Military Review

Outstanding La Xnumx. Part I. The birth of the "seven"

87



La-7 fighter was truly the pinnacle of the development of Lavochkin aircraft of the Great Patriotic War. He was superior to his main opponent, the German FW-190А, in speed, climb rate and maneuverability, he had quite powerful weapons. Of course, there were cars and weak points, caused primarily by the peculiarities of production in the war years. In the initial period of operation, the unreliable operation of the power plant delivered problems. The mixed design of the airframe with the predominant use of wooden materials led to the fact that the life of the La-7 was determined at three years, which was critically small for operation in peacetime. However, in the war, La-7 was perhaps the best Soviet fighter.

Despite the fact that “La Seventh” appeared in 1944, the story about it should start from the pre-war years. It should be noted that Soviet fighters during the Second World War were a unique phenomenon. In those days, not a single country in the world, except the USSR, created its own fighter, and indeed military Aviation based on wood as the main structural material. In the West, combat aircraft with a wooden frame ceased to be built in the early thirties, and soon sheathing was finally gone. In our country, almost all the fighters created immediately before the war (in any case, serial ones) had either a mixed or solid wood construction.

It is known that with equal strength, duralumin construction on 40% is lighter than wood, not to mention such advantages as durability, incombustibility and resistance to weathering. Nevertheless, in the run-up to the war in the USSR, other tendencies prevailed. The availability and cheapness of raw materials, simplicity and manufacturability of the design were put in first place; in short, the possibility of large-scale construction of aircraft at minimum cost and minimum need for skilled workers.

On the basis of this, many claim that our aviation developed according to the principle of “more as much as possible, cheaper”, and this could not but affect its combat capabilities and, ultimately, at the level of casualties.

Meanwhile, the war confirmed the correctness of the chosen concept. When the production of duralumin in the USSR fell by 80% in a few months of the German "blitzkrieg", the orientation to wooden aircraft construction turned out to be most welcome. Of course, the country's leadership could hardly have foreseen such a scenario, but история gives many examples when more than a dubious decision suddenly turns out to be the only true one.

Of the pre-war "triad" of new machines - the MiG-1, Yak-1 and LaGG-3 - the latter is the most unusual for its time. Its all-wood construction is unprecedented in the world fighter aircraft. Comparison with the famous English "wooden miracle" ("Mosquito") is hardly appropriate. Firstly, in Mosquito everything is subordinated to one single idea - speed. On the possibility of air combat, its creators did not even think. And although the plane later turned into a heavy night fighter, he had to solve completely different tasks than the Lavochkin on the Eastern Front. Secondly, exotic ultralight balsa and phenol-formaldehyde resins were widely used in the Mosquito design. The creators of "LaGG" also dealt with heavier, but common pine and birch trees in our forests.

Outstanding La Xnumx. Part I. The birth of the "seven"


The popular belief that LaGG was built from delta wood is not true. This material (wood impregnated with VI-B-3 plasticizer, which increased strength) was present only in the flanks of the side members, ribs and some nodes in the forward fuselage. And on La-5 they refused to do it at all, so as not to depend on foreign supplies of chemical components that were not produced in the USSR.

Working with deliberately unprofitable materials, the designers of Lavochkin Design Bureau were able to create the LaGG-3 fighter, which is generally at the level of modern requirements. Its maximum speed, armament and combat survivability did not cause any special complaints; But the incurable diseases of the heavy-duty machine — inertia, poor maneuverability, and poor rate of climb — left our fighter's pilot with little chance of winning the battle with the Messers. No wonder front-line pilots called LaGG-3 "iron".

“Heart transplant” - replacement of the VC-105 water cooling engine with a star-shaped M-82 breathed new life into the aircraft. The new engine was heavier than its predecessor on the 250 kg, however, due to the abandonment of the fluid cooling systems (radiator, pipelines, pumps, etc.), the take-off weight of the vehicle remained unchanged. But the power of the power plant increased from 1050 to 1330 hp The flight characteristics also improved accordingly. In March, the aircraft 1942, designated LaGG-3 M-82, successfully passed factory tests at the airfield of the Gorky plant No. 21 - the head enterprise for the production of LaGGov.

The data of the car was so promising, and the need for it was so strong that, in parallel with the treatment of its “childhood diseases” and even before the state tests, preparations for serial production began. In October, the 1942 th fighter, named La 5, went to the troops.



Meanwhile, although the new fighter surpassed its predecessor in almost all parameters (except horizontal maneuverability), it could not reach the Me-109G and FW-190 indicators that appeared at about the same time on the Eastern Front. In addition, the aircraft was characterized by suffocating heat in the cockpit, caused by poor thermal insulation of the engine and lack of ventilation, not very reliable operation of the engine and weapons. And although as the serial production was deployed, these flaws were gradually disposed of, the La-5 did not bring our aircraft a qualitative superiority over the enemy. Therefore, in the autumn of 1942, the work on the further modernization of the fighter began in the Lavochkin Design Bureau.

Engineers engaged in reducing the weight of the machine while increasing engine power. In December, state tests were carried out and put in the La-5F series with the M-82F engine (forced). The mass of the car decreased due to the rejection of cantilever fuel tanks (such aircraft were called “three-packs,” unlike earlier “five-packs”) and, a number of other, smaller tricks. On 1,5 mm, the thickness of the armspink is reduced, the landing light is removed, etc. Fuel capacity dropped by 60 l. Accordingly, the flight range was reduced, but it was considered unimportant, the main thing was to catch up with the Messerschmitt. But it was not possible to catch up yet.



On the prototype, which was tested in April 1943, in order to facilitate, they even replaced one of the two ShVAK cannons with a UB machine gun. However, the fighter with weakened weapons did not dare to “put on stream”.

The next step was La-5F, lightened, with improved visibility. It was lowered behind the cabin gargrot and increased the glass area of ​​the back of the lamp. Instead of an armored headpiece appeared 66-mm bulletproof glass.

Finally, in May 1943 of the year, state tests of the La-5 with the M-82FN engine took place (in the spring of the 1944 of the year it was renamed ASH-82FN - forced with direct injection). Takeoff power of the engine increased to 1850 hp, maximum - to 1630 hp on the first and 1500 - on the second altitude limit. In addition, on the La-5FN improved cabin thermal insulation, reduced efforts on the controls and eased landing gear. The external distinguishing feature of the new modification is the long intake pipe of the engine on top of the hood.

La-5FN first appeared on the front in the summer of 1943, during the fighting on the Kursk Bulge. In Soviet times, it was pointed out that on this variant of the La-5 a complete qualitative superiority over the German fighters of that period was achieved. As evidence, data were given of comparative flight tests with captured aircraft. But at first glance, quite convincing figures require a serious critical analysis.

First of all, a brand-new, carefully regulated La-5FN was compared with battered in battles, and even survivors of forced landings, with airplanes. Our mechanics did not possess the features of setting parameters for German power plants. Serial La-5FN, due to a lower production culture than on experimental machines, had correspondingly less flight-technical characteristics. By the way, when the Germans experienced the trophy La-5, they obtained data that differed for the worse from the test results of this fighter at the Air Force Research Institute. If we compare the results of the tests of German machines, obtained under comparable conditions, with the tactical and technical characteristics of the La-5FN, it turns out that, in a number of parameters, we again had to play the role of a follower.



The situation was complicated by the fact that the ASH-82FN engine had exhausted the boost reserves. Attempts to further increase the power did not succeed, and no other power plant for the La-5 was taken from anywhere. There were two ways: the next weight reduction and the scrupulous "licking" of aerodynamics.

Back in April 1943, a full-scale copy of the La-5 was tested in the TsAGI wind tunnel T-104 in order to determine the factors affecting the drag reduction. As a result, recommendations emerged for the introduction of a series of improvements in the series, providing a total increase in speed on 30-35 km / h. The greatest effect was given by the internal sealing of the aircraft - 24 km / h - and the complete closure of the chassis - 6 km / h. In addition, it was noted that transferring the oil radiator from under the bonnet under the fuselage, where the cross-sectional area is much smaller, reduces its drag in half and increases air flow through the radiator by 35%.

Later, a positive effect was established on the aerodynamics of the machine for transferring the air intake of the power plant, from the roof of the bonnet to the root of the center section. So, literally drop by drop, additional kilometers of speed were gained.

As for weight loss, this task was also not an easy one. Nothing superfluous that could be removed without serious consequences, practically did not remain on the plane. And to facilitate the design by reducing the strength and endurance (as it was done by AS Yakovlev) S.А. Lavochkin did not. But there was another huge reserve - the replacement of wooden structural elements with metal.

In 1943, for La-5, all-metal wing spars were developed, consisting of steel T-flanges connected by duralumin walls. Weight gain was 100 kg. This alone shows how much wood is inferior in weight efficiency to “winged metal”.

At the end of 1943, the La-5 No. 206 appeared, with partially improved aerodynamics. And at the very beginning of 1944, the construction of a new modification, originally designated as “La-5 - the 1944 standard of the year”, was completed. In addition to the installation of metal spars, it took into account all the recommendations of TsAGI on aerodynamic refinement of the machine. First of all, external and internal sealing of the propeller group and airframe was implemented, additional guards were installed, completely covering the chassis. The oil radiator was transferred under the fuselage, and the suction inlets of the supercharger were placed in the toe of the center section. Changed the shape of the wing wings, reduced the number of caps on the hood and reduced the size of the movable side flaps.



In addition, to reduce the efforts on the handle increased aerodynamic compensation of the elevator. Instead of the previous control knob with a grip for both hands, they placed a shortened P-1 knob of a “Messerschmitt” type, like under the right hand. The engine was equipped with individual exhaust pipes of cylinders and installed a new screw variable pitch VISH 105В-4. The landing gear was extended by 80 mm, and an anti-bonding frame was mounted in the back cover of the lantern.

Significantly more powerful weapons. Instead of a pair of SP-20 cannons (a synchronous version of the ShVAK cannon), three new Berezina UB-20 air cannons were installed. 2 February 1944, this machine, which was destined to become the best Soviet fighter of the Second World War, rose into the air. The results of the factory tests were very encouraging. The maximum ground speed was 597 km / h, versus 546 km / h in La-5FN and 560 km / h in FW-190-5.

February 16 car passed pas state tests, which was not without trouble. February 20 due to an engine crash in flight (connecting rod break), test pilot Kubyshkin hardly landed the plane. The trials continued on March 8. And on March 22, when most of the program had already been worked out, due to a gross assembly defect on the taxiing, one of the fuselage frames collapsed. And this time the skill of the pilot helped to avoid a serious accident.

But despite all the difficulties, the 27 March test cycle was successfully completed. By this time, the KB received the task of the State Defense Committee to bring the maximum speed of La-5FN to 685 km / h. The new fighter was supposed to be the answer Lavochkin designers to this task.

In the test report, Major Kubyshkin pointed out that the “standard” increased significantly, compared with the standard La-5FN, speed characteristics. At the height of 6000, the fighter accelerated to 680 km / h - the best result of all Soviet fighters of that period.

But aerodynamic perfection was bought at a high price. When the engine was running at high speeds, the temperature in the cabin reached 40 degrees (in February) and there was a strong smell of exhaust gases and burning rubber. Thus, the “generic defect” of the early La-5 has re-declared itself - poor thermal insulation.

The situation was aggravated by the fact that with the installation of the oil cooler under the fuselage, the hot oil pipelines began to pass right under the pilot's legs, and the external sealing of the bonnet forced the exhaust gases through the slightest slots to seep into the cabin. It is clear that in such conditions ordinary flight, not to mention air combat, turns into torture. In addition, the tester noted that moisture condensate accumulates in the cab (another result of the lack of ventilation), the loads on the pedals are excessive, and there is no quick emergency escape from the car.

But despite this, the conclusion of the report read: “The plane according to its flight data is one of the best fighters. It is necessary to force the serial construction with the simultaneous elimination of the above defects. " Specific recommendations followed: to improve thermal insulation and cabin ventilation, to facilitate emergency escape of the aircraft, to reduce efforts on the pedals, to improve cooling of the cylinder heads and to facilitate the control of the motor group, for which to make joint control of the propeller pitch and gas, to install an automatic gearshift for the supercharger and automatic valve control the hood.

Such automation was installed on the Focke Wool 190 fighter, thanks to which a comprehensive change in the operating parameters of the power plant was carried out by a single throttle movement. The pilots of the Lavochkin had to do up to eight consecutive movements for this, which is almost impossible in the fleeting conditions of air combat.



Unfortunately, when launching a new fighter into a series of all of these recommendations, only one was fully implemented: the mechanism for automatically changing the pitch of the propeller was installed (it is not clear why they didn’t do this before, because “HANG-automata” were known in the thirties). Attempts to normalize the temperature inside the cabin by hanging heat-insulating covers on the oil tank and oil lines almost did not work, and the heavy heat, reaching 55 degrees in the summer months, continued to complicate the already difficult work of the pilots.

Only later on some of the serial machines appeared vent cap over the frontal bulletproof glass. Then the air intakes of ventilation were placed in the leading edge of the center section. The charge of outboard air prevented the penetration of hot gases from the engine into the cabin, and the microclimate improved markedly. As for the automatic adjustment of motor modes, devices of this kind for the ASH-82FN appeared after the war.

Meanwhile, with all its flaws, the aircraft at altitudes up to 6000 m exceeded in flight characteristics almost all types of both domestic and German piston fighters.

In the first days of May, the “1944 standard of the year” under the new name La-7 was put into serial production. It is noteworthy that in July the last LaGG-31 came off the assembly line of the Tbilisi plant number 3. Production of the La-5FN (already with metal spars) continued, gradually decreasing until November 1944.



Sources:
Frost S. Top. Fighter La-7 // Aviation and Time. 2012. No.4. C. 4-25.
Kotelnikov V., Orlov M., Yakubovich N. The Fighter La-7 // Aviacollection. 2009. No.11. C. 2-10, 14-15, 23-29.
Ivanov S. La-7 // War in the air. No. 70. C. 2-9, 19-22, 40-41.
Alekseenko V., Kondratyev V. Fighter La-5 // Wings of the Motherland. 1995. No.4. C.1-3, 5-8.
Yakubovich N. Unknown Lavochkin. M .: Yauza, Eksmo, 2012. C. 90-101.
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  1. strelets
    strelets 1 September 2015 06: 28 New
    +10
    Thank you for the article. Very interesting. I look forward to continuing.
  2. Miner
    Miner 1 September 2015 06: 54 New
    +9
    Thank you!
    Informative.

    Indeed, in Soviet times it was possible to read almost everything the same, but only almost all of the device’s shortcomings described here were somehow “extinct” from the text.


    PS
    Thank you for the photo from the "Gennady Petrov collection" - a photo of such an aircraft (with a front intake in the lower part of the engine hood) has never been seen before.
    1. Das Boot
      Das Boot 1 September 2015 10: 29 New
      +5
      Quote: Miner
      such an aircraft (with a front intake in the lower part of the engine hood) had never been seen before.

      it's a serial 5FN, no? Here is a trophy at the Rechlin airport. The famous Luftwaffe tester Hans-Werner Lerche spoke quite positively about him, although without admiring intonations.
      1. Apologet.Ru
        Apologet.Ru 1 September 2015 10: 48 New
        +12
        hi
        At the same time, the author of the article never mentioned the Polikarpov M-185 and ITP fighters (as well as the Sukhoi Su-6 attack aircraft), which, being developed at the end of the 30 and by the end of the war, remained the best among the fighting fighters. The problem of which was that they were NOT mass-produced, in which the renowned designer Yakovlev with his hardware games and personal mental complexes had a significant hand in his hand, and, as a result, the dispersal of the design bureau of Polikarpov himself ...
        1. Apologet.Ru
          Apologet.Ru 1 September 2015 10: 55 New
          +4
          hi
          Compare with the La 5 line - La 7 ...
          1. Apologet.Ru
            Apologet.Ru 1 September 2015 10: 59 New
            +8
            hi
            And what is the handsome ITP, huh ?!
            1. Das Boot
              Das Boot 1 September 2015 11: 58 New
              +6
              Quote: Apologet.Ru
              And what is the handsome ITP, huh ?!


              Well, ITP is a slightly different concept. This is closer to the attack aircraft - it was even compared with IL-2 in terms of attack capabilities of tanks and half-trucks, and not in favor of IL)
              However, IMHO, there was nothing to catch Polikarpov - deputy commissar Comrade Yakovlev did everything to drown the fuck of ITP in favor of his "flying gun." Rape on statics M-1 then as a fan for testing PuVRD used.
            2. rubin6286
              rubin6286 1 September 2015 15: 39 New
              +9
              Dear friend !

              Very often, out of ignorance or incompetence, when talking about the Lavochkin planes on the pages of the VO website, you, like some other commentators, mention the Polikarpov I-185 fighter, which, in their opinion, is better than LaGG-3 and other promising ones machines, was not accepted for serial production, mistakenly blaming A.S.Yakovlev, who was then deputy commissar of the aircraft industry and enjoyed the confidence of I.V. Stalin.

              Before "sculpting" all nonsense on "hardware games Yakovlev." his "personal mental complexes" and other billiards, I advise:

              1. Download from the Internet and carefully study the following literature:

              • V.P. Ivanov “Planes of N.N. Polikarpov” Moscow “Rusavia” 2004. In it, unlike other books, more attention is paid to the personality of the designer, his character, living and working conditions, and not only to the aircraft created by him.

              • M.S. Arlazorov "Lavochkin."
              • M.S. Arlazorov "The front goes through the design bureau."
              • Adler E.G. “Earth and sky. Notes aircraft designer. "
              • M. Maslov "Fatal Chkalov fighter. I-17, I-180, I-185. The worst catastrophe of the Stalin era. " Moscow. "Yauza" 2011.
              • Yu.Guglya “The last fighters of Polikarpov I-180, I-185” Kiev “Archive Press” 1998.
              • R. A. Belyakov, J. Marmen “MiG Aircraft 1939-1995” Moscow “AVIHO PRESS” 1996.
              • A.S. Yakovlev “Purpose of Life” Moscow. Political Publishing House 1987.
              • N. Yakubovich “Yakovlev's combat aircraft” Moscow “Yauza” 2013.

              2. To serve in the army and in aviation, in particular. Only then will you be able to understand and learn that in addition to personal ambitions and aspirations, there are still requirements of military regulations, orders of commanders and commanders, binding on all people in uniform in peacetime and wartime.
              1. Mareman Vasilich
                Mareman Vasilich 2 September 2015 11: 12 New
                +1
                True thought. But on tests on the Kalinin front, the I-185 proved to be excellent. The owner of the site Sukhoi.ru Valentin Loginov, his grandfather fought on it. He said that the car is a fairy tale.
              2. Filxnumx
                Filxnumx 2 September 2015 14: 09 New
                -1
                I have served 28 calendars in the army and I know very well how sometimes those orders are violated precisely by those who gave them. And "non-comrade" Yakovlev is by no means an exception.
              3. Tula gingerbread
                Tula gingerbread 24 November 2016 17: 31 New
                +1
                Mandatory? But how do you understand that already having the SNK’s decree on launching the I-180 in a series, having at the Gorky (it seems) plant, already 100 machine units, the plane was hacked?
                Is this such a “mandatory”? Where is already required.
                It is clear that if Chkalov, who was close to Stalin, were alive, he would achieve full-scale serial production, an excellent fighter, which would make yaks and lags and migas unnecessary, and retraining for pilots with I-16 was easy.
                So much for the “compulsory”.
            3. Technical engineer
              1 September 2015 17: 25 New
              0
              Quote: Apologet.Ru
              And what is the beauty ITP

              Well, to mention ITP in the article about La-7 blo is generally not appropriate. IMHO hi
        2. Parabelum
          Parabelum 1 September 2015 11: 17 New
          0
          Um ... I thought that Polikarpov fell into disgrace after the Spanish company, when the Germans at the final stage put up their modernized messengers ME109E. The answer to this was the creation of the I-180, the designer was in a hurry with the creation of the aircraft. And as a result, the death of Chkalov. Which shocked many at the time and became "the last straw that broke the ridge of a camel."
          1. Apologet.Ru
            Apologet.Ru 1 September 2015 11: 27 New
            0
            hi
            Dear Colleague Parabelum!
            TV channel Zvezda created the series "Outstanding Aircraft Designers" - I highly recommend ...
            And disgraced designers in foreign business trips in those days are unlikely to be sent, especially to a likely enemy ...
            Well, in Google, if you wish, you can dig up a lot of information for thought ...
          2. Das Boot
            Das Boot 1 September 2015 11: 30 New
            0
            And T. Yakovlev played the last role in the trolling of Polikarpov.
            1. Apologet.Ru
              Apologet.Ru 1 September 2015 11: 36 New
              -1
              hi
              What am I talking about?
              In fact, they tried to reinvent the wheel of the entire war before the war, and all thanks mainly to the ambitions of one person ...
              By the way, An-2 could appear even before the war (prototype OKA-38), Antonov then worked and suggested for Yakovlev in the Design Bureau, but ...
              Yes, and the appearance of MiGs and LaGGs, the Soviet Air Force owed to the Deriban of Polikarpov Design Bureau, which were plagiarized by HIS developments ...
              1. Alex
                Alex 1 September 2015 22: 03 New
                0
                OKA-38 could not be the prototype of the An-2. OKA-38 was created after meeting with the German Fi-156 Storch.
                The project of the future An-2 was rejected by the Air Force Research Institute in February 1941. Antonov became Yakovlev’s deputy during the war. In 1945, Yakovlev rejected Antonov’s offer to build a multi-purpose biplane aircraft because considered him non-core for his design bureau, but in 1946, when Antonov, being the head of the branch of the Yakovlev design bureau in Novosibirsk, addressed him as deputy minister, he approved.
                No need to demonize Yakovlev.
                By the way, a group of Mikoyan and Gurevich was separated from Polikarpov Design Bureau and OKO-1 was created in October 1939 by the factory director Voronin and the chief engineer Dementyev, and even before the decision of the People’s Commissariat. OKO-1 gave the project of the future I-200, which Polikarpov submitted to the People's Commissariat for approval.
              2. BV330
                BV330 2 September 2015 00: 28 New
                0
                MiG-1 and -3 yes, this is the development of the prototype "60" or I-200 KB NNPolikarpov. He, along with the best half of the design bureau, was simply stolen from him, having formed first an OKO, and then a MiG design bureau.
                But LaGG was definitely the development of "musketeers", by the initials of which it was named. )))
                1. Tula gingerbread
                  Tula gingerbread 24 November 2016 17: 23 New
                  +1
                  Yes, I also read about how the Mikoyan brothers robbed Polikarpov when Nikolai Nikolayevich was on a business trip abroad.
                  And Yakovlev in his opus "Purpose of Life" ("Notes of the aircraft designer") obos .... al Polikarpova in full.
        3. Technical engineer
          1 September 2015 17: 24 New
          0
          Quote: Apologet.Ru
          At the same time, the author of the article never once mentioned the Polikarpov M-185 and ITP fighters that are significant in the history of the development of the Soviet Air Force.

          It seems to me that the I-185 deserves a separate article, and not a simple mention in the article of another, particular aircraft.
        4. Filxnumx
          Filxnumx 2 September 2015 13: 43 New
          -2
          Entirely and completely in solidarity. Lavochkin with his La-7 only at the end of the war came quite close to I-185. And the famous formula "speed, fire, maneuver" I-185 would fit perfectly. And the cunning Yakovlev - GlaVred (the main pest) in Soviet aviation!
          1. dkkayak
            dkkayak 26 November 2016 17: 07 New
            0
            That is why every time a speech about LA comes up, the topic I180 I185 comes up? They can not be compared! The design task for the aircraft on which the MIG and Yak aircraft were built clearly stated that the aircraft were built from NON-DEFICIENT materials. And 185 had an ALL-METAL wing. Hence the outstanding performance characteristics. Let me remind you that the use of only metal spars brought the LA7 to the level of I185. By the way, the Yak did not meet the requirements of the assignment because it had a whole wing without detachable consoles, which excluded its transportation by rail. Here lies the secret of the weighted perfection of Yak. That is, the task corresponded to the aircraft and Polikarpovsky MIG
        5. Tula gingerbread
          Tula gingerbread 24 November 2016 17: 20 New
          +1
          Now, I also really want to hear about these cars. I read what kind of ordeals Polikarpov suffered, although he already had a decision of the SNK to launch the I-180 series and how some of them prevented it with all their might.
          But you could get a completely different line of basic machines for the Air Force. I-180 (I-185), Su-6, Tu-2.
        6. Koshak
          Koshak 25 November 2016 20: 33 New
          0
          Quote: Apologet.Ru
          hi
          At the same time, the author of the article never mentioned the M-185 Polikarpov and ITP fighter jets (as well as the Sukhoi Su-6 attack aircraft), which were iconic in the history of the development of the Soviet Air Force.

          Have you noticed that this article is about one specific aircraft? And the author did not set himself the task of reviewing the entire aviation of the USSR.
        7. andrewkor
          andrewkor 16 July 2017 14: 26 New
          0
          I fully join!
    2. Vega
      Vega 1 September 2015 14: 11 New
      0
      I agree, disadvantages as well as advantages cannot be extinct.
  3. candidate
    candidate 1 September 2015 07: 32 New
    +3
    ... Kohl constructor with a head
    Be a battle machine
    Even LA-7 on a pine tree
    Was the fastest in the war ...
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 1 September 2015 07: 50 New
    0
    The La-7 fighter was truly the pinnacle of the development of Lavochkin’s aircraft .. Do not add, do not turn down .. Thank you .. We are waiting for the continuation .. the second part
    1. 52
      52 1 September 2015 19: 53 New
      0
      La-9 and la-11 in the corner stood and did not fight anywhere? Yes, and the "seven" had flaws, including the radius of action and labor .. serviceability. The only true machine for the TTX complex was good.
    2. BV330
      BV330 2 September 2015 00: 38 New
      +1
      Serial wartime - of course. But the experienced “120”, for example, made in 1945, made the seven easy and easy. The altitude is more per kilometer (and this is an abyss), and the speed is more than 50 km / h higher. This is what a normal duralumin construction, laminar wing and proper jerk mean.
      And two NS-23s, by their firepower, leaving behind the 4-gun Foki battery, not to mention the serial Shops.
  5. inkass_98
    inkass_98 1 September 2015 07: 54 New
    +5
    I agree with the previous speaker, the article describes well the design flaws of La-5 / 7, which were hardly advertised in our literature.
    What I allow myself to disagree with the author is in the references to the fact that foreign aircraft manufacturers practically did not use non-metallic elements in the design of combat airframes. About the "Mosquito" the author himself mentioned, but there was also a "Hurricane", in which linen was used in the lining. This is just so, offhand, and if you think about it, you can still find similar wooden-linen structures, for example, in Italy.
    1. goose
      goose 2 September 2015 10: 58 New
      0
      Quote: inkass_98
      About the "Mosquito" the author himself mentioned, but there was also a "Hurricane", in which linen was used in the lining. This is just so, offhand, and if you think about it, you can still find similar wooden-linen structures, for example, in Italy.

      Hurricane even the reformed Merlin did not save. It was an anachronism. LaGG was better.
  6. bionik
    bionik 1 September 2015 08: 25 New
    +10
    I.N. Kozhedub at his La-7 at the Moninsky Air Force Museum.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. gjv
      gjv 1 September 2015 12: 04 New
      +2
      Quote: bionik
      La-7 at the Moninsky Air Force Museum


      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. gjv
        gjv 1 September 2015 12: 11 New
        0
        And in May 1945 their Czechs were given into their combined air division.

  7. bionik
    bionik 1 September 2015 08: 41 New
    +3
    Semyon Alekseevich Lavochkin August 29, 1900-
    June 9, 1960 Awards: Twice Hero of Socialist Labor
    Three Orders of Lenin
    Order of the Red Banner
    Order of Suvorov I degree
    Order of Suvorov II degree
    medal "For Military Merit"
    other medals
    Stalin Prize of the first degree (1941)
    Stalin Prize of the first degree (1943)
    Stalin Prize of the second degree (1946)
    Stalin Prize of the first degree (1948)
  8. bionik
    bionik 1 September 2015 08: 54 New
    +6
    Deputy squadron commander of the 2nd Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment Hero of the Soviet Union Guard Captain Alexander Ivanovich Mayorov (1921–2004) in the cockpit of his La-5FN Mongolian Arat fighter.

    “Mongolian arat” (“arat” - “peasant cattle breeder”) - a squadron equipped with aircraft built with funds transferred from the USSR to the Mongolian People’s Republic. Since the beginning of the war, the MPR has been actively supplying the USSR with foodstuffs, warm clothes and shoes, other goods, and money for the acquisition of dozens of tanks and aircraft.

    In 1943, a fundraiser was organized in the MPR for the construction of an aircraft squadron. By July 1943, 2 million Tugriks (2 rubles) had been collected for the production of 628 La-000 fighter aircraft. On July 12, 5, the Prime Minister of the MPR, H. Choibalsan, sent a telegram to I.V. Stalin with a request to accept money for aircraft of the Mongolian Arat squadron. On August 22, Stalin expressed gratitude to Mongolia. Squadron aircraft were solemnly handed over to the 1943nd Guards Regiment of the 18nd Fighter Aviation Division on September 2, 322 at the field airfield of the Vyazovaya station in the Smolensk region. Mongolia also took over clothing and food supplies for the squadron until the end of the war.

    Until the end of 1943, pilots of the squadron shot down 21 German aircraft. Heroes of the Soviet Union A.I. fought in the squadron "Mongolian Arat" Mayorov, N.P. Pushkin, M.E. Ryabtsev. The squadron took part in the liberation of Ukraine and Poland, in the storming of Berlin.
  9. bionik
    bionik 1 September 2015 09: 04 New
    +6
    Leonid Utesov on the wing of the La-5F fighter, built at the expense of his ensemble "Funny Guys". The moment of transfer of the machine to the troops. On the right side of the fuselage is the inscription “From the L. Utesov Jazz Orchestra”.
  10. Engineer
    Engineer 1 September 2015 10: 16 New
    +4
    Without begging merit for Lavochkin as a constructor, the multi-Carpathian I-185 is what Lavochkin and his La-7 came to.
    1. bionik
      bionik 1 September 2015 10: 43 New
      +8
      I-185 On front-line tests: The commander of the 728th regiment, captain V.S. Vasilyaka, stated in his report the following: “185 people fly to the regiment on I-5 aircraft, all 5 people. flew and fly without difficulty both after the Yak and after the I-16. Personally, I flew on airplanes: I-16, Yak-1, Yak-7B, LaGG-3, La-5, Hurricane and I-185 with an M-71 and M-82 engine and came to the following conclusion:
      1. The transition from other fighter aircraft to the I-185 is simple and does not cause any difficulties for pilots.
      2. The aircraft in flight is controlled easily, very stable and without any vagaries.
      3. Take-off and landing is exceptionally easy.
      4. The advantage of the aircraft is its extremely high maneuverability on verticals due to its good rate of climb, which makes it possible to conduct an air battle with enemy fighters, which is not always possible on Yak-1, Yak-7B and La-5 aircraft.
      5. In horizontal speed, the I-185 aircraft has a great advantage over domestic aircraft, as well as enemy aircraft.
      The horizontal speed range near the earth is extremely large: 220-540 km / h, which is an important factor for a modern fighter.
      The plane develops speed horizontally from evolutionary to maximum very quickly compared to LaGG-3, La-5 and Yak'ami, i.e. has a good throttle response.
      Aerobatics performs easily, quickly and energetically, similar to the I-16. Disadvantages discovered during operation, which I recommend the plant to eliminate when new cars are manufactured:
      1. Make the front of the lamp faceted.
      2. Simplify or facilitate the operation of motor blinds.
      3. The insulation of the steering wheel cables (thimble) is unsatisfactory when performing aerobatics, such as: barrels, flips through the wing; heel shoe clings to kooshi.
      4. Improve aircraft handling in taxiing in the sense of facilitating U-turns.
      5. Move the gas sector forward by at least 100 mm; in the old position of the sector, it is not possible to completely remove gas without special combinations.
      6. It is necessary to replenish the air flow to raise the chassis and shields to put a compressor.
      7. Obligate to equip the engine with compressed air.
      8. Develop emergency opening of a flashlight on newly manufactured cars.
      9. Improve the ventilation of the cabin (very hot).
      I believe that the I-185 aircraft with the M-71 or M-82 engine and armed with 3 ShVAK guns meets all the requirements for conducting combat work.
      We must assume that at present the I-185 is the best fighter aircraft in terms of ease of operation, speed, maneuver (especially on the vertical), armament and survivability.
      Front-line pilots are looking forward to this aircraft at the front. ”
      1. goose
        goose 1 September 2015 12: 46 New
        +1
        Considering that the completion of the M-71F for 1940-41 was significantly ahead of the M-82, it did not have an epic of working out in cylinders, and given that the engine passed 1941-hour life tests by 100, as well as with the advent of new carburetors in 1941 and injection systems in 1942, absolutely all problems were eliminated, I-185 M-71F (FN) could be fully operational ready by the beginning of 1942, 2.5 years earlier than La-7.
        And even in an unfinished state, he was more alert than the designs of other designers. Production of the M-82 was worth minimizing in favor of the M-71, given 80% technological compatibility, at least for resource reasons, because on the serial M-82 for a long time it was not possible to achieve a resource of more than 50 hours. In fighter units under those operating conditions, the engines did not live more than 35 hours. Those. the need for the production of M-71 compared to the M-82 could be halved.
    2. dkkayak
      dkkayak 26 November 2016 17: 14 New
      0
      Why be surprised? I185 initially had an all-metal wing, and Lavchkin was allowed to use a metal spar only on La7. To be a mystery: where would Polikarpov produce the I185? He would have to squeeze some of the bomber factories.
  11. jjj
    jjj 1 September 2015 11: 02 New
    +3
    Thanks to the author. I would only like to note two points. At La 5, our pilots have already begun to beat German aces. Recall the same Kozhedub. His memories, albeit “corrected,” give reason to believe that. Well, combat reports - confirmation. Another point: the improvement of the aircraft in the design bureau is ongoing and continuous. This is an endless process. But at a certain time a special order is issued that all subsequent developments after the hour of "X" developments are already underway for the next model.
    On the use of percale for planes. So they are still on the An-2 plane covered. Although the set of planes is already metal. And when the percale, saturated with enamel, dries, then an easy and sufficiently durable lining is obtained
  12. bionik
    bionik 1 September 2015 11: 15 New
    +4
    Alexey Petrovich Maresyev. Due to a serious wound, both legs were amputated to him. However, despite the disability, the pilot returned to heaven and flew with prostheses. In total, during the war he flew 86 sorties, shot down 11 enemy planes: four before being wounded and seven after. All these victories were won by Alexei Maresyev on a fighter La 5FN.
    1. bionik
      bionik 1 September 2015 12: 15 New
      +2
      I was not mistaken much: I shot down four before amputation, that is, I flew before that on the Yak-1, then La-5FN.
  13. rubin6286
    rubin6286 1 September 2015 11: 43 New
    +2
    Aircraft Design Bureau Lavochkin are described in sufficient detail in the technical and popular science literature. One of the latter is a monograph by N. Yakubovich “La-7, La-9, La-11. The last piston fighters of the USSR ”and, in the sense of informativeness, the author’s article in VO loses to her substantially.

    The decision to launch La-7 was made in March 1944, and in July the first production vehicles began to enter the troops. They, in the first place, switched regiments previously equipped with La-5 of various modifications. There were very few three-gun La-7s, basically the plane still had two guns, but this firepower was enough.

    Most veteran pilots, comparing Lavochkin’s fighters with the Yaks and foreign allied vehicles, unanimously claimed that the Lavochkin was good in the air! ” it was such that Lavochkin was rolled out from some shops every 14 minutes, and Il-1944 from every other shop every 23 minutes. ”

    Ideal designs, alas, do not exist and any aircraft is a kind of compromise between the desired and possible. In this sense, La-7 was similar in piloting technique to La-5, but much more advanced than it.
  14. Velizariy
    Velizariy 1 September 2015 12: 07 New
    +1
    The comparative table FW -190 A8 shows 2x20 mm guns, not 2 but 4, and the possibility of replacing 2x20 mm guns with 2x30 mm
    1. goose
      goose 1 September 2015 12: 55 New
      +5
      Quote: Velizariy
      The comparative table FW -190 A8 shows 2x20 mm guns, not 2 but 4, and the possibility of replacing 2x20 mm guns with 2x30 mm

      In practice, the replacement of 20 mm guns with a 30 mm gun was not used, because technological kits for replacement were practically not received in parts.
      The characteristics of the A-8 are shown with 2 guns and without ammunition.
      The ability to shoot a second pair of guns was often used on the Eastern Front. 4 set only for special assault missions, mainly in the West.
      2 machine guns and 2 guns were more than enough for Fw against conventional bombers and IL-2, especially against fighters.
      At D-9, the Germans legitimized this weapons scheme as the main, and everything else was called modifications.
    2. BV330
      BV330 2 September 2015 01: 06 New
      0
      And even combinations of 6x20mm and 2x20 + 2x30mm. There is also a total supply of shells in the modification of the A-8 780 pieces, against 120 on the Yaks and 340 on the Shops.
      Only the Germans saw infrequently on the A-8 flew with 4 cannons against fighter jets, losing 200 kg of excess weight was not bad, otherwise 4400 kg was not comme il faut. )))
  15. Polkanov
    Polkanov 1 September 2015 12: 18 New
    +2
    ... my grandfather, a marine pilot of the DCBF, the Kingdom of Heaven, part of the war flew into LA-7. I only remember from his stories that the heat in the cockpit was 50 degrees. Just had to fly without weapons (apparently without ammunition), since my grandfather was a naval reconnaissance and the most important thing was to deliver photo intelligence data to the database. And the best in his war was - Aerocobra, with good piloting, it was good, and the pilot was comfortable in it ...
  16. Velizariy
    Velizariy 1 September 2015 14: 01 New
    0
    Quote: goose
    Practically replacing 20 mm guns with 30 mm guns was not used

    Applied ... Sturmbok ...
    1. goose
      goose 2 September 2015 11: 38 New
      0
      Quote: Velizariy
      Applied ... Sturmbok ...

      It was generally a different plane with a bunch of armor and other changes. It was not a field alteration. Special aircraft.
  17. andrewkor
    andrewkor 1 September 2015 14: 39 New
    0
    with all the "flaws" La-7 fucked Fritz from the heart !! "
  18. AlexA
    AlexA 1 September 2015 16: 28 New
    +1
    Quote: goose
    Considering that the completion of the M-71F for 1940-41 was significantly ahead of the M-82,

    You confuse something, dear. The M-82 motor also began to be developed, since the M-71 with an elegant power of 2200 hp. to bring in time failed. So there was nothing to replace the M-82 in 42-44.
    And when, after the war, they brought, however, M-71, then La-9 appeared. Yes, and the Tu-2 flew.
  19. Olezhek
    Olezhek 1 September 2015 16: 45 New
    0
    But aerodynamic perfection was bought at a high price. When the engine was running at high speeds, the temperature in the cabin reached 40 degrees (in February) and there was a strong smell of exhaust gases and burning rubber. Thus, the “generic defect” of the early La-5 has re-declared itself - poor thermal insulation.
    The situation was aggravated by the fact that with the installation of the oil cooler under the fuselage, the hot oil pipelines began to pass right under the pilot's legs, and the external sealing of the bonnet forced the exhaust gases through the slightest slots to seep into the cabin. It is clear that in such conditions, ordinary flight, not to mention air combat, turns into torture
    .

    Something sounds threatening.
    True Ali breshut ???
    1. BV330
      BV330 2 September 2015 01: 13 New
      +1
      There is no fire without smoke. There were sayings that in the early La-5 pilots happened, boots were welded to the pedals. And the temperature in the cabin in summer could have exceeded 50. Not just to see with open flashlights flew. (((
      (I remember the muddy plexus)
  20. kvs207
    kvs207 1 September 2015 17: 50 New
    +2
    Quote: rubin6286
    Mistakenly blaming A.S.Yakovlev, the former deputy commissar of the aviation industry at that time and enjoying the confidence of I.V. Stalin.

    Absolutely.
    I wonder why, as soon as the topic of war-time planes, is Yakovlev immediately to blame? Really only Yaki were issued? There were few types of aircraft? So this is just right in wartime conditions. The Germans produced 2 main types of fighters and nothing.
    1. BV330
      BV330 2 September 2015 01: 21 New
      -2
      Like it or not, Yakovlev almost deprived Lavochkin of 21 factories in NN, and only the fire appearance of LaGG-5 saved him. And before that it seems 153 in Novosib.
      He took the Omsk plant 166 from Tupolev, at the same time having stolen the production of Tu-2 for 2 years.
      That's almost automatic and obstacles I-185 can be hung on the Yak. And certainly he didn’t help NNPolikarpov. ((
  21. The comment was deleted.
  22. Sem Faraday
    Sem Faraday 1 September 2015 18: 31 New
    0
    The M-82 engine provided about 42l.s / l, and the M-71 only 33l.s / l engine volume. M-82 standing on La-5/7 was more efficient and smaller in diameter. (14 cylinders versus 18). When the I-185 was tested with the M-82, it was close to La-5 by the issued parameters. M-71 in 1942 They wanted to bring it to the series, but after the accident with I-185 they postponed it. Although in 1942 the I-185 with the M-71 met the requirements for fighters of 1944, the article also noted an inaccuracy: a set of 5 km of La-7 was in 4,25 minutes. For comparison, the Yak-3 is about 4 minutes.
    1. BV330
      BV330 2 September 2015 01: 28 New
      +2
      Nevertheless, the diameter does not depend on the number of cylinders, but on the stroke of the pistons. In the M-82, Shvetsov shortened it by 20 mm, so the motor came out more compact. )))
      According to I-185_M-82, it also issued TTX approximately between La-5F and -FN. Speed ​​615-620km / h.
      He stayed in the air better, flew on. He was stronger, dived better, could carry a lot more bonbon load. In vain the NNP did not give up strength back in 1941 precisely on the fine-tuning with the M-82. Maybe I could have done it in a series, but then of course I needed support at the top, in addition to the best aircraft. (((
    2. goose
      goose 2 September 2015 11: 59 New
      +1
      Quote: Sem Faraday
      The M-82 engine provided about 42l.s / l, and the M-71 only 33l.s / l engine volume. M-82 standing on La-5/7 was more efficient and smaller in diameter. (14 cylinders versus 18). When the I-185 was tested with the M-82, it was close to La-5 by the issued parameters. M-71 in 1942 They wanted to bring it to the series, but after the accident with I-185 they postponed it. Although in 1942 the I-185 with the M-71 met the requirements for fighters of 1944, the article also noted an inaccuracy: a set of 5 km of La-7 was in 4,25 minutes. For comparison, the Yak-3 is about 4 minutes.

      This manipulation, cylinder sizes, fuel, fuel equipment and engine speed were the same, respectively, the power was exactly proportional to the number of cylinders. Another thing is that the M-71 was heavier and most importantly, "thicker". You compare the engine versions of different years, due to which you got the difference. Perhaps due to Lend-Lease gasoline, not least. Liter capacity at the end of the 40th ... the beginning of the 41st was comparable.
      The M-71 had a higher cylinder speed, which made demands on the rods, the shaft was more complicated, but the cooling turned out better and the grade of gasoline was more favorable due to the degree of compression.
      When they began to force, the M-71 was not harmed in terms of reliability. But the M-82 was actually doped up until 1944. I advise you to read this cyclopean work http://www.airpages.ru/mt/mot53.shtml
  23. Jan Ivanov
    Jan Ivanov 1 September 2015 19: 30 New
    +3
    People, thanks everyone. Both the author and commentators. I learned so much.
    Very interesting. )
  24. ALEA IACTA EST
    ALEA IACTA EST 1 September 2015 20: 04 New
    +1
    Outstanding aircraft of an outstanding designer.
    Thanks to the author.
  25. Vovan Sidorovich
    Vovan Sidorovich 1 September 2015 21: 26 New
    +1
    I have been looking at this resource for a long time and with interest. I am writing for the first time. Indeed, comments on an article are more interesting than the article itself. The article itself was written by a man stuck in the 90s.
    1. qwert
      qwert 2 September 2015 07: 32 New
      +2
      I was always surprised where from the 90's where new information appeared on the machines of war or there of the thirties. Perhaps some of the veterans came to life to write new materials, or maybe someone had a spiritualistic session and asked the designer himself questions.
      But everything turned out to be much simpler. Not so long ago I was arguing with a young man who also said stop talking about repeating old myths, all this is garbage. The car was easy to operate and in afterburner modes it caught Messser on a candle, and could get away from the fokker by diving. And I kind of used the serious monographs of famous authors Gordon, Kotelnikov, Haruk, the memoirs of famous pilots. All that I said came from proven and reliable sources. But the boy spoke so confidently and categorically (just like some comrades on this site) that I even began to believe him. Until he let slip that all this information was obtained from his personal experience playing on a flight simulator. laughing laughing laughing
      In short, the author of patience and tranquility. And in due time, "experts" did force me to stop writing articles. no
  26. oldkap22
    oldkap22 2 September 2015 14: 26 New
    0
    I read this article about 10 years ago in "WINGS OF THE MOTHERLAND" it seems ...
  27. Technical engineer
    2 September 2015 17: 49 New
    +1
    Quote: qwert
    In short, the author of patience and tranquility. And in due time, "experts" did force me to stop writing articles.

    Thank you. laughing I try to approach this philosophically. Although, of course, articles about aircraft cause the most controversy. After all, many here are often opposing opinions about a particular apparatus, and about the designer’s identity. But, the main thing is that we won. soldier
  28. fed2912
    fed2912 25 November 2016 21: 53 New
    0
    Good article.