and, as always happens in such cases, not always by the adequate behavior of the crowd. The foot patrols of the patrol and patrol service and the soldiers of the internal troops, who were summoned to the rescue, managed to fulfill the functions of restoring public order for half an hour.
In December, the cavalry division of 1980 was connected to the 4 front by foot and 1 automobile companies, with the result that the 4 regiment of the patrol and inspection service of the police of the Moscow City Executive Committee was formed. In 2001, already in modern Russia, an operational regiment of the militia was established on the basis of the 4 regiment of the patrol police, renamed 2002 in the operational regiment of the militia, and in 4 in the 2004. operative regiment of militia. In 1, after the police were renamed police, the 2011-th operational police regiment was reorganized into the 1-th operational police regiment of the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in Moscow. Currently, this police unit performs important tasks to ensure the protection of public order in the Russian capital, including at public events.
Another similar police unit in the internal affairs bodies of the Russian capital is the 2-th operational police regiment of the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for the city of Moscow. Its history began already in the post-war period - in 1957, when the leadership of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, in the face of reduced cavalry, decided to create an operational mechanized police regiment, whose officers were tasked with patrolling the streets of Moscow on motorcycles. In 1980, the operational mechanized regiment was transformed into the 1 th regiment of the patrol and patrol service of the police, then, in the same year, the 3 th regiment of the patrol and patrol service of the militia was created. In 1989, the 2 th regiment of the patrol and patrol service of the police was created. In post-Soviet Russia, due to the introduction of a multiparty system and a market economy, the number of public events, both political, entertainment and commercial, has dramatically increased. In this regard, considering that the main load of the daily patrol of Moscow streets was assumed by the regiments and battalions of the police patrol service established in the internal affairs departments of the capital’s administrative districts, the Moscow police department decided to redirect operational regiments to protect public order at public events . In 2004, on the basis of the 1, 2, and 3 regiments, the 2 operational militia regiment was created with more than 1000 police officers. The regiment became the operational reserve of the public security militia of the Central Internal Affairs Directorate in Moscow. According to the order of the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation in Moscow, in 2011, the 2 th operational police regiment was reorganized into the 2 th operational police regiment of the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Moscow. October 23 The 1987 of the year in Moscow, on the basis of a regiment of the patrol and patrol service, organized the first special-purpose police detachment, which selected the most physically and militarily trained police officers, as well as recruits from among the demobilized airborne troops, marines, border and internal troops, etc.
Over the past decades, the patrol service has become one of the most important components of the domestic law enforcement system. Currently, the police patrol service has a militarized structure and is divided into regiments, battalions, companies, platoons, and patrol and patrol units. Subdivisions can be both separate and included in larger subdivisions. Employees of junior, middle and senior commanders work in the patrol service, many police officers begin their work biography in the internal affairs bodies from the ranks of the patrol service, because it is believed that the teaching staff is the best school for young police officers. Police patrol officers every day detain a large number of criminals and offenders, seize prohibited items and substances from citizens. A significant number of patrol officers in 1990-e - 2010-e. took part in ensuring the protection of public order during the counter-terrorist operation in the North Caucasus and in other “hot spots”. However, the PPS employees have a “hot spot” - almost every service day, because at any moment they, coming on a call or stopping suspicious citizens, can engage in combat with criminals. About the police patrol, we can say that this is really a combat unit, located on the leading edge of the fight against crime. Despite the numerous problems faced by the modern Russian police, the ambiguous attitude of citizens and the media, these guys do their job, daily risking and dying in the line of duty.