Military Review

And turtles can fly: Does the Iranian Kurds have a future?

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And turtles can fly: Does the Iranian Kurds have a future?



“And turtles know how to fly” is the name of the film of the same name by the Iranian director of the Kurdish origin Bachman Gobadi, who won the Berlin Film Festival award. The film is about Kurdish children abandoned to their fate, whose childhood will be remembered only by the tragedies of the Kurds and the terror of the Middle East. However, it is not a question of Kurdish cinema, but of Iranian Kurds and their political position in Iran.

In modern realities, the problem of the Kurdish issue is acute not only in the territory of Ethnic Kurdistan, but also in the format of the entire Middle East. The Kurds of Iraq and Syria over the past decade have become active regional players, and the Turkish Kurds have declared themselves primarily the activities of the PKK (Kurdistan Workers' Party). However, one of the parts of the quartered "Kurdish country" remains little researched by experts and poorly reflected in the media. What is the situation with the Kurds in Iran?

To begin with, the ethno-confessional structure of the republic will be considered. It is heterogeneous, Iran is the 16-st country in the world for the diversity of ethnic groups and languages. Persians make up about half of the country's population (51% -65%), Azeris (16-25%), Kurds (7%, for comparison, in Syria Kurds 8%), Lurs (7%) and others. Also in the composition are numerous ethnic and tribal groups (Assyrians, Armenians, Jews, Circassians, Georgians, mazenderantsy). Iran’s state religion is Shiite Islam, which is practiced by 89% of the population, 9% is Sunni, and 2% is Christian and Zoroastrian. Iran has the largest Jewish community in the Middle East outside of Israel.

Given the heterogeneity of the ethno-confessional composition, the state national policy is of significant importance. Before the Islamic revolution in Iran, the policy of the Iranian elites was based on the principle of “united Iranian people”, whose goal is to prevent separatist sentiments and preserve the territorial integrity of the country. Then there were changes in the Constitution of Iran: the term "united people" was replaced by a combination of "religious unity." From now on, Iran recognizes not only Shiite Islam, but also 12 monotheistic trends of Islam and other religions. At the same time, the fundamentals of national politics have remained unchanged since the adoption of the Constitution during the Qajar dynasty (Qâjâriyân, 1795-1975) - the Shiites rule.

Thus, the ethnic and state interaction in Iran is complicated by the following factors as ethnoconfesional diversity, diversity of languages ​​and dialects (in Kurdish, Persian and Azeri-Turkic), national policy in the context of “Persian supremacy”, and also features of the country's administrative division (Islamic Republic is divided Ostany (provinces), including religious, linguistic, national characteristics. Such a device plays a significant role in the process of integrating minorities into nsky people. "If in some ethnic minority Stop is 10-15% of the provincial population, the situation may well lead to a destabilization of the region.

The policy of “personalization” of minorities was largely the subject of Kurds (the third largest after ethnic Persians and Azerbaijanis). History remembers Kurdish activity in Iran. It was in Iran, Kazi Mohammed, that the sovereign country of the Kurds, the Mehabad Republic, was first created. She declared independence in January 1946 and was liquidated from outside in December of that year. Almost a year of independence and state self-determination, which the Kurds could not repeat. "Bye" failed.

Further, a comparative analysis of the Kurdish situation in Iran with the neighboring (pre-war) Syrian Republic and the identification of similarities, the results of which can be understood - that in the future can generate the Kurdish movement in the Islamic Republic.

I. Almost equal number of the Kurdish population in the country (7% of Kurds in Iran, 8% - in Syria).

Ii. The complex ethno-confessional composition of the population of the two countries. Syria is identical to motley: it is Arabs (86%), and Kurds (8%), and Armenians (2,7%); confessional structure is represented by Islamic and Christian groups, with a set of trends and trends.

Iii. The significant oppression of the Kurdish minority among other groups in the country. I.A. Chayko, a researcher at the Institute of International Studies at MGIMO (U) of the Russian Foreign Ministry, writes: “Syrian Kurds are one of the main and at the same time most oppressed national minorities in legal and cultural terms. For the Kurds, the most significant, compared with a religious or tribal, is their national identity. The rallying factor is the task of ensuring their rights and freedoms in Syrian society. ” Identical position and the Iranian Kurds. Among ethnic minorities of Iran, Kurds are most susceptible to inter-ethnic conflicts, described in detail Lana Ravandi-Fadai, Ph.D., Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS: “They live in a very small area, they have a poorly developed economy, few educational and medical institutions. The Kurds, unlike the Iranian Azerbaijanis, are experiencing political isolation, their presence in the political elite of Iran is very small. They are greatly influenced by the situation with the Kurds in northern Iraq and southern Syria. ”

Iv. Neighborhood with Iraqi Kurdistan has a great influence on Syrian and Iranian Kurds. Iranian Kurds are localized in the province of Kurdistan (western Iran), as well as in the remains of Western Azerbaijan, Ilam and Kermanshah. These islands are adjacent to each other and border with Iraqi Kurdistan.

V. Single possible prerequisite for war. One of the reasons for the war in Syria is the ethno-confessional conflict. The publication Israel Opinion believes that the ethnic war in Iran is only a matter of time. Indeed, Iran is “famous” for ethno-confessional conflicts: Iranian Azeris want to annex Azerbaijan to the republic of the same name, Kurds to turn Kurdistan’s province into autonomy Iranian Kurdistan, Baluchs want to join Pakistan, Arabs want to create their own independent state (Arab, Ahvaz or Persian Khuzestan) .

Based on the above-considered features of the Kurdish situation in Iran and the similarities with the Syrian Republic, it is possible to make a comprehensive result - what favors and what hinders the Kurdish movement in Iran.

First of all, the geographical proximity to Iraqi Kurdistan. With a possible escalation, Iranian Kurds will receive both militarized support and additional human resources. In addition, the general ideology of the fight against ISIS will become a rallying factor, as we know: people united by a common oriented goal will achieve far more significant results. The intensifying Turkish Kurdish movement (shaky peace agreements between Turkey and the Kurds have been thwarted) will provide additional support for the Iranian Kurds, and tensions between the Turkish and Iranian leaders will be another factor leading to a potential escalation of the Kurdish national movement in Iran.

Of course, there are obstacles. Firstly, according to Stanislav Tarasov, Tehran’s support of the Assad regime in Syria and the Shiite government in Iraq allows it to restrain the Kurdish potential for public education. Secondly, the bombing by Turkey of the border areas of Iraq, Iran and Syria under the “aegis of the struggle” against ISIL, which are mainly populated by Kurds, will lead to possible losses of the Kurdish population. Thirdly, the national policy of Iran, which often runs counter to the actual situation, was created with the aim of obstructing all separatism. In addition, the Iranian leadership is probably referring to the situation with the Kurdish movement in Iraq, Syria and Turkey, and will take the necessary measures, up to tightening the national policy.

For the first time, the Kurdish sovereign statehood originated in Iran. Given the national policy of Iran, it will, of course, be difficult to repeat. At the same time, Iranian Kurds, armed with the support of their neighbors brothers, given the difficult ethnic situation in the country and the conflicting regional environment, could well claim at least the economic development of their regions, mostly populated by Kurds, and at best the autonomy of these same regions. It is important unity, the trouble of the Kurds - their disunity. And then even turtles will learn to fly.
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  1. Wolka
    Wolka 1 September 2015 05: 52 New
    +2
    good review, author plus ...
    1. anokem
      anokem 1 September 2015 07: 34 New
      0
      There is no more unhappy people in the Middle East than the Kurds, who rely on their state .. But the world community does not care, its main concern is to create a terrorist enclave for a non-existent people called "Palestinians"
      1. 6 inches
        6 inches 1 September 2015 08: 16 New
        0
        read carefully UN resolution number 181 ....
        1. baltika-18
          baltika-18 1 September 2015 09: 49 New
          +4
          Quote: anokem
          There is no more unhappy people in the Middle East than the Kurds, who rely on their state .. But the world community does not care, its main concern is to create a terrorist enclave for a non-existent people called "Palestinians"

          And why do you think that the Palestinians are a non-existent people? After all, there is a group of people identifying themselves as Palestinians and we have to reckon with this. And as for the Kurds, then here really, they can have a future only in one case. If the powerful of this world they will want to. And if they are needed in someone else’s game, to implement any plans.
          1. Arestant
            Arestant 1 September 2015 19: 40 New
            0
            Quote: baltika-18
            there is a group of people identifying themselves as Palestinians and this has to be reckoned with.

            They do not identify themselves as "Palestinians." They are trying hard to impose such an idea, but it doesn’t work out. And other Arabs do not consider them a separate nation.
            1. 6 inches
              6 inches 1 September 2015 20: 13 New
              +1
              in what means Palestine is, but there are no Palestinians .. especially against the background of your fellow tribesmen who call them Palaces ... there is an ass, but there is no word .... from a well-known children's song.
              1. Arestant
                Arestant 1 September 2015 20: 51 New
                +1
                Quote: 6 inches
                . means Palestine is, but there are no Palestinians.

                Palestine is a historical name after the people mentioned in the Bible - the Philistines. The current Arabs living in this area have nothing to do with those Philistines. They are generally mostly descendants of immigrants from various regions of the Arab world - from Sudan to Persia. And they themselves talk about this with pride, such as - "my great-grandfather came here from Iraq to get work on the construction of the railway, which the Turks built in the early 20th century." Most of the Arab us have no historical roots. There is no Israel here. They arrived here from different places to earn money, and here they settled.
                1. 6 inches
                  6 inches 2 September 2015 07: 05 New
                  0
                  um ... and the Jews who live there, what relation do they have to the Philistines ???
      2. Slobber
        Slobber 1 September 2015 10: 14 New
        +1
        There are no more unhappy people in the Middle East than Kurds

        Stop stop stop. What about the Armenians? If they had not been organized and defended by the USSR, they would have been the same "unfortunate people." Yes, and the Jews, that would not go far, until the appearance of Izi, were the very unfortunate people. In general, I recall that when the Union spoke about the Palestinians - people without land, people without a homeland, deprived of their homeland.
        At the same time, the Iranian Kurds, armed with the support of their neighbors-brothers, taking into account the difficult ethnic situation in the country and the conflict-prone regional environment, could well lay claim to at least the economic development of their regions, mainly populated by Kurds, and, at best, the autonomy of these same regions. Unity is important, the trouble of the Kurds is their disunity.

        The article is, in my opinion, in many ways untrue. Judging by the end. The Kurds, having no sovereign statehood, are for all very united, almost to Nazism. They can count on economic development only if they work hellishly in the oil fields of Iraq. Iran will fight with the Islamic State and help the Kurds exactly until the moment when Iraq’s oil is under Iran’s control. If the Kurds raise their heads and start hi about the organization of Kurdistan (and there is the non-acidic part of Iran, the Azerbaijani territories bordering Iran, a rather big piece of Syria and of course again the oil regions of Iraq), then they will be plugged not only and not so much by the Turks as a whole horde of nationalities and faiths. As a result, Kurds are better and easier to assimilate in those countries where they live. Moreover, Kurds are not people in our usual sense, Kurds come (like Tajiks in many respects) from Persians sent to the Sassanid borders, mixed with Arabs and other Semites, including Assyrians, and also with Turkish and Mongol hordes when they surged to the territory of the present Middle East and Central Asia.
        1. Selevc
          Selevc 1 September 2015 13: 21 New
          0
          Quote: razgildyay
          then they will be shut up not only and not so much by the Turks, as a whole horde of nationalities and faiths.

          And it seems to me that Turkey will ultimately benefit from the emergence of an independent Kurdistan for several reasons:
          Firstly, the unresolved Kurdish issue is a yoke on the neck of Turkey ... It holds back the country's internal development, and even more so ... And this issue will have to be solved sooner or later - it is simply impossible to always postpone or hide it ...
          Secondly, the rudiments of the Kurdish state already exist - these are the Kurdish enclaves in Iraq and Syria ...
          Thirdly, why can't the 30-million people have their own state, and some small “banana countries” with a population of about 10 souls have it? And for example, North Sudan was relatively easily given the opportunity to create its own state, but they don’t want to give the Kurds anything?
          Fourth - the Kurdish enclave of Iraq is poverty that literally runs on oil gold - this is an ideal place to create a country that could supply the same Turkey with oil in the future ...
          Fifthly, the Kurds are a fully-fledged people with their ancient culture ...
          Sixth, the potential state of Kurdistan is not a suicide club at all and will not declare war on the next day after its creation to neighbors ... It will be beneficial for them to get stronger, which means peace will be vital for them ...
          Seventh - the Turks will have an iron argument in conversations with their Kurds - if you do not want to live according to our laws - go to your country !!! And it is beneficial for them to create Kurdistan in the neighborhood than to create it at the expense of their lands !!!
          Eighth, why not the UN finally do the work for which it was created? - namely, to facilitate the life of peoples and not complicate it !!!
          In the end, I think that only political ambitions, conservatism and the stupidity of modern world political elites are the main reason that there is still no independent state of Kurdistan !!!
          1. Kazakh
            Kazakh 1 September 2015 14: 35 New
            +1
            Selevc
            Sixth, the potential state of Kurdistan is not a suicide club at all and will not declare war on the next day after its creation to neighbors ... It will be beneficial for them to get stronger, which means peace will be vital for them ...
            Yes, you’re an idealist, my friend. There are many examples when independence gained spurred military action. The first thing that comes to my mind is Poland, after gaining independence, it fought with everyone, Bulgaria, Serbia, Romania, Albania are only civilized countries in Europe. is Ukraine not an example? In 91g, what did Russia do wrong to Ukraine? and in Chechnya its citizens were. At 08 what hurt ukrov? And in Georgia they were noted.
            Thirdly, why can't the 30-million people have their own state, and some small “banana countries” with a population of about 10 souls have it?
            And because they didn’t suffer, it turns out they need it like Vietnam.
            Eighth, why not the UN finally do the work for which it was created? - namely, to facilitate the life of peoples and not complicate it !!!
            And gifts are not valued, dear comrade Ukraine. I don’t even do an example of such gifts, but here ..... in general, I don’t even want to discuss it.
            1. Selevc
              Selevc 1 September 2015 15: 17 New
              +1
              Quote: Kazakh
              Yes, you’re an idealist, my friend. There are many examples when independence gained spurred military action. The first thing that comes to my mind is Poland, after gaining independence, it fought with everyone, Bulgaria, Serbia, Romania, Albania are only civilized countries in Europe. is Ukraine not an example? In 91g, what did Russia do wrong to Ukraine? and in Chechnya its citizens were. At 08 what hurt ukrov? And in Georgia they were noted.

              Examples of Poland and Romania do not roll - the situation in the world is not at all the same as 100 years ago ...
              Those who seized power by force in Kiev are inadequate from the moment they came to power ... Nationalism in Ukraine did not appear yesterday - and since the late 80s !!! Nobody knew this in the neighboring countries? The people of Ukraine betrayed and sold all the former elite from the president to simple regionals and communists - none of the influential people openly challenged the orange puppets !!!
              At 08 in Ukraine, the same in the arena - orange puppets of the West ... In Ukraine, everything from the outside seems so freakish ugly for one simple reason - Ukraine as a country is not sovereign and has been under external control since the beginning of the 90s ... Just before the West only robbed the country - an example is the barbaric privatization and the mass of bankrupt and collapsed factories and enterprises, and now the stakes have risen - the West needs a war and it is going ...
              Quote: Kazakh
              And gifts are not valued dear comrade Ukraine, even relatives do not do an example of such gifts, and here ..... in general, I don’t even want to discuss
              This is your post I did not understand !!! The main gift from Russia and other CIS countries was presented by Yanukovych who, for four years in power, created the appearance of governing the country and the appearance of friendship with Russia ... Do you not remember all these infamous 4 + 1 negotiations or Ukraine with one foot in the EAEU? The most important traitors are sitting in Russia and walking free ... And nationalists are cannon fodder - they are just as dumb as the German fascists of the 30s - they easily let themselves be drawn into a massacre in their own country !!!
              And do not row all Ukrainians under one comb - why the war is going on, who controls us and the situation in the post-Soviet space as a whole, the deputy of the Russian Federation Evgeny Fedorov perfectly explains all this ... All the events of recent years confirm his words - you can pick up old videos on YouTube and compare what he said to that what happened ... As the saying goes, the facts are obvious and note that no one officially refutes them ...
              1. Kazakh
                Kazakh 1 September 2015 16: 04 New
                +1
                And do not row all Ukrainians under one comb
                I didn’t even think about it.
                Examples of Poland and Romania do not roll - the situation in the world is not at all the same as 100 years ago.
                for 1000 years nothing has changed, not just for a hundred. So I think the Kurds will have a lot of reasons to make claims to others, whether territorial or historical injustices.
          2. Arestant
            Arestant 1 September 2015 19: 48 New
            +2
            Quote: Selevc
            it seems to me that Turkey will ultimately benefit from the emergence of an independent Kurdistan

            For Turks, independent Kurdistan is the worst nightmare, worse than which there can already be nothing. The creation of this state, even in the most stripped-down borders - areas of the former Iraq and Syria with a predominance of the Kurdish population, is a hefty nail in the coffin of the new Ottoman idea, so dear to Erdogan's heart. So the Turkish Air Force bombed the position of the Kurds.
        2. Weyland
          Weyland 1 September 2015 20: 37 New
          0
          Quote: razgildyay
          Moreover, Kurds are not people in our usual sense, Kurds come (like Tajiks in many ways) from Persians sent to the borders of the Sasanian, mixed with Arabs and other Semites, including Assyrians


          Proof, pliz? Kurds ("kardukhs") are mentioned among the peoples of this region as Xenophon ("Anabazis", 401-400. to R.H.)!
          1. Slobber
            Slobber 2 September 2015 22: 11 New
            0
            That's when Anabasis will be full-scale, and not correspondence of enumerators, then you will receive your proofs about Kardukhs. As if no one in those mountains, no one lived before Babylon. And about the theory of the presence of the Baloch there is never consistent.
      3. siberalt
        siberalt 1 September 2015 10: 35 New
        +3
        The most miserable are the Jews. And try to challenge it with them. Everyone needs a territory, but where to get it? The Russians are settled no less than the Kurds, but somehow they are not very united. It seems a little of their Kochoyan.
      4. Selevc
        Selevc 1 September 2015 12: 02 New
        +1
        It is interesting why in the middle of the 20th century, the leading world powers of the world, with the assistance of the UN, helped the Jews create the state of Israel, given the difficult history of the Jewish people, but for some reason the Kurds cannot create their own state - even though they have suffered decently too? After all, all the neighbors and even Turkey benefit from the creation of the Kurdish state ... But states like Iraq or Syria do not already exist in reality - but only on a geographical map ...
        And the states of the Middle East still exist today with borders that the British, French and other colonialists once drew under the ruler ...
        Although yes - of course, not all nations are equal under the sun and poor Kurds are probably very naive to compare with rich Jews ...
        The most miserable are the Jews.
        Well, this is a no brainer - who is the richest and the most miserable - because there is always little and always not enough ...
        1. Slobber
          Slobber 1 September 2015 17: 40 New
          +1
          After all, all the neighbors and even Turkey benefit from the creation of the Kurdish state ...

          Yes, throw this idea under tyn, after all. Kurds are disadvantageous and, moreover, dangerous. Appear on the map of Kurdistan, they with their Kurdish Nazism (yes there is one, worse than Jewish), zay * ut others, and besides, they will sit on non-acidic riches. All flirting with the Kurds is needed only in order to properly pump oil. Why do you think the Kurds cheerfully cheer on Mujiks from the Islamic State and other Alkaids? To banally drive away with oil.
          To the Turks from the Kurdish question, it’s a headache because it is impossible to carry out a systematic sweep, as it was a hundred years ago with the Armenians — the howl will rise, yes, it will rise, because the region is already troubled, and nobody will forgive the Turkish imperial manners, even seemingly partners (Well, Turkey does not have allies, not at all).
          who is the richest and the most miserable

          E as they wrapped up, everything is clear to everyone at once.
          And again, do not think that the Kurds are such an unhappy people without a homeland and land. With this, just no indulgences can be given, because otherwise the nerd in the Middle East will not settle down yet the devil knows how many years.
      5. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 1 September 2015 19: 33 New
        +1
        anokem "There is no more unhappy people in the Middle East than the Kurds, who rely on their state .."
        And what about other hemorrhoids Israel in the Middle East also lacks an independent Kurdish state?))))
  2. strelets
    strelets 1 September 2015 06: 52 New
    +1
    How can the Kurds unite? They live in the territories of different states. It is unlikely that they will agree and cut off the poor Kurds a piece of strawberry. There are either political methods or terror. So what good is it that the Kurds are scattered?
  3. Deniska999
    Deniska999 1 September 2015 07: 21 New
    +3
    In Iraq, the Kurds have lived almost independently since the time of Hussein (after the Desert Storm). In Syria, they are already on their way to independence. Of course, the Turks and Iranians are unlikely to let their Kurds go, but the Syrian and Iraqi Kurds Kurds may well create some kind of confederation.
  4. Kazakh
    Kazakh 1 September 2015 10: 44 New
    +5
    in Iran, national policy in the context of "Persian superiority"
    The Persians built their state for MYSELF. Why should they spill the sea of ​​their own and other people's blood for millennia should give the state to those who "sitting on the rubble played the balalaika?" Just do not need that they fought. Where did the result? Wrestled for the sake of the process? Main participation? Get the process and participation. Let’s take the Russians. Who will say that it was easier for us to build our state? But we built, suffered and built. The second moment we presented the states to those who did not have it, esthons Zhumayts Finns ..... continue on yourself. Where thanks ? At least just thanks. On the contrary, in many cases, the enemies are the most persistent. The question is why should Turkey give Syria to the new enemies of the state? Do they have any more bunts? And Kurdistan will be their enemy to the hounds. But will he be our ally or although they wouldn’t say loyal themselves. Germany helped in the establishment of independence by Ireland. And what are they friends? Bulgaria, too, one country helped the little brothers called each other. Where is Bulgaria? And there are many such examples in history. (PS I'm not Romanian) wink
  5. pavelty
    pavelty 1 September 2015 13: 57 New
    0
    Is there a child tied to the foot in the photo?
    1. Weyland
      Weyland 1 September 2015 20: 33 New
      0
      Yes. And such a practice exists among many peoples not spoiled by juvenile justice (except for jokes!)
  6. Weyland
    Weyland 1 September 2015 20: 31 New
    0
    At the same time, the foundations of national policy have remained unchanged since the adoption of the Constitution during the Qajar dynasty (Qâjâriyân, 1795-1975) - the supremacy belongs to the Shiites.

    Perhaps, after all, not a national, but a religious policy? Or Shiites - nationality? wink

    Azerbaijanis want to join the province of Azerbaijan to the republic of the same name

    15 million Iranian Azeri want to join 8 millions of Azeri times? And not vice versa?