Military Review

Chronicle of the "crusade expeditions" to Palestine

"This hill is a witness, and this monument is a witness"
(Genesis 31: 52)

And now let's get acquainted directly with the chronicles of the Crusades or "expeditions", as they said, to Palestine or the Outremer ("Lower Lands") *. After all, hikes, called "cross" in the European stories will be very much. But it is the campaigns to the East, which have as their goal the liberation of the cross of the Lord, are considered to be the main ones, and it is precisely they that are meant when they talk about the crusaders and their military expansion. After all, those who gave a vow to participate in the campaign and, so to speak, "took the cross", received it as a patch on the clothes. That's how they were called Crusaders, although it is not entirely clear how exactly they wore crosses on their armor. After all, the warriors of the first march to the East had not yet dressed clothes. Mail, mail stockings ... and where can I attach a cloth cross?

Chronicle of the "crusade expeditions" to Palestine

Crusader. 1163 Fresco - 1200's in the church of Kressac sur Charent, France.

All autumn and winter were spent in training camps - after all, it was necessary to stock a lot weapons, equipment and provisions for the road, while preachers meanwhile traveled around the cities and campaigned there. It is clear that Dad was primarily interested in the fact that the Knights went on a campaign. Moreover, he spoke directly about this, cautioning against the participation in the "expedition" of citizens and peasants, as well as women and those church ministers, that they did not receive a papal blessing for this. However, the “crusader fever” proved to be so contagious that people were removed from their places by entire villages, abandoned their workshops and trade, and with the men women were sent on the march!

1096 g. Spring came, the poor were the first to take the crusade, excited by the words of the monk Peter the Hermit. Besides him, they were led by another poor man - albeit the knight Gautier Sanzavuar (also known as Walter Goljak or Walter the Poor), and this “army” of about 20 thousands of people moved down Constantinople. Most of the peasants and townspeople participating in this campaign fell victim to clashes with the local people of the Christian countries through which they walked - Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria and Byzantium, who saw them as beggars and robbers. Then they had to face the Pechenegs who attacked them in Hungary, and when they crossed the Bosphorus, they had to fight the Seljuk Turks. As a result, many of them were killed, and the survivors fell into slavery. However, there were about 700 knights among them, although this number was not enough to fight the Seljuks. However, the remnants of these detachments in the number of about 3000 people escaped a general massacre and, later united with the knightly militia, participated in the battles of Dorileo and Antioch. Walter Golyak died in a battle under Nicomedia, but Peter the Hermit was lucky. He survived and ended his days in one of the monasteries of France.

Finally, in August 1096, the first knight troops moved to Palestine. However, it turned out that the chief sovereigns of Europe cannot lead the campaign. The reason is all of them: both William II of England, and Philip I of France, and even the German Emperor Henry IV at that time were excommunicated by the Pope! Therefore, the dukes and earls took the lead. So the crusaders of Normandy were headed by Duke Robert, son of William the Conqueror; Flanders Crusaders - Robert II; the knights of Lorraine marched under the command of Gottfried of Bouillon (Godfroy of Bouillon). The Crusaders of Southern France marched under the command of Raymond of Toulouse and Count Stephan of Blois; the troops of southern Italy were led by the ambitious Boemond of Tarent, the son of Robert Guicard. The troops, marching along different paths, joined in Constantinople, after which the Byzantines transported them to the lands of Asia Minor, where they seized Nikaia, the capital of the Rumsky sultanate, and where the Byzantines of Alexei I Comnenus reaffirmed their power. In August 1097, the Seljuk Turks of Sultan Kilich-Arslan I were defeated by the crusaders near Doriley, and then part of the crusading army took Edessa and the capital of Syria, the city of Antioch. Further the campaign was continued only by individual knight troops, which were led by the dukes of Lorraine and Normandy and the counts Raymond of Toulouse and Robert of Flanders. Finally, on July 15, 1099 was stormed by Jerusalem, and then newcomers from Europe captured many other cities of the Holy Land that was so attractive to them, and in particular Tripoli. Thus was the kingdom of Jerusalem born, and his throne, together with the title of "protector of the Holy Sepulcher", was given to Godfroy of Bouillon; then the principality of Antioch of Boemond of Tarent; Tripoli County Raymond Toulouse and County Edessa, inherited the brother of Godfroy Bouillon Baudouin. In the battle of Ascalon, the Seluduks were defeated once more, which made it possible to consolidate the success of the campaign.

1107 – 1110 The so-called “Norwegian crusade” took place, which was undertaken by the Norwegian King Sigurd I. About 5000 people took part in it, sailed to Palestine on the 60 ships. Reaching the Holy Land, Sirugd and his warriors took part in a series of battles, after which they sailed to Constantinople, from where they came by land, received horses from Emperor Alexei I, and leaving him their ships returned to their homeland.

1100 Mr. Godfroy of Bouillon died and Bodoin (Balduin) I (his younger brother) ascended to his throne, who had already accepted the title of King of Jerusalem. To manage the county of Edessa, he entrusted Baudouin Burgsky to his cousin.

1101 – 1103 A campaign followed by another knight militia, which followed the warriors of the first campaign under the authority of the Duke of Bavaria, Welf, the Bishop of Milan Anselm and the Duke of Burgundy - the so-called “rearguard crusade”. But it ended in failure, as the Seljuk Turks inflicted several defeats on its members.

1100 – 1118 Baudouin (Baldwin) rules in Jerusalem. I. The Crusaders continued to conquer cities in Syria and Palestine: Tiberias, Jaffa, Sarepta, Beirut, Sidon, Ptolemais (Acre, or Accon) and individual fortresses. Active struggle with local feudal lords at this time was conducted in the Galilee - a province of the Jerusalem kingdom.

1118 – 1131 Baudouin (Baldwin) II (Burgsky) becomes king. The large city of Tire was taken, and spiritual and knightly orders of the Templars and Hospitallers were formed, which were supposed to protect the Christian dominions in the Holy Land.

1131 – 1143 The reign of King Fulka of Anjou, son-in-law of Baudouin II, was marked by the construction of a number of castles and powerful fortresses. In 1135, Roger II, King of Sicily and Southern Italy, once again defeated the Iconian Sultan. However, an attempt to take Aleppo (Aleppo) in 1137 failed.

1143 – 1162 The king of the kingdom of Jerusalem is Baudouin (Baldwin) III, the grandson of Baudouin (Baldwin) II. Under him in the 1144 year the county of Edessa fell.

1147 – 1149 The French king Louis VII and the German emperor Conrad III set off for the second crusade. But German troops were defeated in the Battle of Doriley, and the French during the siege of Damascus. In addition, there was contention between the two armies of Christians. Under Baudouin (Baldwin) III, Ascalon (19 August 1153) was captured, and he also married Theodore, the niece of the Byzantine emperor Manuel Comnenus (1158), which strengthened the ties of the Crusaders and Byzantines. In the same year, the so-called Wendian crusade against the Slavs (Vendians) took place in which the feudal lords of Saxony, Denmark and Poland jointly acted against the Slavs who lived on the lands between the Elbe, Trave and Oder.

Castle Krak des Chevaliers.

1162 – 1174 Under Amalric (Amory) I, the younger brother of Baudouin (Balduin) III, two campaigns took place in Egypt, and in addition Gui de Lusignan and knights from Poitou and Aquitaine arrived in Palestine, and there also appeared a knight Renault de Chatillon. The Muslim commander Saladin (Salah al-Din ibn Ayyub) in 1171 overthrew the Egyptian Caliph of the Fatimid dynasty and, declaring himself the sultan, became the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty (1171 – 1250).

Weapons and equipment of the army Sallah ad Dinah.

1174 – 1185 The reign of Baudouin (Balduin) IV (Leper), son of Amalric I. In 1178, the Christians were successful: they defeated Saladin in the battle near Ascalon. Baron Renault de Chatillon became the owner of the Kerak and Montreal castles, standing on the Egypt-Jerusalem trade route. The wedding of Sibylla, sister of Baudouin IV and Guy Lusignan, took place, followed by his appointment as regent of the kingdom. However, in 1185, Lusignan was dismissed from the post of regent, and the young son of Sibylla from his first marriage with William of Montferrat was crowned as Baudouin V, only he reigned for one year. Meanwhile, Renault de Chatillon broke the truce and began to rob the caravans of Oriental merchants.

1186 Mr. Guy de Lusignan is proclaimed King of Jerusalem.

1187. Saladin's armies invaded Palestine. 4 July, the Crusaders are defeated in the battle with his troops under Hattin, and Jerusalem has to defend a simple knight Balyanu de Ibelin. In October, 1187, Jerusalem is surrendered to Muslims, and after that a number of cities and fortresses fall. Ascalon is exchanged for King Guy de Lusignan of Jerusalem who was captured by Hattin.

1187 – 1192 Lusignan is only the purely nominal king of Jerusalem. Marquis Conrad of Montferrat successfully defends the city of Tire from Muslims.

Knightly weapons of the Battle of Hattin.

1189 – 1192 The third crusade. Armies led by the German Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, the English King Richard I the Lionheart and the King of France Philip II Augustus go to the East. Barbarossa won a number of victories, but ... drowned in the mountain river Salef in Asia Minor, and did not get to Palestine, after which most of his army turned back. Richard I fought off the island of Cyprus from the Byzantines, and the fortress of Acre on the coast of Palestine. Due to disputes between the British and the French, the latter left Syria. Therefore, attempts by Richard I to free Jerusalem were unsuccessful. As a result, he signed a peace treaty with Sultan Saladin, secured from him the right to land on the coast from Tire to Jaffa, Askelon completely destroyed, and free passage for pilgrims to Jerusalem. Then he left Palestine in order not to return here anymore. Guy Lusignan also resigned his crown and left for Cyprus. Conrad of Montferrat became the King of Jerusalem, but he was killed by an assassin who had been sent by assassin. As a result, Count Heinrich Champagne became the new king.

Seal of the King of England Richard I (1195 g.). (Museum of the History of Vendée, Boulogne, Vendée).

1193. Death of Saladin.
1195. Death of the German Emperor Henry VI, who planned to go on a crusade, which because of this did not take place.
1202 – 1204 The fourth, and the most shameful crusade. To the call of Pope Innocent III to go to Egypt, the Marquis Boniface of Montferrat and Count Baudouin (Balduin) of Flanders volunteered. Pursuing the private interests of Venice, Doge Enrico Dandolo managed to redirect the crusading army against Orthodox Byzantium. In April 1204, after a fierce assault, the capital of the empire, the city of Constantinople, fell, and the European possessions of Byzantium and part of the Asian lands became part of the newly formed Latin Empire, headed by Count Flanders (under the name of Emperor Baudouin (Balduin) I). On the remnants of the possessions of Byzantium in Asia Minor a new Orthodox state arose - the Nicene Empire, in which the Laskaris dynasty was established.

The Praying Crusader is a miniature from the Winchester Psalter. Second quarter of the 13th century It is shown in typical for its time defensive armament: a chain haberge with a hood and highways on the front part of the leg made of metal disks on rivets. It is possible that the cross on the shoulder has a rigid base under it, well, let's say the shoulder strap of a cuirass made of leather, which is covered by a surco. (British Library).

1205. Death of King Amalric II of Jerusalem. Maria, the daughter of his wife from a second marriage, becomes the regent of the kingdom. French King Philip II Augustus is seeking her marriage with John de Brienne, who becomes King of Jerusalem.

1212. The Crusade of Children, which began immediately in France and in Germany after the sermons that God would give the Holy Land into the hands of sinless children. As a result, thousands of teenagers were immersed in Marseilles (then Marsala), on ships and sold into slavery on arrival in Alexandria.

1217 – 1221 The fifth crusade was carried out under the leadership of the King of Hungary Andrew (Endre), the Austrian duke Leopold and the rulers of the Crusader states in Palestine. The result was the capture of Damietta - an important fortress in Egypt. However, the feuds among the crusaders did not allow them to build on the success achieved and to keep the city.

French King Louis VII and King of the Kingdom of Jerusalem Baudouin III (left) battling the Saracens (right). Miniature from the manuscript of Guillaume de Tire “The Outremer Story”, 1337, (National Library, Paris).

1228 – 1229 Sixth Crusade. He was headed by the German emperor and King of the State of Two Sicilies, Friedrich II Staufen, who took the cross in 1212 year, but still pulled and pulled with his participation in the campaign. He strengthened Jaffa, and then, in a completely peaceful way, negotiated with the Sultan of Egypt Elkamil without war, returned Jerusalem, Nazareth and Bethlehem to the Christians, after which he proclaimed himself King of Jerusalem, but was not approved by the Pope or the feudal lords of the Holy Land. Moreover, the Pope excommunicated him and freed all Italians from their oath of allegiance to his emperor. That is why they sometimes say about Frederick that he was a crusader without a cross, and his campaign was like a campaign without a campaign, since he did not fight against the Muslims. However, he spoke Jerusalem to Christians for a full ten years, which, according to the treaty, was in their hands until the 1244 year.

The initial letter "O" - with the image of the knights of the Outremer (Lower Earth) inside. Around 1232 - 1261 Pay attention to the characteristic "bonnet" under the mail hood at the knight, standing on the right. Miniature from the "Outremer's Story". (British Library)

1248 – 1254 The Seventh Crusade was organized by the French King Louis IX the Holy, who was famous for his piety and asceticism. He also landed in Egypt, took several fortresses, but was defeated at the walls of Cairo, captured by Muslims and managed to free himself for a huge ransom.

Bout Knut the Great and Edmund Zheleznobokogo, after which they made peace, and Edmund was treacherously murdered. Miniature from the Bible Confessor by Matthew of Paris. About 1250 (Parker Library, Body of Christ College, Cambridge)

1261 city. The collapse of the Latin Empire created by the crusaders. The emperor of Nikaia, Michael VIII, Palaeologus conquered Constantinople from the crusaders and revived the Byzantine empire.

The Battle of Forbi, 1244. The Templars are defeated by the Muslims. Miniature from the "Big Chronicle" by Matthew Paris, second part. (Parker Library, Body of Christ College, Oxford)

1270 d. The Eighth Crusade, the initiator of which was the same indefatigable Saint Louis. Initially, it was planned against Egypt, but then, under the influence of the brother of King Charles of Anjou, the king of Both Sicilies, was redirected against the Arabs of North Africa. The landing of the Crusaders took place in Tunisia, near the ruins of Carthage, where King Louis and his entire army died from a plague epidemic.

Battle of Damietta Miniature from the "Big Chronicle" by Matthew Paris. (British Library)

1271 was the landing of English knights in Palestine under the leadership of the future King of England Edward I, nicknamed the Long-footed, at that time still crown prince. In fact, it was a real ninth crusade, and it should be called the last crusade of the European Crusaders to Palestine. First, Edward began negotiations with the Mongols, offering them a joint statement against the worst enemy of Christians - the Egyptian Sultan of the Mamluks. However, he succeeded in repelling the Mongols' offensive, and then he concluded a peace treaty with the Sultan, according to which the last bits of the Holy Land were to remain in the hands of Christians for 10 years and 10 months.

St. Nicholas Cathedral in Famagusta in Cyprus. Built in the XIV century on the model of the Reims Cathedral in the late Gothic style by the Cypriot kings from the Lusignan dynasty. About how beautiful, you can judge by this photo. The Turks also attached a minaret to his left and turned it into a mosque!

Behind him, perhaps, it looks even more impressive ...

But this “mosque” looks inside!

1291 d. The ten-year treaty expired, and Muslims were able to begin hostilities. 18 May 1291, after a long siege, they took Accon, then Tire, Sidon, and finally, July 31 - Beirut, after which the domination of Christians in the East was over. From their former possessions in Asia Minor, only Minor Armenia (Cilicia) remained behind them, as well as the island of Cyprus, where the royal dynasty of Lusignan was established.

The image of the three inverted shields with the emblem of the French Crusaders who died in Gaza and the inverted banners of the Hospitaller and Templar. "History of England", part three, the continuation of the "Big Chronicle" by Matthew Paris. Around 1250 - 1259 (British Library)

1298. The Grand Master of the Order of the Templars becomes Jacques de Molay (before that, the Great Prior of England was the vicar of the Order). Realizing that only military victories and the return to the Holy Land will be able to prolong the existence of the Order, goes on a risky step - only by the forces of some Templars begins a crusade and in 1299, again takes Jerusalem by storm. But now the Templars could not keep the city in their hands, and in 1300, they had to leave Palestine again, now forever.

The Church of St. George, the patron saint of the English, in Famagusta. This is all that is left of it, otherwise the Turks would add a minaret to it!

* The name Outremer - or "Lower Lands" Palestine received because on the European maps of the time was depicted below.

Fig. A Shepsa
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  1. kind
    kind 9 September 2015 07: 03 New
    fool Today, the descendants of the Saracens invade Europe, and the descendants of the Crusaders homosexual at their pleasure. Instead of Germany will be the ARG (Arab Republic of Germany). So Allah akbar, dear fellow Germans !!!
    1. DanSabaka
      DanSabaka 9 September 2015 07: 47 New
      Allahu akbar, dear fellow Germans !!!

      TRUE, AKBAR!
    2. Stirbjorn
      Stirbjorn 9 September 2015 09: 03 New
      By the way, the article clearly shows the difference between medieval Muslims and the current thugs from ISIS, which destroy everything that is possible. And they simply attached minarets from the side and the church became a mosque. The monument of ancient architecture, in the end, was preserved from exuberant heads.
      1. Chiropractor
        Chiropractor 10 September 2015 17: 51 New
        maybe I'm boring, but

        Quote: Vyacheslav Shpakovsky
        not far from the ruins of Carthage, where both King Louis and his entire army died from a plague

        ruins, sorry, what? A city that was destroyed and covered with salt for a hundred and a half years BEFORE the Era? those. for 150 + 1270 = 1420 (approximately) years, the sun, wind and sand built the ruins back ... poorly believed

        further - and he landed there exactly? maybe he landed in the city and after that he left ruins?

        plague - an acute natural focal infectious disease of the group of quarantine infections. carriers are fleas and rodents. those. at the landing site there were fleas and, accordingly, the animals on which they lived or the storage of grain that rodents fed on.
        food storages or animals in ruins - organized themselves?
        Knights could not bring the plague with them - the incubation period is from several hours to 6 days, and the voyage through the Mediterranean is much longer - if there were infection upon departure, then upon arrival it would be a fleet of the dead.

        so it doesn’t work out - either Carthage was only destroyed, or it wasn’t Carthage ...

        and this I dug into only one sentence, which caught my eye, and if you carefully re-read ...

        PS. miniature - Battle of Damietta - dump of everyone with everyone, spears in the back stab. helmets - and tinsels, and the Fraiskian cap (and maybe the Macedonian helmet of the soldiers of Alexander the Great), but everything according to the charter in chain mail is a discipline !!!
  2. The comment was deleted.
  3. washi
    washi 9 September 2015 07: 58 New
    And with what Mongols did Edward 1 want to agree? Please explain.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 9 September 2015 08: 09 New
      L.N. Gumilev Black legend ..
    2. kalibr
      9 September 2015 08: 24 New
      Who came to Palestine. They not only reached Europe, but also Egypt, where they were stopped by the Mamluks. And Baghdad was taken by the Mongols.
      1. washi
        washi 9 September 2015 08: 43 New
        Quote: kalibr
        Who came to Palestine. They not only reached Europe, but also Egypt, where they were stopped by the Mamluks. And Baghdad was taken by the Mongols.

        As I understand it, those Mongols have nothing to do with the modern ones. So what kind of people are these?
        1. kalibr
          9 September 2015 10: 00 New
          People of Genghis Khan. They were called the Mongols. While. In written sources. And who they really were, I will not tell you. I do not know.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 9 September 2015 08: 10 New
    Judging by the present, the crusades did not end ...
    1. washi
      washi 9 September 2015 08: 40 New
      Quote: parusnik
      Judging by the present, the crusades did not end ...

      But the response has already begun - “half-month” campaigns
      1. Stirbjorn
        Stirbjorn 9 September 2015 09: 04 New
        Half a month to Paris reached under Charlemagne
        1. kalibr
          9 September 2015 10: 00 New
          Not until Paris and not with Charles ...
          1. Stirbjorn
            Stirbjorn 9 September 2015 11: 34 New
            Well, I admit - this song misled me about Roland) But they reached Poitiers for sure, with another Carla)
            1. kalibr
              9 September 2015 11: 53 New
              Yes, and Mayor Karl Martell (Hammer) broke them there.
            2. parusnik
              parusnik 9 September 2015 12: 01 New
              The battle of Poitiers took place on October 10, 732 near the city of Tours, not far from the border between the Frankish kingdom and then independent Aquitaine. In the battle, Frankish forces collided under the leadership of the Australian Mayordom Karl Martell (Karl the Great Grandson of Karl Martell) and the Arab forces of the Umayyad Caliphate under the command of Abdur Rahman ibn Abdallah, ruler of al-Andalusia. The Franks won, Abdur-Rahman ibn Abdallah was killed, and Martell subsequently spread his influence further south. Chronicles of the XNUMXth century, interpreting the outcome of the battle as a sign of God's favor with Karl, gave him the nickname "The Hammer". Details of the battle, including its exact location and the number of those fighting, cannot be established from extant sources, although, according to legend, the Frankish troops won the battle without cavalry. Following the chroniclers who extolled Karl Martell as a guardian for Christianity, historians characterized this battle as the XNUMXth century as a decisive turn in the resistance to Islam. “Most of the XNUMXth and XNUMXth century historians, such as Gibbon, saw a significant battle in Poitiers (Tours), marking the highest point of Muslim advancement in Europe.” Leopold von Ranke believed that "the Battle of Poitiers was the turning point of one of the most important eras in the history of the world."
              Although modern historians are divided in their views on the role of victory - as Gibbon and his generation of historians assured - in saving Christianity and preventing the subjugation of Europe by Islam, the battle laid the foundation for the Franks and Carolingian empire to dominate Europe in the next century. "The establishment of Frankish rule in Western Europe shaped the fate of the continent, and the Battle of Tour confirmed this rule."
              1. SlavaP
                SlavaP 9 September 2015 22: 25 New
                And then, “Song of Roland,” I advise.
                1. victor
                  victor 10 September 2015 14: 46 New
                  And about the knights of the round table with Arthur and Merlin (by the way, a quarter of the knights are neg ... sorry for the Anglo-Africans) - especially in the series (my squaw was watching, I was laughing ... crying) - a purely real story. By the way, like that, that Darwin, like all Saxo-Angles, descended from monkeys.
              2. victor
                victor 10 September 2015 14: 41 New
                The main words - ACCORDING TO THE LEGEND ... Tales of Tsar Mitroshka, when the people had trophies, from the same opera. Historical facts, and not prohfessor from the Jerusalem seminary clears ... WHERE AND WHY? FACTS !!!! Or historians (18 -19 centuries, who lived like us after more than 1000 years) knew more about these events? Naivnyak. Forgive me if I was absurd ... But I don't believe rumors, from Grandma Paraska, from historians. By the way, Grandma at least sometimes ( like a weather forecast) hits the target ...
  5. vrach
    vrach 9 September 2015 08: 19 New
    Well, they have kings Badun 1, Badun 2, Badun 3, if you remove it.
    And so
    1212. The Crusade of Children, which began immediately in France and in Germany after the sermons that God would give the Holy Land into the hands of sinless children. As a result, thousands of teenagers were immersed in Marseilles (then Marsala), on ships and sold into slavery on arrival in Alexandria.

    Adults do not seem sorry, they signed themselves. But this commercial operation on the basics of the Islamic economy, how to call it?
    1. Captain nemo
      Captain nemo 9 September 2015 16: 36 New
      Looks like the Lord saw through those "sinless children" who no longer had milk teeth in their mouth but molars, who, like their preachers, had encroached on the "holy" land, which since their birth, like their parents, had not belonged to them and could not belong to them. After all, they did not sow, plow and graze sheep, they went there, for this they had their own land in Europe.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  6. Basil50
    Basil50 9 September 2015 08: 35 New
    * Knights *, probably we all read out novels with noble and courageous heroes, so children’s performances are so reluctant. The aunt’s history is harsh and it’s sometimes scary to look her * in the eye *, so * populizers * appear, trying to ugly places of their ancestors to somehow fearlessly tell and flatter themselves. In fact, chivalry does not pull on anything decent. Smelly, uneducated and superstitious, in general it is difficult to consider something attractive in knights. However, fables still multiply about them and even * kin * are removed. And * some * countries conduct policies exactly according to the recipes of wild knights to this day.
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 9 September 2015 22: 59 New
      Well, I don’t know, in my opinion the knights were quite literate, because the concept of a knightly spear is a designation not of a weapon, but of a detachment. The spear is a detachment, and the knight ruled it, how to reduce debit with credit without mathematics? Again, tactics, the knight-commander of the junior link, respectively, and tactics should be trained. In addition, they had nobles and money, which confirms their equipment and the fact that they could contain a detachment of soldiers. As for education, war was the norm for them, so they were cruel.
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 10 September 2015 13: 26 New
        And you read the * code * written for the English * knights *. You will discover many interesting and probably new things for yourself. Even learning tactics was * specific *. In general, look, there are many editions, different times, but you will find the general.
      2. victor
        victor 10 September 2015 14: 52 New
        By the way, they dressed and undressed from the armor for about an hour or two. In the ranks, at the tournament, in the battle - 8-12 hours ... Where did the spirits go? SECOND - most of the knights are mercenaries who have each other’s estates - PREVENTED. Especially about Poles and Germans ... sorry, then the so-called Look for the Germans Old ... Anglitsky just angels.
  7. unknown
    unknown 9 September 2015 09: 01 New
    What time is it?
    Who led the crusades?
    Italian Rome arose after its founder fled from Constantinople after its "capture" by the Turks in 1453.
    Who was sent?
    Latin was created by Stepan of Parma (Perm) based on the ancient Slavic alphabet. Not without reason, a cathedral in his honor was established in Vienna.
    French, German (created in 1902) and other "Jewish" languages ​​were not. "Jew" translated as "migrant". "Europe" is a country (side) of immigrants.
    Against whom were they directed?
    Many Russian proverbs make sense after their translation into the so-called Arabic. The Arabs themselves call their letter Turkish.
    Saracens - translated "royal", from the sar-king, for example Tsaritsyn.
    That which we, through our ignorance, turned into a "mat" is Turkish.
    Where did they go?
    In the "Palestine" of the Middle East, or in Palestine on the Apennine Peninsula.
    Shlomo Zand, a professor at Tel Aviv University, in his book “Who and How Invented the Jewish People” proved that Jews are an artificial people created by the method of proletism, and at a later time.
    And Constantinople, the capital of the Roman Empire, inherited the true, and not mythical, Roman Empire.
    If at all true in the so-called "history of the Crusades"?
    1. kalibr
      9 September 2015 10: 04 New
      You, dear, what school have you graduated from? I'd like to know where this is taught. And if this is “self-education,” it is still interesting what kind of basic education you have in order to see what the fundamental principle is imposed on ...
      1. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 9 September 2015 22: 51 New
        Ren TV channel, along the way ... Most likely a military secret or something very similar.
      2. EwgenyZ
        EwgenyZ 10 September 2015 09: 29 New
        Quote: kalibr
        You, dear, what school have you graduated from? I'd like to know where this is taught. And if this is “self-education,” it is still interesting what kind of basic education you have in order to see what the fundamental principle is imposed on ...

        On YouTube, there are many such courses, mainly the newly-arrived wise men (Rodnovers) teach them, Pater Dij, for example. Here you can hear even worse stories, and this is so, an easy “warm-up”.
    2. victor
      victor 10 September 2015 15: 52 New
      You still ask when the Khan Genghis appeared ... When a village with a similar name to Jerusalem was found (and who rebuilt it) ... Why is the "Red Flower" written in Russian and Arabic ... Why is Novgorod Bridge only 500-550 years old? ??????? And many more why ... And why ALL the Pharaohs ruled for 33 years ?????????????
      1. Chiropractor
        Chiropractor 10 September 2015 17: 24 New
        Quote: victor
        why ALL the pharaohs ruled for 33 years ??????????????

        it's simple - scientists consulted and so decided that 3 pharaohs per century, there is no actual evidence
        hence the 4200 year history of Egypt
  8. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 9 September 2015 09: 59 New
    And what is it for? A brief overview of the Crusades. A much more interesting series of articles on certain issues! Like for example about Tsushima or the First World War! And the Crusades once again show the deceit and aggressiveness of European civilization !! It took Italian cities - republics to take the Silk road from the Arabs, brought the pope and bam, here you have the struggle for democracy and liberal values ​​against the dictatorial regimes of the Middle East, along with the Greeks of Constantinople, as competitors were removed! And at least someone cried about the tear of the murdered Jerusalem boy?
    1. kalibr
      9 September 2015 10: 25 New
      But this is a series of articles, did you not notice? First about the symbols of the cross, then about the reasons for the hikes, then their chronology. Then the theme will evolve. Everything is logical.
  9. ermak.sidorov
    ermak.sidorov 9 September 2015 10: 07 New
    THOUSAND YEARS of experience in the "democratization" of other states is not a frail experience = (Of the whole Shabla there was only one sane "man" = Frederick II Staufen, the one who did not fight with anyone agreed with everyone: and everyone prayed, worshiped, and pilfered wherever their soul pleased and nobody cut anyone for 10 years !!! This is probably why he graters came out with greedy dad and bloodthirsty feudal lords = (
  10. Velizariy
    Velizariy 9 September 2015 12: 11 New
    Quote: kalibr
    You, dear, what school have you graduated from? I'd like to know where this is taught. And if this is “self-education,” it is still interesting what kind of basic education you have in order to see what the fundamental principle is imposed on ...

    This is ukroary or what our equivalent is - proto-vedusor, but also an ary, without fail, without this you cannot be beyond the ancient and beyond the man! They are actually from parallel reality, from the world of dreams. Therefore, it’s difficult to prove something to him, a pair is impossible ...
  11. PSih2097
    PSih2097 9 September 2015 14: 47 New
    there is a cool series from the Air Force "History of the Crusades"
  12. Villiam wolf
    Villiam wolf 9 September 2015 15: 06 New
    Quote: Vasily50
    In fact, chivalry does not pull on anything decent. Smelly, uneducated and superstitious, it’s generally difficult to consider something attractive in knights.

    Dear commentator "Vasily50", since you are remotely reminiscent of either knowing about the Middle Ages, chivalry and European noble houses, I bring to your attention that the so-called "knights" in the vast majority were the youngest sons of European nobles (princes, dukes, barons, etc.) e.) therefore, they were fairly well educated, educated and trained in military affairs. A similar situation with the younger sons was due to the peculiarities of inheritance rights of titles and possessions, forcing them to seek their own food and fame.
    PS If today is compared with the Middle Ages, then of course it seems to us that that era was the height of barbarism and in many ways we will be right.
    1. Chiropractor
      Chiropractor 10 September 2015 18: 06 New
      educated by whom? where did teachers pick up each castle?
      you have blinkers of modern education - now literate a dime a dozen, which means it used to be.
      not at all!

      Yes, I agree to military affairs, but hardly literacy and sciences.
      managers were engaged in the household, and only the second sons-priests were trained in contemptible literacy, and the first inherited everything at once.
    2. Basil50
      Basil50 10 September 2015 18: 35 New
      There are a lot of experts on * knights *, we are looking at the kicks, so there are almost eyewitnesses to the events. Just read the European WRITTEN sources of reluctance. European savages even in the 20th century showed both the level of culture and the level of technology. Tales of * advanced * Europe are nothing more than a myth. In RUSSIA, this myth was born by direct order of the Germans on the throne and other * Europeans * near the throne, now it is a fashion trend among * democrats * and other * tiligents *.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  13. xan
    xan 9 September 2015 15: 42 New
    Back in Soviet times, I read that the last Jerusalem “king without a kingdom” from the Luzinyanov dynasty lived in retirement of religious organizations, did not have citizenship and permanent residence, died and was buried in St. Petersburg during WWII.
    Now I don’t exclude that I could just be a “chip-cutter” fraudster.
  14. chelovektapok
    chelovektapok 9 September 2015 15: 45 New
    Went? WENT! And now the RESPONSE! "Saracens" go to Europe! At that time, Saladdin fought back and left Jerusalem behind. Whose will Berlin, London, Paris, Madrid, etc. be soon? .... Without Wang’s grandmother, it’s clear, although she was talking about that. Who of the "white masters of the World" does not do circumcision himself, the "brother-in-law" who use their daughters will help, and the excess will be cut off from the upper end of the body. Whoever does not understand is worse! It’s time to already understand the greasy, snobbish, arrogant Europe that the World has changed and EVERYTHING VERY SERIOUSLY!
    1. SlavaP
      SlavaP 9 September 2015 22: 29 New
      Understand, and very many. Only they can’t do anything: try to declare yourself at least sympathetic to the British Defense League (EDL) - you will instantly fly out of work with a wolf ticket, and then they will close your bank account and you’ll be a corpse.
    2. Victorio
      Victorio 10 September 2015 00: 36 New
      Quote: chelovektapok
      Went? WENT! And now the RESPONSE! "Saracens" go to Europe! At that time, Saladdin fought back and left Jerusalem behind. Whose will Berlin, London, Paris, Madrid, etc. be soon? .... Without Wang’s grandmother, it’s clear, although she was talking about that. Who of the "white masters of the World" does not do circumcision himself, the "brother-in-law" who use their daughters will help, and the excess will be cut off from the upper end of the body. Whoever does not understand is worse! It’s time to already understand the greasy, snobbish, arrogant Europe that the World has changed and EVERYTHING VERY SERIOUSLY!

      there’s no need to dramatize like that, there is money in Europe,
      there would be a desire, they will accept more than one million. and if they are not accepted, then the whole idea of ​​the advanced west will go to hell, they are now hostages of their ideology