A variant of the Terrex armored personnel carrier showed off its fire support capabilities in the form of a remote-controlled weapon module and an assault rifle mounted on a trunnion.
Armored vehicle Terrex 8x8 production of the Singapore company ST Kinetics entered service with the Singapore Army. Consider the options for the design of this machine, the manufacturer of which is in search of the first foreign customer.
Given the successful experience of almost five years of operation in the Singapore armed forces, the company Singapore Technologies Kinetics is cautiously optimistic about the export potential of the Terrex 8x8 armored vehicle developed by it.
The Terrex project from the very beginning (more precisely from 1999 of the year) was financed from the company's own funds and developed with a view to the future needs of the army in secure mobility.
ST Kinetics refuses to give details on Terrex supplies, although it can be said with confidence that the company completed the delivery of the first batch of Xnumx Terrex ICV infantry combat vehicles to the Singapore army at the start of 135.
Prior to the introduction of the Terrex infantry infantry vehicle, the Singapore Infantry Corps mainly exploited the unarmored three and five-ton 4x4 trucks, although in October 2006 for the five-ton trucks the optional booking kits, Add-on Armor (AOA) modules, were received.
Currently, at least three infantry battalions are armed with a Terrex machine; additional orders are expected for weapons in the future of the remaining infantry and guards units. While specific figures are not available, but the Minister of Defense confirmed his interest in this car during the budget discussion in Parliament in March 2014.
“For the Singapore Army, we will also double the number of mechanized platforms. Some more Terrex combat vehicles will enter here to cope with threats in an increasingly complex urban space. ”
With a mass of 24 tons of Terrex in the configuration of the BMP has a length of 7,78 m, overall width of 3,68 m and height of 3,075 m, including a remotely controlled combat module. The car is equipped with a Caterpillar C9 six-cylinder turbo-charged diesel engine with a power of 450 hp. (336 kW), coupled with an Allison 4500SP six-speed automatic transmission. This power unit allows you to reach a maximum speed on the 105 highway km / h and accelerate from standstill to 50 km / h in 13,5 seconds. The basic version is also floating, there are two propellers installed in the stern, which allow you to accelerate the car on the water to 10 km / h.
The Terrex ICV variant is equipped with a variety of devices that increase situational awareness. The photo on the left side shows high-resolution cameras for maneuvering with closed hatches and an acoustic detector small weapons
“When we created Terrex, close attention was paid to the terrain of the car, especially considering the types of terrain in Singapore,” Patrick Choi, marketing director of ST Kinetics, said in an interview with 2015 in March, noting that the range of operating conditions for the machine could include a limited urban space, soft and marshy ground, as well as other obstacles, such as inland waterways.
"We understand the terrain, we know the climate, we know the landscape and we know the ground."
It is clear that the Terrex all-welded body made of armor steel, which withstands the caliber 7,62x51 mm, can be equipped with additional armor in order to increase the level of protection. The case has a modular design that makes it easy to take additional sets of active or passive armor to work in conditions with a high level of threats. In addition, the body of the machine has a certain level of mine protection.
The standard version of the armored personnel carrier has a crew of two people, the driver and the commander, and the aft troop compartment accommodates up to 11 people. They sit on individual energy absorbing seats that are attached directly to the sides and body; crew comfort is enhanced by air conditioning. The troop compartment in the stern has a power-operated ramp, inside of which a manual door is embedded for emergency escape of the vehicle.
As a rule, Terrex is armed with a stabilized remote-controlled combat module R-600, developed by Australian company Electro Optic Systems (EOS). R-600 rotates 360 ° and has vertical pointing angles from -10 to 60 °.
The module is equipped with a set of sensors, including day and night cameras and eye-safe laser range finder; with its help, it can identify targets at night at a distance above 2300 meters and in the afternoon at a range 2900 meters. R-600 is offered with two or one type of weapon. For the Singaporean army, a typical configuration is an 7,62-mm machine gun and an automatic 40-mm grenade launcher from ST Kinetics with air-launched munitions, as well as a variant with a large-caliber 12,7-mm machine gun. Two additional 7,62-mm machine guns, served by the troops, are mounted on the trunnions located on the sides of the troop compartment.
In addition to the assault carrier, ST Kinetics also developed several specialized vehicles in the Terrex family. Director of the development of the direction of wheeled vehicles and chief designer of Terrex Mr. with a short name O (Oh) in an interview with ST Kinetics in March 2015, said that the modular architecture of the machine allows the company to design options in accordance with the specific requirements of the customer.
For example, a sanitary / medical option for evacuating the wounded from a battlefield can hold up to three stretchers or five seated wounded. This machine also differs in the onboard equipment of the life support system, as well as the stretcher loading system.
Another specialized model is equipped with a dozer blade installed in front for clearing obstacles and preparing firing positions. A variant called an engineering fencing machine also carries a short heavy track bridge to support bridging.
“Our engineering vehicle is equipped with a front pusher for clearing obstacles, such as standing cars, which allows other vehicles to advance,” Mr. O. continued. “It was created specifically to meet the requirements for conducting urban combat.”
He added that the company also developed a version of the STrike ObserveR Mission (STORM), designed for fire control operators who coordinate direct and indirect fire firing tools, such as artillery and attack helicopters.
“Calling a helicopter to attack is usually a rather complicated procedure. But we are now marking the targets on the map of the battlefield in digital form and transmitting the coordinates to the helicopter crew, thereby significantly reducing the traditional chain of command transmission. ”
“This system is significantly more powerful. You can put the location of their forces on the map, which then appears on the display of the pilot. The pilot can also transfer his direction of approach or corridor of attack and then his troops will not accept the helicopter as a threat. Ground forces can also receive detailed air strikes to assess the degree of combat damage. ”
The company also markets other variants of the Terrex family, which includes a commander vehicle with improved communications, a mortar carrier with an ST Kinetics developed 120-mm mortar complex Super Rapid Advanced Mortar System (SRAMS), an anti-tank reconnaissance and surveillance and targeting machine, and anti-tank platform with installed spike ATGM launchers.
ST Kinetics does not participate in discussions about options already deployed other than the BMP version, but some sources report that some medical, engineering, and fire control options are already in service with the Singapore army.
Max. gross weight - 24000 kg
Length - 7,78 m
Width - 2,97 m
Height (body) - 2,46 m
Passenger Capacity - 13
Max speed - 105 km / h
Minimum speed - 5 km / h
Reversing speed - 14,5 km / h
Acceleration (0-50 km / h) - 13,5 seconds
Turning radius (without braking wheels on one side) - 8,5 m
Turning radius (with braking) - <6,1 m
Power reserve - 600 km (estimated)
Model - Caterpillar C9
Type - six-cylinder 4-stroke diesel with turbocharging
Full power - 450 HP (336 kW)
Allison 4500SP model (extended range)
Type - automatic
Transmission - 6 front, 1 rear
Electrical system and additional systems
Amps - 570
Volts - 28, DC
Air conditioning - cooling capacity 16 kW (54700 BTU / h)
Type - remotely controlled combat module
Armament - 7,62-mm machine gun and 40-mm AG (with air explosive ammunition)
Armament - 12,7-mm machine gun
Additional weapons - two machine guns in the stern
Sight - day / night cameras, laser range finder
The American company SAIC has teamed up with ST Kinetics in order to participate in the Marine Corps program on a floating machine Amphibious Combat Vehicle 1.1, taking for this an upgraded Terrex with improved amphibious capabilities
Marketing Director Mr. Choi said that the Terrex project has absorbed the company's long-term knowledge and experience in the development of combat vehicles. Without going into details, he added that the key focus of the Terrex project was the development of a machine that would meet the unique requirements of the Singapore Armed Forces.
However, it is quite clear that the Singaporean army constantly faces the problem of a lack of human reserves due to the small population of Singapore. Most of the personnel of the Singapore Army are two-year draftees and reservists serving 40 days a year.
"Our design philosophy is very clear, we are trying to make weapons that understand the characteristics of the Singapore army and meet the unique requirements that the army puts forward."
“The equipment we manufacture is designed with the aim of servicing as few people as possible ... we believe that engineering, automation and applied technologies will help us overcome the problems we face.”
“Singapore military personnel are not regular army soldiers. During the mobilization, it is assumed that they will be ready to leave the camp (in a given window) for operations. If a technique is so complicated that you constantly need to work with it and learn from it, then you will not be able to do the required work. ”
In order to overcome this problem, ST Kinetics introduced what she calls a high level of "soldier-centric" automation and engineering art into their Terrex car. For example, it is equipped with high-resolution day and night cameras around the perimeter of the 11. Networked cameras are a key component of some of the unique elements of Terrex, for example, the CHDS (Closed Hatch Driving and Surveillance System) manhole and surveillance systems and the All Round Surveillance System (ARSS), which increase the situational awareness of the crew and the landing force, as well as their security and safety.
CHDS consists of three flat panel displays at the driver’s seat, to which images from all cameras are directly displayed, which allows him to maneuver with the hatch closed. On the driver's screen displays pointers location and intermediate points of the route. In the ministry of defense, however, they say that CHDS is also improved by a real-time vehicle positioning function combining aerial photographs and raster maps and signals from the GPS-based navigation system, which reduces the driver’s dependence on the commander’s directions regarding driving directions.
The camera kit also forms the basis of the ARSS system. In fact, this is another flat-panel terminal, which displays a real-time image in the troop compartment, where soldiers can assess the situation outside the car. The company ST Kinetics argue that these systems contribute to increasing the level of security of the crew, especially in urban environments.
The other major systems in the Terrex machine are the BMS battle management system, as well as the WDS weapon detection system. The BMS allows the vehicle to connect with other ground and air combat units of the Singaporean army, as well as with UAVs, allowing commanders of motorized infantry units to receive an unprecedented level of access to combat information and fire support from the higher echelons.
The paratroopers are equipped with the Advanced Combat Man System (ACMS) infantry complex, which can communicate with other vehicles, allowing them to use a common network to raise awareness and call fire support. Terrex is also equipped with an acoustic detector for small arms fire. WDS, installed on the left side of the hull, detects and localizes enemy fire. Through BMS, the position of the enemy hand can be transferred to other deployed combat vehicles.
“If I can produce the same picture on all the machines, then the decision is made much faster. Today, an infantry unit can be supported by a battalion or even a brigade with such an exchange of information. ”
Mr. Oh also noted that such subsystems as a combat module, BMS and WDS are integrated into a single complex. He explained that this architecture allows you to create a system that detects targets, locates and automatically rotates the combat module in the direction of the enemy’s position for further study and neutralization of the target. This system allows the crew to respond to enemy fire faster.
In addition to the network-centric capabilities, the Terrex also has a good level of serviceability. According to Mr. Oh, the built-in test system notifies the crew of mechanical or electronic faults, allowing it to localize the faulty element to take it for repair or replace. Such a system improves Terrex availability during deployment, as the crew can conduct self-tests in the field and request replacement of defective components or technical assistance instead of returning to base. Due to more accurate replacement and maintenance needs, the total life cycle cost of the machine has decreased.
The pursuit of overseas markets
According to ST Kinetics, the Terrex machine was tested by the Singapore army in training exercises conducted in many countries, including Australia, India, Indonesia, Taiwan and the United States. As a result, the company is cautiously optimistic that its car attracts considerable interest abroad, despite the initial intention to develop a car exclusively for the Singapore Army.
Mr. Choi also noted that the successful deployment of the articulated armored all-terrain vehicle Warthog (which is based on its own Bronco armored personnel carrier) by the British contingent in Afghanistan has increased the credibility of the company. The British Department of Defense acquired 115 machines worth 222 million dollars on an urgent request approved by 2008; The last car was delivered to Afghanistan in the middle of the 2011 year. It is clear that several Warthog vehicles were damaged in combat operations, although no injuries were reported in these incidents.
ST Kinetics is currently collaborating with the American Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), participating in the Marine Corps program on the Amphibious Combat Vehicle Phase 1 Increment 1 (ACV 1.1), which according to the request for proposals released in April 2014, will be wheeled armored vehicle. The proposed machine will accommodate, in addition to three crew members and up to 13 paratroopers, will be able to overcome coastal waves with a height of 0,6 meters and coastal surf up to two meters at a speed of floating up to 8 nodes (15 km / h). The car must have a cruising range of up to 800 km.
The SAIC / ST Kinetics consortium, in which SAIC acts as the head organization, conducted a series of tests of the modernized Terrex version with a total combat mass of 2013 tons in 28, which demonstrated the ability to sail from a landing craft to the coast during sea state to the 1,25 meter.
In ST Kinetics declare that the upgraded Terrex machine, unlike the base analog, was specially created to meet the requirements of the Marine Corps. The company refused to provide more detailed information, but according to SAIC, the prototype is distinguished by unique modifications, including improved amphibious capabilities, as well as floating ceramic protection developed by Armatec Survivability. The SAIC / ST Kinetics consortium competes with three international consortia led by BAE Systems, General Dynamics Land Systems and Lockheed Martin.
ST Kinetics is also exploring several potential export options for its car. For example, Choi said the company pays special attention to the Australian LAND 400 Phase 2 program for a combat reconnaissance vehicle, which aims to replace the ASLAV (Australian Light Armored Vehicle) armored personnel carriers of the Australian army. He refused to give details, explaining that the decision to participate in the Australian competition has not yet been made and the company is also exploring other markets.
Mr Choi also said that the Terrex platform is being further developed, with the result that the next generation machine will appear in the future. ST Kinetics is exploring new technologies in order to increase machine protection and crew ergonomics. Also, improved transmission and ground clearance control with the aim of increasing crew comfort are not excluded.
“These are just some of the improvements that we are going to implement with the experience of local and foreign operations. The machine will be further developed ... our engineers are working very hard on an improved version of Terrex. "
Currently, the Singapore Army is installing a remote-controlled EOS-R600 combat module on Terrex vehicles. In recent years, ST Kinetics has introduced several weapon systems up to caliber up to 30 mm
Although the information is not confirmed either by the Singaporean army or by Singapore Technologies, some sources claim that at least three lots of Terrex 135 machines were manufactured, making up a total of 405 machines.
They are currently distributed in units, by 45 machines per battalion. The long-term goal is to at least double the number of machines to 810 units.
The future serial car will probably have a large mass, which will increase the internal volume and accommodate more systems and equipment, as well as increase the level of ballistic protection and install more powerful weapon systems.
The Terrex has already been shown with a locally-made combat module armed with a 30-mm cannon with two power lines and an 7,62-mm machine gun paired with it and grenade launcher units. On the right side of the turret mounted anti-tank launcher. The tower is equipped with modern opto-electronic systems that allow you to get search and shock capabilities.
In addition to the Terrex, ST Kinetics has also developed ground combat and artillery platforms for the Singapore Army, such as the Bionix tracked infantry combat vehicles and the 155-mm Primus 155 self-propelled artillery.
The company is not going to develop larger platforms, for example Tanksand instead focus on modern technology for machines less than 30 tons. However, she is engaged in the modernization and refinement of 96 tanks of the Singapore Leopard 2A4 army from the Bundeswehr stocks, which were delivered in 2008-2010 with sets of passive armor. At least 66 tanks were upgraded to the Leopard 2SG standard, the remaining tanks went for training or spare parts.
Substitutions are also awaited by some other ground combat systems of the Singapore Army, including the Primus SAU. The army must also replace its outdated AMX-13 SMI light tanks, which were removed from service after receiving the Leopard 2SG tanks.
ST Kinetics refused to confirm the development of the next generation of machines, stating that "it is always in a constant state of research and development." But it is clear that she will conduct these developments on the basis of her position in the country's defense industry. For example, the project of a light tank will be based on a modified Bionix chassis, which will accept the main large-caliber gun and other additional weapons.