Military Review

September 2 - Russian Guard Day

36
September 2 celebrates the Day of the Russian Guard in our country. This military holiday is very young - it appeared in the calendar on the basis of a presidential decree of December 22 of 2000 of the year. Presidential Decree No. 2032 (22.12.2000) is appropriately named: “On the Establishment of the Day of the Russian Guard”. The decree reads:


In order to revive and develop domestic military traditions, increase the prestige of military service, and in connection with the 300 anniversary anniversary of the Russian Guard, I decree:
1. Set a memorable day - Russian Guard Day and celebrate it on September 2.
2. This Decree comes into force from the date of its signing.


September 2 - Russian Guard Day


The person who introduced the word “guard” to the Russian military terminology in relation to domestic formed units was Peter the First. An interesting fact is that the Russian Imperial Guard has actually grown out of the so-called Petrovsky "amusing" troops. In other words, the “amusing” army of Peter, which was involved in the game battle scenes, became the prototype of the future guard — units already clearly distant from the so-called “amusement.”

Historiography has preserved the name of the first guards at the royal court. This is Sergey Bukhvostov. In the 1683 year, Bukhvostov, who, according to some sources, was a groom, and on the other, a court servant, expressed a desire to serve in the emerging Transfiguration Regiment. Young Peter, who later called Bukhvostova "the first Russian soldier," ordered a volunteer to be sent to a bombing company for the position of "amusing gunner."



Sergei Bukhvostov survived his emperor for three years, and during his service the sovereign managed to take part in numerous battles, including the Azov campaign, the Battle of Poltava, and the battle for Szczecin. During the Northern War, Bukhvostov received a military post, according to which he was to carry out the direct protection of the sovereign during campaigns and battles. He served as a man, who is considered to be the first Russian guard, to the rank of captain of the guard. A remarkable fact is that even during the life of Sergei Bukhvostov, Peter I himself commanded to create a bronze bust of the “first Russian soldier”. But it is a great honor to be honored with such a high appreciation of his service by the Emperor of All-Russia himself.

That sculpture has not reached our times, but in 2005, in Moscow, a new monument to Sergei Bukhvostov was opened on Preobrazhenskaya Square in Moscow - already, as they say, in full growth. The sculptor is Vyacheslav Klykov (USSR State Prize laureate, 1982).

The Imperial Guard, created by Peter I, survived through numerous reforms, including the creation of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army in 1918. During these long years of its stories The guards formations of the Russian army were involved not only in the events of numerous palace intrigues and coups (for example, the ascension to the throne of Empress Catherine II), but also directly in combat operations.

Recruitment Guards units under Peter I was conducted mainly from the subjects of the nobility. However, due to losses in the course of numerous military campaigns, attitudes toward recruiting guardsmen had to be changed. At the same time, preference was given to those servicemen who, during the years of service on recruitment duty, had time to show their best.

There existed under the Romanovs and the practice of enrolling noble children into the guard from the moment of their birth. At the same time, children with age were assigned “next” titles, and by the 16-17 years a noble son, based on his officer rank, could de jure command a platoon or company. However, in reality, such young men, who did not have the necessary military experience, were extremely rarely allowed to the real command of units during military campaigns, since the truly experienced guards (and not only the guards) were well aware that ambitions (if not to say - arrogance) young "officers" were not the best help in military affairs.

The emperor Paul I made an attempt to carry out a large-scale reform of the Guards formations. According to him, it was necessary to “separate from the army” those officers who are ranked in the Guards only formally, and at the same time allow themselves (for months) to not appear in the units. This decision of Paul I in the nobility environment was greeted very negatively. Moreover, the emperor Paul introduced a system of punishments (including corporal) for nobles who did not execute military orders or took service in the guard units for a banal formality. Some historians believe that these "encroachments" on the nobility by Paul I were one of the reasons for the conspiracy against the emperor.

Despite the fact that Pavel did not actually have time to carry out a full-fledged reform, the Guards' environment nevertheless underwent significant changes. One of the most important changes is the active involvement of representatives of the lower classes in the guard service. Under Emperor Alexander I, the Guards battalions (and later the regiments) appeared, completely formed from specific peasants. Thus, in 1806, a battalion of the imperial militia was formed in Russia, in which the peasants of the northwestern territorial units of the empire served. And after some time, the ranks of the Guards began to be assigned to units and formations, whose representatives showed themselves exclusively from the best side during a particular military campaign.

A special status had Guards units that carried out the protection of the monarch directly. In 1811, Russia formed its own Imperial Majesty Convoy, which initially consisted primarily of the Cossacks of the Kuban and Terek Cossack troops. It was a truly multinational compound in which not only Russians (Cossacks) served the emperor, but also representatives of the Georgian, Crimean-Tatar, Circassian and other peoples. The initial armament of the formation was sabers of various types, long-barreled guns and pistols “in the Turkish manner with steel frames”.


Cossacks Own His Imperial Majesty Convoy


The first commander of the Imperial Convoy was appointed Athanasius Bursak, who later showed himself in the raid of Ataman Platov, the battle of Maloyaroslavets, foreign campaigns of the Russian army. Emperor Alexander I Athanasius Bursak was awarded a gold medal for courage and courage weapons and numerous orders.

The name and the last commander of the Imperial convoy is known. This is a Cossack Georgy Rashpil, a native of the stanitsa of the Georgiy-Afipsky Kuban Cossack Army. Georgy Raspil's life was cut short on 31 March 1918 of the year in the battle of Yekaterinodar (now Krasnodar) - at a time when neither the Russian Empire, nor the emperor, or the Convoy, existed.



After a sufficiently long period of oblivion about such a term as the Guard, in the USSR it was nevertheless decided to return it “to the ranks”. This significant event took place from the point of view of the entire military history of the country on the 18 event of September 1941. Then, by decision of the Supreme Command Headquarters, an order of the People’s Commissar of Defense (Pr. No. 308), four rifle divisions — the hundredth, 127, 153, and 161 — were assigned to honorary names "Guards". These divisions were renamed 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Thus, the idea itself was revived of conferring the honorary names of guards divisions and formations, the soldiers of which showed courage and heroism.

For the Great Patriotic War, 17 armies, including 6 tank, 40 rifle, 9 mechanized, 14 aviation, 7 cavalry corps and dozens of military units, received Guards status.



As already noted, in 2000, by order of the President of the Russian Federation, the national guard had its own holiday. With this holiday "Military Review" today congratulates all the Russian (Soviet) guards!
Photos used:
u-96.livejournal.com, Wikipedia
36 comments
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  1. svp67
    svp67 2 September 2015 05: 26 New
    +16
    The holiday uniting three lines of the history of my Fatherland (RI, USSR and RF) - good
    Vivat GUARD !!!
    1. domokl
      domokl 2 September 2015 09: 33 New
      +15
      I keep the guards badge next to the awards and consider it a reward as well. All guards on a holiday!
  2. Andrey Yuryevich
    Andrey Yuryevich 2 September 2015 05: 50 New
    +23
    all rightfully carrying and storing such a Sign-Happy Holiday! drinks soldier
    1. Drmadfisher
      Drmadfisher 2 September 2015 08: 12 New
      +6
      I am far from GUARDIAN, but, WITH HOLIDAY, MUSIC !!!!! soldier
    2. SANAY
      SANAY 2 September 2015 13: 19 New
      +2
      Happy holiday, boys! Long live the Seventh Guards Rezhitskaya Red Banner Division! Hooray, comrades!
    3. RUSS
      RUSS 2 September 2015 13: 28 New
      +2
      Quote: Andrew Y.
      all rightfully carrying and storing such a Sign-Happy Holiday! drinks soldier

      And what does the modern sign of the Guard look like now?
      1. Egevich
        Egevich 2 September 2015 14: 45 New
        +3
        Quote: RUSS
        Quote: Andrew Y.
        all rightfully carrying and storing such a Sign-Happy Holiday! drinks soldier

        And what does the modern sign of the Guard look like now?

        as well as before ... the new one with a three-color flag did not take root ...
  3. svu93
    svu93 2 September 2015 05: 50 New
    +12
    Comrades guardsmen, happy holiday !!! soldier

    Informative article, refreshed knowledge!
  4. Name
    Name 2 September 2015 05: 53 New
    +7
    Welcome all!
    Guards, walk boldly
    Thunderstorms and a flurry of nothing to you!
    Obstacles easily overpowered
    A fit of soul and a blade.
    The name entered in the story,
    The bold look is no longer melting
    And they brought up a shift for themselves:
    My fatherland is calm!
    soldier drinks
  5. Shiva83483
    Shiva83483 2 September 2015 06: 18 New
    +13
    Well, thank God ... How much can you scoff at YOUR story? Good or bad, But .... she is ours !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1 drinks
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 2 September 2015 10: 20 New
      +3
      A good story is encouraging, a bad one teaches. And yes, she is ours, our story.
  6. parusnik
    parusnik 2 September 2015 06: 35 New
    +11
    soldier Happy Guards! Vivat! drinks
  7. alex67
    alex67 2 September 2015 07: 31 New
    +9
    soldier Guards, happy holiday!
    Peace, health and happiness to all! love drinks
  8. Million
    Million 2 September 2015 08: 13 New
    +2
    The icon is beautiful!
  9. Amurets
    Amurets 2 September 2015 08: 13 New
    +1
    Happy holiday! GUARD! And I want that on your sign was the name of the First Guardsman Sergei Bukhvostov, or his portrait.
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 2 September 2015 10: 22 New
      +2
      And this will do, the main badge of the guardsman is his faith in the homeland.
  10. aszzz888
    aszzz888 2 September 2015 08: 25 New
    +2
    I will not be the original, so I congratulate the guards on their holiday!
    Great is the power of soldiers, and the guardsmen have always been considered the best of them!
  11. Vladimir1960
    Vladimir1960 2 September 2015 08: 43 New
    +4
    He began his service in 1 company, 1 guards regiment, 1 guards. divisions (100th). I remember proud. All Guards on the Holiday!
  12. nimboris
    nimboris 2 September 2015 08: 46 New
    +3
    Guard with a holiday. I am a frontier. There are no guards in the border troops, since they themselves are "guards", even in English the border guards are designated as Border Guard, the border guard or border guard is literally translated. soldier
    1. Laksamana besar
      Laksamana besar 2 September 2015 09: 28 New
      +1
      The document was, but it remained on paper under the table, unfortunately:
      PEOPLE'S COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS
      UNION SSR
      Comrade BERIA L.P.

      In battles for our Soviet Motherland against the German invaders 23, twice the Red Banner NKVD border regiment showed examples of courage, courage, discipline and organization.
      Waging continuous battles with the German invaders, the regiment inflicted heavy losses on the fascist troops.
      30.1.43 g. Units of the regiment were the first to break into the city of Maykop.
      For the courage shown in the battles for the Fatherland with the German invaders, for perseverance, courage, discipline and organization, for the heroism of the personnel I petition for the conversion of the 23 twice Red Banner NKVD Border Regiment into the 1 GUARDS BORDER REGIONAL REGION.

      DEPUTY PEOPLE'S COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS
      UNION SSR
      GENERAL LIEUTENANT
      (APOLLONS)

      "__" February 1943

      RGVA f. 32880, d. 465

      And also in the period from 1950 to 1964. were:
      Guards Naval flag of the ships (boats) of the border troops of the USSR Ministry of State Security
      both were canceled due to the lack of Guard ships in the border troops.

      Congratulations to all the Guards on a holiday!
      1. Aleksandr72
        Aleksandr72 2 September 2015 11: 40 New
        +2
        I have information on the 601th regiment of the NKVD troops during the Great Patriotic War: rifle, motorized rifle, cavalry, escort, railway, even construction and training. Many of them were awarded the Orders of the Fighting Red Banner and Red Star, other government awards, received honorary titles. But not one wore the title of guard.
        In the history of the USSR there was not a single case of the assignment of a guard rank to units of the internal and border troops of the NKVD. This phenomenon has the following explanation: I.V. Stalin, the NKVD troops respected and trusted them much more than the "usual" Red Army formations. Once he rejected the offer to provide guard regalia to some parts of the NKVD, noting: "We have security officers and so are the guardsmen." Soldiers in cornflower and green caps during World War II often performed another truly guards mission - the role of the last reserve. Without heavy weapons, but strong in strict discipline and special traditions, the NKVD regiments and divisions closed the front line breakthroughs and stood to their deaths, never once retreating without orders and capitulating to the enemy. The poet Mikhail Vladimov wrote about this:
        Where the front line was shredded
        Towards deadly misfortune
        Supreme Headquarters threw
        NKVD divisions.
        The enemy knew that the Chekists were fighting,
        Without requiring changes and replacements,
        And they never surrender
        Considering the betrayal of captivity ...
        And this status - the status of the elite, the NKVD troops fully justified. I speak like a former border guard.
        All the guardsmen - happy holiday!
        1. The comment was deleted.
    2. creak
      creak 2 September 2015 10: 27 New
      +1
      Quote: nimboris
      even in English, border guards are designated as Border Guard literally translated border guard or border guard


      With all respect to the border troops, I would like to note that in this case you are mistaken ...
      In English, the word Guard has many meanings (guard, sentry, etc.) and the guard is only one of them and is always used only in the plural, for example, Royal Guards - the royal guard.
      Accordingly, the Coast Guard, like Border Guard, respectively, means the Coast Guard and Border Guard, and not the Guard ...
      PSBy the way, the ships of the coast guard of the FSB of the Russian Federation in English are designated as Coast Guard.
  13. Colonel
    Colonel 2 September 2015 08: 56 New
    +6
    Happy Holiday, Guard. ! 8 years of life and service under this Banner. 54th Guards, Order of Kutuzov II degree, Strategic Missile Forces division.
    1. veksha50
      veksha50 2 September 2015 12: 03 New
      +2
      Quote: colonel
      54th Guards, Order of Kutuzov II degree, Strategic Missile Forces division.



      Well, from the 10th Guards, Red Banner, Order of the Suvorov Division of the Strategic Missile Forces - with a holiday!

      PS They were neighbors, however ... and practically rearmed at the same time ...
      1. Colonel
        Colonel 2 September 2015 16: 03 New
        +1
        Quote: veksha50
        The neighbors were

        Neighbor, with respect ...
        1. veksha50
          veksha50 2 September 2015 19: 17 New
          +1
          Quote: colonel
          Neighbor, with respect ...



          Thank you so much ... And you also have great respect ... Especially since the Teyk people are continuing their glorious deeds, and we, unfortunately, have been controlled for the sake of amers ...

          PS Maybe, how “Barguzin” will start to bring to condition, and the 10th Guards will be revived ???
          I hope ...
  14. vadimalehin76
    vadimalehin76 2 September 2015 09: 15 New
    +4
    Happy Holiday Guardsmen. Dear! drinks soldier
  15. Kuzyakin15
    Kuzyakin15 2 September 2015 10: 09 New
    +5
    Quote: Andrew Y.
    all rightfully carrying and storing such a Sign-Happy Holiday! drinks soldier

    Thank you!
    20 Zvenigorod Guards Tank. div
    8gv. tank. regiment.
  16. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 2 September 2015 10: 16 New
    +2
    Happy holiday to me) Honestly, I did not know about such a holiday, all the comrades of the guards on the holiday!
  17. Baron Wrangell
    Baron Wrangell 2 September 2015 10: 37 New
    +2
    Happy Holidays!
    And me too- 52Guard SME!
  18. veksha50
    veksha50 2 September 2015 11: 27 New
    +4
    In addition to all the guards, I personally congratulate the guards - veterans of the 10th missile division, which, unfortunately, no longer exists ...

    Happy Holidays !!!

    PS Now I’ll climb, I will get both awards and a guards badge, and I will drink for the guard ...
  19. Sergey Vladimirovich
    Sergey Vladimirovich 2 September 2015 11: 46 New
    +1
    Happy Holiday! Guardsmen! (39th Glukhovskaya, Orders of Kutuzov, Suvorov and Bogdan
    Khmelnitsky Guards Division Strategic Missile Forces. 428th Zvenigorod Guards Missile Regiment. 33rd RA) All the best to you, men drinks
  20. 406ppm2gv
    406ppm2gv 2 September 2015 14: 08 New
    +1
    I am proud that I served an urgent term, after Kovrov training, in the 406 msec of the 2nd Guards Taman Division. I like that the tank biathlon takes place at the Tamanka training ground, although the Kantemirovka training ground borders on Tamanka.
  21. Sanya Terek
    Sanya Terek 2 September 2015 15: 46 New
    +1
    Happy holiday, GUARD !!! (42th Guards Evpatoria Red Banner Motor Rifle Division)
  22. Asadullah
    Asadullah 2 September 2015 19: 13 New
    +1
    56 OGDSHB drinks Soon we will not be sober up with these holidays, I get them six a year, only military ones. laughing
  23. RoadRunner
    RoadRunner 2 September 2015 23: 18 New
    0
    Here it means how - but I didn’t even know ...
    Happy Holidays! drinks
    138th Separate Guards SME soldier
  24. mamont5
    mamont5 3 September 2015 16: 38 New
    0
    Happy Holidays, Russian Guard! soldier
  25. USSR M989390
    USSR M989390 3 September 2015 16: 49 New
    0
    "Dear friends, comrade guardsmen! Congratulations to all veterans of the 19th Guards, Red Banner Budapest-Nikolaev Panzer Division, UGV, Esztergom, from the guardsmen of the 37th Red Banner Brest Tank Regiment - the city of Tsegled." Congratulations from my father, Mukanov S.K., Kazakhstan