The hero of Russia, Colonel Sergey Lysyuk stood at the origins of the special forces of the internal troops. It was he who formed the training company, later transformed into the Vityaz squadron. On the eve of the Special Forces Day of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, which is celebrated on August 29, Sergey Lysyuk spoke about his work "MIC".
- Sergey Ivanovich, where did you begin? история "Knights", who initiated the creation of the detachment?
- In the summer of 1977, the leadership of the USSR thought about the necessary security measures associated with the upcoming Olympics. Representatives of the government and the Interior Ministry traveled to Munich and Montreal to learn about the experience of organizing and conducting such sports events. Particularly discussed the tragic events of 1972, which occurred at the Munich Olympics.
“After that, the GSG 9 Rapid Response Group (Grenzschutzgruppe 9 - 9 Border Protection Group. -“ MIC ”) was created in Germany to fight terror.
- Yes. We were also going to form something similar. In December, the 1977-th MIA decides to create an analogue of the Finnish special forces group “Medved”. So the first platoon appeared. In the summer of 1978, demonstration classes were held for the Minister of the Interior and a little later for the organizing committee of the Olympiad 80. After that, they began to call us a special-purpose training company or URSN. This was done in order to emphasize the elitism of the unit and increase the wages of officers. So, our platoon commander became a rank a step higher - a captain, and a company commander a major. Respectively increased and responsibility. The two-thirds unit consisted of soldiers who served for a year.
- How was life URSN after the Olympics?
- 1988 has come the year and ethnic conflicts erupted throughout the country. Our unit began to go hot spots in order to maintain the constitutional system and the integrity of the USSR. In 1989, other special forces companies appeared in the Kiev, Tbilisi, Minsk, Lviv operational regiments of the internal troops, as well as in the Sofrinsky and Kalachevsky brigades. In connection with the up-and-coming situation in hot spots, it is decided to create a battalion on the basis of our company. Following the example of Western special forces, we wanted to have our own name. I came across the book “George the Victorious - the legendary hero”. And we with our officers decided to become "knights". In our example, other special forces also began to appropriate names for themselves.
- How much has the combat use of the Vityaz changed over time?
- In addition to the initial tasks of ensuring the security of the Olympic Games, the unit was preparing to combat particularly audacious criminal manifestations - to detain armed bandits, to stop riots. With the rise of the insurgency in the Caucasus, the war in Chechnya, the Vityaz began to be involved in special operations to eliminate illegal armed groups.
- Who can become a "Vityaz" fighter and how is the selection of soldiers and officers in the squad?
- First, a significant role is played by desire, high motivation, and secondly, excellent physical training, and thirdly, the presence of a pure autobiography, without a criminal past. Officers come to us after the military school both immediately after graduation and during service, but only after a special selection, which includes physical and intellectual testing.
- The most memorable special operation under your command, tell us about it.
- The release of hostages in the detention center in Sukhumi. This is our first joint operation with Group A of the KGB of the USSR. In the temporary detention center about a hundred people were captured. “Vityazi” stormed three floors, where the criminals were, group “A” - a minibus, in which there were terrorists and hostages. I was the developer of this operation and commanded one of the assault capture groups.
- What is the role of special forces of internal troops in modern military operations?
- She is huge. In the combined military groupings, special forces of the internal troops, the Ministry of the Interior, and the Ministry of Defense are used simultaneously. Actions are planned by the joint headquarters. The role of the special forces of the internal troops is to do point work to eliminate the enemy’s gangs, as well as to conduct special operations to detain or eliminate the criminal in forests, residential buildings or in populated areas.
- What is the difference between the “Vityaz”, say, from the “Alpha”, because both special forces have an antiterror task?
- Management "A" was created specifically to combat terrorism. The special forces unit of the internal troops has a wider range of tasks: not only anti-terror, but also the destruction of illegal armed formations, the fight against criminals.
- Among the 18 squads and several dozen mouths of the SPN BB "Vityaz" holds deserved primacy. What allows him to do it?
- First of all, the military and military traditions laid down in the system of training fighters. Secondly, wider and tougher selection possibilities. Thirdly, the deployment of units near the capital, which increases the motivation for the service. We recruit people all over Russia, and if a fighter is really strongly motivated, he will achieve his goal and get to us.
- Describe the fighter squad.
- We raised people so that they were capable of a heroic act at any moment. They did not simply form a high motivation to accomplish the feat, but also ideologically prepared them for the performance of combat tasks of increased complexity, for service in a special unit. Any Vityaz fighter is a hero or a potential hero. All squad fighting is a feat. Our people have always shown initiative, dedication, courage and heroism. For example, during a special operation in Pervomaisky Nikishin, Alexander Nikolaevich and Kublin Oleg Vasilyevich received the title “Hero of Russia”. During the assault, they reached the middle of the village, risked their lives.
- Does Vityaz cooperate during antiterrorist activities with colleagues from abroad?
- There is cooperation with other countries. There was a fairly wide exchange of experience with the relevant units of Austria, the PRC, the French GIGN (Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale - National Gendarmerie Intervention Group. - “MIC”). The Austrians were the first to show how the anti-terror groups work. The Chinese have demonstrated a unique method of assault on high-rise buildings, they have built a whole block to test such techniques. The French shared the art of sniper action groups. We collected experience bit by bit wherever we went.
- Do you consider yourself a more anti-terrorist or counter-partisan division?
- We combine those and other methods of warfare. It all depends on the task. Vityaz took part in the anti-terrorist operation at Dubrovka, and in Chechnya fought against illegal military formations.
- Tell us about the most famous anti-terrorist operation "Vityaz".
- One of our very first operations is the release of hostages in the cities of Kizil and Lesnoy. In 32 hours, we successfully carried out two operations, eliminated the enemy and rescued civilians.
- your favorite weapon?
- “Glock-17”, a special forces weapon, has remarkably proven itself in special operations. Until recently - MP-5 Heckler and Koch.
- What is the best weapon for the special forces of internal troops?
- Each special forces must have a gun, for us it is practically a part of the body. The choice of the main weapon depends on the type of terrain where the fighter works. In an urban setting perfect submachine gun. If the battle is on open or rugged terrain, as well as in mountainous areas, then the machine gun. In general, the issue with the selection of weapons for special operations is badly solved. In addition, a certain set of ammunition is needed. To work indoors you need low-power ammunition that eliminates ricochets. In open areas, conventional ammunition with simplified cores is required.
- What is the role of a pistol in anti-terrorist operations?
- A pistol is needed in order to use it in case of a delay in a machine gun or a submachine gun. His role is rather auxiliary. It all depends on the intensity of the operation. At low need a submachine gun. If criminals are armed with automatic weapons and hold hostages, then the special forces must have automatic weapons.
- How is the situation with snipers in “Vityaz”?
- This is a leading military specialty, high-precision scalpel in the hands of the surgeon-commander in charge of the special operation. Our snipers are professionals who are ready to complete the task at a high level. This unit is especially important in a high-intensity battle, when terrorists, having captured a populated area, hide behind hostages. And in a low-intensity battle confrontation, a sniper who destroyed a terrorist’s stated demands puts an end to a special operation.
- Terrorists often use mines. How does Vityaz solve this problem?
- “Knights” prepared comprehensively. The special purpose bomb carrier conducts work in the interests of the special operation: it makes passages, distracting explosions, and so on. Mine clearance is another area in which sappers and bombers are engaged. You can not prepare one person and as an attack aircraft, and as a specialist in mine clearance. Two thirds of the losses of the Vityaz during special operations in the forests are from mines and explosive devices.
- How did the idea of taking the exam on the mario is born? And what does it look like?
- The idea came to me after reading the book Alpha Team, devoted to American special forces. I shared my thoughts with my companions and in 1988, we officially began taking exams for the right to receive our own distinctive mark - the maroon beret. Prior to that, we did it informally as control and test classes. To avoid incidents, the fighter is tested before handing over, checking his readiness for testing. On admission, some people are eliminated. Then everything goes in several stages. The first is a motocross training, a fighter runs in defense (body armor, helmet-sphere and machine gun) for a distance of 12 kilometers. Then - overcoming the fiery assault strip. Prior to that, the readiness of a weapon for combat and its safety by a fighter during a cross-country race is assessed, a control shot is made. The third stage - high-altitude training. Fourth - acrobatic test. And finally, the last - hand-to-hand combat. After a successful passage of a group of fighters from all five stages, the council of officers and ensigns - owners of the spotted berets, instructors is assembled and each participant is evaluated.
- How did your vest come to the special forces of the internal troops?
- We appealed to the command with a request to make a vest on the model of paratroopers, but its color. So, in 1995, we got a mottled vest. Stripped vest - a symbol of courage and heroism of sailors, paratroopers and special forces.
- “Vityaz” was at first a detachment, then became a regiment. Has this integration had a positive effect on the preparation and conduct of operations?
- In my opinion, it was not the right decision. A small number determined the uniqueness of the detachment, guaranteed more effective individual work with each fighter. Enlargement led to a massive approach to the formation, which is bad and harmful for the special forces.
- Now "Vityaz" has become a special purpose center. What would you like to improve?
- The decision to turn the Vityaz into the CPS was made at a high administrative level. The center was formed at two bases - the disbanded 7 of the Special Forces “Rus” and “Vityaz” detachments. As for the improvement, then it is above all appropriate to recall the following expression: “Special Forces without action will rust like iron”. And for everyday life, new developments, approaches and techniques are needed. I would like to get more advanced weapons and ammunition for training.
- What can you wish the special forces in connection with their professional holiday?
- To how many fighters left for the operation, so many returned. And, of course, health, good luck, success.
Interviewed by Timur Akhmetov
Cutting for the beret
On the basis of the non-state educational institution “Special Training Center“ Vityaz ”, located in Balashikha district, an examination was organized by the Central Council of Krap Berets of Veterans of Special Forces for the right to wear the symbol of valor and courage of the special forces of internal troops.
The unusual thing about the event was that it was not the active servicemen who were allowed to surrender, but those who, after serving and retiring to the reserve, could not become owners of the prestigious headdress for various reasons.
The desire to earn a maroon beret expressed almost a hundred people. Most of them have families, a prestigious job, a decent income and decent social status. Among those who want to be numbered among the elite of the explosives (other benefits, the krapovoi does not give) are strong guys up to 40 years from Transbaikalia and from the North Caucasus, the Volga region and the Urals, from the Polar Region and Pomerania, Belarus and, of course, from Moscow and St. Petersburg. How many warm, fraternal meetings, strong male embraces were there, after all, fellow soldiers who had eaten together not one pood of army salt met, some met for the first time after a couple of decades.
Less than half of the applicants were admitted to the exam. Only 44 people selected strict commissions - special and medical. The competition took place in several stages: 12-kilometer-long march with a weapon, in a bullet-proof vest and a helmet-sphere, an obstacle course, fire exercises and, finally, 12-minute sparring in direct contact using the 3 XX4 formula. As a result of these tests, when the air temperature reached + 28 degrees Celsius, only five people became owners of the symbol of valor and courage by decision of the principle jury. This is the real price of a krapovo beret, not exhibited in the store.