"This hill is a witness, and this monument is a witness"
(Genesis 31: 52)
(Genesis 31: 52)
And now let's get acquainted directly with the chronicles of the Crusades or "expeditions", as they said, to Palestine or the Outremer ("Lower Lands") *. After all, hikes, called "cross" in the European stories will be very much. But it is the campaigns to the East, which have as their goal the liberation of the cross of the Lord, are considered to be the main ones, and it is precisely they that are meant when they talk about the crusaders and their military expansion. After all, those who gave a vow to participate in the campaign and, so to speak, "took the cross", received it as a patch on the clothes. That's how they were called Crusaders, although it is not entirely clear how exactly they wore crosses on their armor. After all, the warriors of the first march to the East had not yet dressed clothes. Mail, mail stockings ... and where can I attach a cloth cross?
Crusader. 1163 Fresco - 1200's in the church of Kressac sur Charent, France.
All autumn and winter were spent in training camps - after all, it was necessary to stock a lot weapons, equipment and provisions for the road, while preachers meanwhile traveled around the cities and campaigned there. It is clear that Dad was primarily interested in the fact that the Knights went on a campaign. Moreover, he spoke directly about this, cautioning against the participation in the "expedition" of citizens and peasants, as well as women and those church ministers, that they did not receive a papal blessing for this. However, the “crusader fever” proved to be so contagious that people were removed from their places by entire villages, abandoned their workshops and trade, and with the men women were sent on the march!
1096 g. Spring came, the poor were the first to take the crusade, excited by the words of the monk Peter the Hermit. Besides him, they were led by another poor man - albeit the knight Gautier Sanzavuar (also known as Walter Goljak or Walter the Poor), and this “army” of about 20 thousands of people moved down Constantinople. Most of the peasants and townspeople participating in this campaign fell victim to clashes with the local people of the Christian countries through which they walked - Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria and Byzantium, who saw them as beggars and robbers. Then they had to face the Pechenegs who attacked them in Hungary, and when they crossed the Bosphorus, they had to fight the Seljuk Turks. As a result, many of them were killed, and the survivors fell into slavery. However, there were about 700 knights among them, although this number was not enough to fight the Seljuks. However, the remnants of these detachments in the number of about 3000 people escaped a general massacre and, later united with the knightly militia, participated in the battles of Dorileo and Antioch. Walter Golyak died in a battle under Nicomedia, but Peter the Hermit was lucky. He survived and ended his days in one of the monasteries of France.
Finally, in August 1096, the first knight troops moved to Palestine. However, it turned out that the chief sovereigns of Europe cannot lead the campaign. The reason is all of them: both William II of England, and Philip I of France, and even the German Emperor Henry IV at that time were excommunicated by the Pope! Therefore, the dukes and earls took the lead. So the crusaders of Normandy were headed by Duke Robert, son of William the Conqueror; Flanders Crusaders - Robert II; the knights of Lorraine marched under the command of Gottfried of Bouillon (Godfroy of Bouillon). The Crusaders of Southern France marched under the command of Raymond of Toulouse and Count Stephan of Blois; the troops of southern Italy were led by the ambitious Boemond of Tarent, the son of Robert Guicard. The troops, marching along different paths, joined in Constantinople, after which the Byzantines transported them to the lands of Asia Minor, where they seized Nikaia, the capital of the Rumsky sultanate, and where the Byzantines of Alexei I Comnenus reaffirmed their power. In August 1097, the Seljuk Turks of Sultan Kilich-Arslan I were defeated by the crusaders near Doriley, and then part of the crusading army took Edessa and the capital of Syria, the city of Antioch. Further the campaign was continued only by individual knight troops, which were led by the dukes of Lorraine and Normandy and the counts Raymond of Toulouse and Robert of Flanders. Finally, on July 15, 1099 was stormed by Jerusalem, and then newcomers from Europe captured many other cities of the Holy Land that was so attractive to them, and in particular Tripoli. Thus was the kingdom of Jerusalem born, and his throne, together with the title of "protector of the Holy Sepulcher", was given to Godfroy of Bouillon; then the principality of Antioch of Boemond of Tarent; Tripoli County Raymond Toulouse and County Edessa, inherited the brother of Godfroy Bouillon Baudouin. In the battle of Ascalon, the Seluduks were defeated once more, which made it possible to consolidate the success of the campaign.
1107 – 1110 The so-called “Norwegian crusade” took place, which was undertaken by the Norwegian King Sigurd I. About 5000 people took part in it, sailed to Palestine on the 60 ships. Reaching the Holy Land, Sirugd and his warriors took part in a series of battles, after which they sailed to Constantinople, from where they came by land, received horses from Emperor Alexei I, and leaving him their ships returned to their homeland.
1100 Mr. Godfroy of Bouillon died and Bodoin (Balduin) I (his younger brother) ascended to his throne, who had already accepted the title of King of Jerusalem. To manage the county of Edessa, he entrusted Baudouin Burgsky to his cousin.
1101 – 1103 A campaign followed by another knight militia, which followed the warriors of the first campaign under the authority of the Duke of Bavaria, Welf, the Bishop of Milan Anselm and the Duke of Burgundy - the so-called “rearguard crusade”. But it ended in failure, as the Seljuk Turks inflicted several defeats on its members.
1100 – 1118 Baudouin (Baldwin) rules in Jerusalem. I. The Crusaders continued to conquer cities in Syria and Palestine: Tiberias, Jaffa, Sarepta, Beirut, Sidon, Ptolemais (Acre, or Accon) and individual fortresses. Active struggle with local feudal lords at this time was conducted in the Galilee - a province of the Jerusalem kingdom.
1118 – 1131 Baudouin (Baldwin) II (Burgsky) becomes king. The large city of Tire was taken, and spiritual and knightly orders of the Templars and Hospitallers were formed, which were supposed to protect the Christian dominions in the Holy Land.
1131 – 1143 The reign of King Fulka of Anjou, son-in-law of Baudouin II, was marked by the construction of a number of castles and powerful fortresses. In 1135, Roger II, King of Sicily and Southern Italy, once again defeated the Iconian Sultan. However, an attempt to take Aleppo (Aleppo) in 1137 failed.
1143 – 1162 The king of the kingdom of Jerusalem is Baudouin (Baldwin) III, the grandson of Baudouin (Baldwin) II. Under him in the 1144 year the county of Edessa fell.
1147 – 1149 The French king Louis VII and the German emperor Conrad III set off for the second crusade. But German troops were defeated in the Battle of Doriley, and the French during the siege of Damascus. In addition, there was contention between the two armies of Christians. Under Baudouin (Baldwin) III, Ascalon (19 August 1153) was captured, and he also married Theodore, the niece of the Byzantine emperor Manuel Comnenus (1158), which strengthened the ties of the Crusaders and Byzantines. In the same year, the so-called Wendian crusade against the Slavs (Vendians) took place in which the feudal lords of Saxony, Denmark and Poland jointly acted against the Slavs who lived on the lands between the Elbe, Trave and Oder.
Castle Krak des Chevaliers.
1162 – 1174 Under Amalric (Amory) I, the younger brother of Baudouin (Balduin) III, two campaigns took place in Egypt, and in addition Gui de Lusignan and knights from Poitou and Aquitaine arrived in Palestine, and there also appeared a knight Renault de Chatillon. The Muslim commander Saladin (Salah al-Din ibn Ayyub) in 1171 overthrew the Egyptian Caliph of the Fatimid dynasty and, declaring himself the sultan, became the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty (1171 – 1250).
Weapons and equipment of the army Sallah ad Dinah.
1174 – 1185 The reign of Baudouin (Balduin) IV (Leper), son of Amalric I. In 1178, the Christians were successful: they defeated Saladin in the battle near Ascalon. Baron Renault de Chatillon became the owner of the Kerak and Montreal castles, standing on the Egypt-Jerusalem trade route. The wedding of Sibylla, sister of Baudouin IV and Guy Lusignan, took place, followed by his appointment as regent of the kingdom. However, in 1185, Lusignan was dismissed from the post of regent, and the young son of Sibylla from his first marriage with William of Montferrat was crowned as Baudouin V, only he reigned for one year. Meanwhile, Renault de Chatillon broke the truce and began to rob the caravans of Oriental merchants.
1186 Mr. Guy de Lusignan is proclaimed King of Jerusalem.
1187. Saladin's armies invaded Palestine. 4 July, the Crusaders are defeated in the battle with his troops under Hattin, and Jerusalem has to defend a simple knight Balyanu de Ibelin. In October, 1187, Jerusalem is surrendered to Muslims, and after that a number of cities and fortresses fall. Ascalon is exchanged for King Guy de Lusignan of Jerusalem who was captured by Hattin.
1187 – 1192 Lusignan is only the purely nominal king of Jerusalem. Marquis Conrad of Montferrat successfully defends the city of Tire from Muslims.
Knightly weapons of the Battle of Hattin.
1189 – 1192 The third crusade. Armies led by the German Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, the English King Richard I the Lionheart and the King of France Philip II Augustus go to the East. Barbarossa won a number of victories, but ... drowned in the mountain river Salef in Asia Minor, and did not get to Palestine, after which most of his army turned back. Richard I fought off the island of Cyprus from the Byzantines, and the fortress of Acre on the coast of Palestine. Due to disputes between the British and the French, the latter left Syria. Therefore, attempts by Richard I to free Jerusalem were unsuccessful. As a result, he signed a peace treaty with Sultan Saladin, secured from him the right to land on the coast from Tire to Jaffa, Askelon completely destroyed, and free passage for pilgrims to Jerusalem. Then he left Palestine in order not to return here anymore. Guy Lusignan also resigned his crown and left for Cyprus. Conrad of Montferrat became the King of Jerusalem, but he was killed by an assassin who had been sent by assassin. As a result, Count Heinrich Champagne became the new king.
Seal of the King of England Richard I (1195 g.). (Museum of the History of Vendée, Boulogne, Vendée).
1193. Death of Saladin.
1195. Death of the German Emperor Henry VI, who planned to go on a crusade, which because of this did not take place.
1202 – 1204 The fourth, and the most shameful crusade. To the call of Pope Innocent III to go to Egypt, the Marquis Boniface of Montferrat and Count Baudouin (Balduin) of Flanders volunteered. Pursuing the private interests of Venice, Doge Enrico Dandolo managed to redirect the crusading army against Orthodox Byzantium. In April 1204, after a fierce assault, the capital of the empire, the city of Constantinople, fell, and the European possessions of Byzantium and part of the Asian lands became part of the newly formed Latin Empire, headed by Count Flanders (under the name of Emperor Baudouin (Balduin) I). On the remnants of the possessions of Byzantium in Asia Minor a new Orthodox state arose - the Nicene Empire, in which the Laskaris dynasty was established.
The Praying Crusader is a miniature from the Winchester Psalter. Second quarter of the 13th century It is shown in typical for its time defensive armament: a chain haberge with a hood and highways on the front part of the leg made of metal disks on rivets. It is possible that the cross on the shoulder has a rigid base under it, well, let's say the shoulder strap of a cuirass made of leather, which is covered by a surco. (British Library).
1205. Death of King Amalric II of Jerusalem. Maria, the daughter of his wife from a second marriage, becomes the regent of the kingdom. French King Philip II Augustus is seeking her marriage with John de Brienne, who becomes King of Jerusalem.
1212. The Crusade of Children, which began immediately in France and in Germany after the sermons that God would give the Holy Land into the hands of sinless children. As a result, thousands of teenagers were immersed in Marseilles (then Marsala), on ships and sold into slavery on arrival in Alexandria.
1217 – 1221 The fifth crusade was carried out under the leadership of the King of Hungary Andrew (Endre), the Austrian duke Leopold and the rulers of the Crusader states in Palestine. The result was the capture of Damietta - an important fortress in Egypt. However, the feuds among the crusaders did not allow them to build on the success achieved and to keep the city.
French King Louis VII and King of the Kingdom of Jerusalem Baudouin III (left) battling the Saracens (right). Miniature from the manuscript of Guillaume de Tire “The Outremer Story”, 1337, (National Library, Paris).
1228 – 1229 Sixth Crusade. He was headed by the German emperor and King of the State of Two Sicilies, Friedrich II Staufen, who took the cross in 1212 year, but still pulled and pulled with his participation in the campaign. He strengthened Jaffa, and then, in a completely peaceful way, negotiated with the Sultan of Egypt Elkamil without war, returned Jerusalem, Nazareth and Bethlehem to the Christians, after which he proclaimed himself King of Jerusalem, but was not approved by the Pope or the feudal lords of the Holy Land. Moreover, the Pope excommunicated him and freed all Italians from their oath of allegiance to his emperor. That is why they sometimes say about Frederick that he was a crusader without a cross, and his campaign was like a campaign without a campaign, since he did not fight against the Muslims. However, he spoke Jerusalem to Christians for a full ten years, which, according to the treaty, was in their hands until the 1244 year.
The initial letter "O" - with the image of the knights of the Outremer (Lower Earth) inside. Around 1232 - 1261 Pay attention to the characteristic "bonnet" under the mail hood at the knight, standing on the right. Miniature from the "Outremer's Story". (British Library)
1248 – 1254 The Seventh Crusade was organized by the French King Louis IX the Holy, who was famous for his piety and asceticism. He also landed in Egypt, took several fortresses, but was defeated at the walls of Cairo, captured by Muslims and managed to free himself for a huge ransom.
Bout Knut the Great and Edmund Zheleznobokogo, after which they made peace, and Edmund was treacherously murdered. Miniature from the Bible Confessor by Matthew of Paris. About 1250 (Parker Library, Body of Christ College, Cambridge)
1261 city. The collapse of the Latin Empire created by the crusaders. The emperor of Nikaia, Michael VIII, Palaeologus conquered Constantinople from the crusaders and revived the Byzantine empire.
The Battle of Forbi, 1244. The Templars are defeated by the Muslims. Miniature from the "Big Chronicle" by Matthew Paris, second part. (Parker Library, Body of Christ College, Oxford)
1270 d. The Eighth Crusade, the initiator of which was the same indefatigable Saint Louis. Initially, it was planned against Egypt, but then, under the influence of the brother of King Charles of Anjou, the king of Both Sicilies, was redirected against the Arabs of North Africa. The landing of the Crusaders took place in Tunisia, near the ruins of Carthage, where King Louis and his entire army died from a plague epidemic.
Battle of Damietta Miniature from the "Big Chronicle" by Matthew Paris. (British Library)
1271 was the landing of English knights in Palestine under the leadership of the future King of England Edward I, nicknamed the Long-footed, at that time still crown prince. In fact, it was a real ninth crusade, and it should be called the last crusade of the European Crusaders to Palestine. First, Edward began negotiations with the Mongols, offering them a joint statement against the worst enemy of Christians - the Egyptian Sultan of the Mamluks. However, he succeeded in repelling the Mongols' offensive, and then he concluded a peace treaty with the Sultan, according to which the last bits of the Holy Land were to remain in the hands of Christians for 10 years and 10 months.
St. Nicholas Cathedral in Famagusta in Cyprus. Built in the XIV century on the model of the Reims Cathedral in the late Gothic style by the Cypriot kings from the Lusignan dynasty. About how beautiful, you can judge by this photo. The Turks also attached a minaret to his left and turned it into a mosque!
Behind him, perhaps, it looks even more impressive ...
But this “mosque” looks inside!
1291 d. The ten-year treaty expired, and Muslims were able to begin hostilities. 18 May 1291, after a long siege, they took Accon, then Tire, Sidon, and finally, July 31 - Beirut, after which the domination of Christians in the East was over. From their former possessions in Asia Minor, only Minor Armenia (Cilicia) remained behind them, as well as the island of Cyprus, where the royal dynasty of Lusignan was established.
The image of the three inverted shields with the emblem of the French Crusaders who died in Gaza and the inverted banners of the Hospitaller and Templar. "History of England", part three, the continuation of the "Big Chronicle" by Matthew Paris. Around 1250 - 1259 (British Library)
1298. The Grand Master of the Order of the Templars becomes Jacques de Molay (before that, the Great Prior of England was the vicar of the Order). Realizing that only military victories and the return to the Holy Land will be able to prolong the existence of the Order, goes on a risky step - only by the forces of some Templars begins a crusade and in 1299, again takes Jerusalem by storm. But now the Templars could not keep the city in their hands, and in 1300, they had to leave Palestine again, now forever.
The Church of St. George, the patron saint of the English, in Famagusta. This is all that is left of it, otherwise the Turks would add a minaret to it!
* The name Outremer - or "Lower Lands" Palestine received because on the European maps of the time was depicted below.
Fig. A Shepsa