Military Review

The mystery of the death of "Soma"

The mystery of the death of "Soma"Not a single Russian submarine found by the Swedes produced such a powerful surge in the information sea as the Som submarine. The excitement raised around the mythical Soviet submarines, which allegedly systematically approach Sweden from underwater, was crowned with an unexpected ending: the Russian submarine, in fact, turned out to be a dwarf submarine by today's standards, so it only sailed to the Swedish coast not this year , and in the midst of the First World War.

Contrary to the Eastern proverb “do not cry“ halva ”, your mouth will not become sweet”, the cries of the Swedish media “Russian submarine” sometimes in fact turn into reality, sometimes as tragicomic as история with a Soviet submarine that, due to a navigational error, sat on reefs near the Swedish naval base Karlskrona.

But here the tragedy is the death of a warship in wartime. And you won’t make any propaganda bargain on this. The noise died down by itself. But in vain. We must speak loudly about the find made by the international submarine expedition (there are also citizens of the Russian Federation in it): after all, the Som submarine is in our history fleet the ship is iconic!

It was "Som" under the command of Lieutenant Prince Vladimir Trubetskoy who committed the FIRST attack of the submarine of enemy ships.
In those years, there was no such thing - the “submarine fleet”, there were “submarine destroyers”, Russian submarines were already in combat service, covering their main base, Vladivostok.

“28 of April 1905 of the year“ Som ”together with the submarines“ Dolphin ”and“ Killer Whale ”were located in the Transfiguration Bay (in 70 miles from Vladivostok), where it was supposed to meet Japanese ships. Indeed, in the area of ​​the “Soma” location, two two-pipe Japanese destroyers appeared. Having found them, the boat commander went on the attack, but the destroyers, noticing the boat, increased their speed and left the dangerous area, ”says historian G. Trusov. Yes, the case did not reach the torpedoes, but still it was a combat attack that turned the enemy to flight.

Despite the imperfection of the design and the constant malfunction, "Som" became the most active submarine during the Russian-Japanese war. In the six months of the 1905 campaign, “Som” 65 was once removed from the anchor and left for positional areas, moving away from Vladivostok, sometimes by 120 miles, and more than a hundred kilometers (93 miles) were covered under water. The total time spent under water was over 16 hours. In those days it was a record number. And besides, "Som" took part in the testing of anti-submarine networks. Here is how his commander writes about this: “March 27 was anchored, plunged 16 feet, and, going at 6 nodes speed, broke through the network, and the boat quickly began to rise, not listening to horizontal rudders. Increased the course to 7 nodes, made the boat obey the rudders. Floated as desired to the surface. It turned out that I had broken the net and was dragging it all along with the buoys. ”

“Som” also entered the history of the Russian submarine fleet as a pioneer of ice swimming. From the submarine bad icebreaker, but she can leave ice over her. The idea of ​​diving under the ice shell came to mind all the same desperate lieutenant Vladimir Trubetskoy. Here's how it was: 9 February 1905, when the raid was a little clear of ice, Som went to the Eastern Bosphorus for testing.

“... They didn’t dare to stay under water for a long time, fearing to damage the periscope on floating ice floes, of which there were many,” the Soma commander wrote in the report. In order not to cut the periscope on an ice block, submariners had to stay away from the coast and continually go to the depths. And it soon became clear that the way home, to the base, was blocked by ice between the islands of Skrypleva and Russky. At his own risk, Lieutenant Trubetskoy decided to overcome the ice dam under water. And overcame!

All these were the first steps of the future Russian underwater armada. And then every martial combat mile was a great risk.

Today, when nuclear submarines go under the ice dome of the Arctic to the North Pole, let's not forget about those who first submerged under the sea ice. Let's not forget the brave commander of "Soma", Lieutenant Vladimir Vladimirovich Trubetskoy. During the First World War, he, already captain of the 1 rank, commanded the battleship "Empress Maria." Prince V.V. Trubetskoy graduated in exile - in France. He passed away on 30 on June 1931, in the Paris suburb of Château de Tun.

The last commander of "Soma" was the Don Cossack from the village of Ust-Belokalitvenskaya, Lieutenant Chrysanf K. Buguraev. It should be noted that among the sailors there were a lot of people from the Kuban-Don-Terek Cossack territories.
Cossack blood also flowed in the veins of Admiral Alexander Kolchak ...

It so happened that the news of the discovery of "Soma" caught me near the home of Lieutenant Buguraev - in the Rostov region. Today, instead of the village on the shores of the largest tributary of the Don, the Seversky Donets, is the regional center Belaya Kalitva, a picturesque green city. According to historians, the battle of Russians with the Polovtsy 1185 of the year sung in the “Lay on the Regiment of Igorev” took place precisely in these places - between the Kalitva and Bystra rivers. Therefore, it stands here on Mount Karaul, the only monument in Russia to the ancient Russian epic - "The Word of Igor's Regiment". The temple also survived, in which in all likelihood they baptized the future submarine officer. Unfortunately, we know very little about Bugurayev himself. Short lines from the service record: 3 was born on March 1891 of the year to the family of the keeper of fisheries on Don Esaul Konstantin Buguraev, the hero of the Russian-Turkish war 1877 – 78, the holder of the Order of St. George 4-th degree. Chrysanth, named after his maternal grandfather, was brought up in the Donskoy Emperor Alexander by the 3 Cadet Corps and in the Marine Corps. He graduated as a midshipman in 1912, and immediately began a course of training in the diving training squadron, then was assigned to the Sig submarine. A year later, he was transferred to the Baltic Sea submarine brigade by an assistant commander (senior officer) to the newest Shark submarine. In September, 1913, "entered into the first legal marriage with the daughter of a retired colonel, the girl Nadezhda Mikhailovna Panova."

With the beginning of the war, midshipman Buguraev — on submarines, no longer brigades, but divisions. By the order of the Baltic Fleet Commander “for bravery and courage shown during the operation, accompanied by a clear danger and of great combat importance”, he was awarded the Order of St. Stanislav 3 degree with swords and bow. Shortly before his death, he was promoted to lieutenant and appointed senior officer of the submarine "Crocodile". And 13 June 1916, the "Highest order on the Maritime Office, is excluded from the lists, as the dead in the performance of military service duty."

Even less is known about the senior officer “Soma” lieutenant Boris Vladimirovich Sasko: he was born in 1891 year, left the Marine Corps a year earlier than his commander. In the rank of 1915 year. Golden badge at the end of the course of the Marine Corps, the Order of Stanislav 3 degree with swords, and the same mournful Supreme Order ... It is noteworthy that Boris Sasko is also a Cossack, only Terek was born in the settlement of Khasav-Yurt, now the city of Khasavyurt in Dagestan.

The commander "Soma" was found a relative who lives in St. Petersburg now - marine engineer Mikhail Buguraev. I want to believe that there will be descendants and other crew members, because the list of them is known for sure, their addresses are also known, although almost a century ago. Some villages and villages have disappeared altogether in a century from a geographical map. Nevertheless, the relevant requests have already been sent to the Sumy and Chernihiv regions of Ukraine (from there the motorized non-commissioned officer Alexei Tsvelodub and the artillery noncommissioned officer Hilarion Shevenok) are from, to the Mogilev, Vitebsk and Gomel regions of the Republic of Belarus (steering boatswain Ivan Andrianov, mine machine non-commissioned officer Dmitry Zavadsky, senior electrician Dmitry Zakharchenko). The rest of the requests were sent across Russia: to the Volgograd Region, the Perm Territory, the Ivanovo, Tver, Saratov, Rostov, Lipetsk, Ryazan, Tambov, Kostroma Regions ... It will not be easy to find the relatives of my countryman, non-commissioned officer Luka Kireychuk, who served on the Soma. an electrician. The place of his birth is indicated in the archive very extensively - Grodno province. Today the territory of the former province is divided between Lithuania and Belarus. Try find!

While these lines were being written, the descendants of four sailors from Soma have already responded. We will wait for new messages.

But back in the 1916 year. Som, along with other 5 divisions submarines, was based in Marienhamn, the capital of the Aland Islands, which were part of the Russian Empire. Since the fall of 1915, the “underwater destroyer” went to patrols in the southern part of the Gulf of Bothnia to intercept Swedish ships with iron ore for Germany.

One of the leaders of the search operation, Alexei Mikhailov, who has been searching for this boat for many years, states with knowledge:

“Both in the First and in the Second World War, the neutrality of the Swedes - and they do not hide it - was conditional. They supplied Germany with ore. Both Russian and Soviet submarines in every possible way prevented this. ”
Therefore, having discovered the Swedish steamer "Ingermanland" on the periscope, which was heading south towards the German ports, Lieutenant Bugurayev tried to stop him to inspect the cargo. It happened on May 10 of 1916 on the morning of 4 in the morning ...

There are two versions of the death of a submarine. One by one, the captain of the Ingermanland, having stalled the course, began to wait for the Russian submariners to emerge and inspect the ship. And the boat, as the captain argued later, did not notice the stopping of the steamer and crashed into it underwater at a periscope depth, was damaged and sank. According to another version, the captain of the Ingermanland, having noticed a periscope in 150 meters from the left side, and understanding what the inspection threatened him, went to ram. The robust Soma case was not divided into compartments and therefore, at the first damage, it was quickly filled with water. The maximum immersion depth of this type of submarine is 30 meters. Judging by the fact that the boat was found "clean", that is, not overgrown with algae, "Som" lies at a depth of more than 40 meters. For most underwater experts, a version of an intentional ram seems the most likely. After all, after just a month, another Swedish ship tried to ram the Russian submarine "Wolf", bending its periscope. Apparently, the successful experience of the captain of "Ingermanland" has spread. But the "Wolf", a submarine of the latest design, managed to withstand the impact and safely return to base. “Som” at the end of the First World War could already be considered a military “antiques”. On it, even in peacetime, going to sea was dangerous. No wonder the division of “Dutch” boats (after the American designer John Holland), which also included “Som”, was called the “suicide club”. It is hard to believe that an experienced submariner (four years on boats) will rush to dive under the vessel, which lies in drift. There was not the slightest need for Buguraev in such a maneuver. Most likely, he was simply not allowed to surface: “Ingermanland” on the move needed a minute or two to move onto the elevated periscope. And the commander, carrying out an urgent dive maneuver, could have gotten under the keel of a steamer in this situation.

Now no one will tell how it really was. But the crew of this small submarine honestly fulfilled its military duty, died in a combat patrol.

Usually ships laid to rest on the seabed are considered fraternal military graves, and no one has the right to disturb the eternal rest of the dead sailors. On this account there is also international protection legislation. But with "Som" a special case. His crew may well be interred, the remains of submariners, the skull and the main skeletal bones, for sure, survived, despite the age-old stay under water. Descendants would have had the opportunity to worship the mass grave of their forefathers at the same Serafimov cemetery in St. Petersburg, where many submariners, including those from the Komsomolets and Kursk nuclear ships, were buried. And the very boat, given its well-preserved and special place in our maritime history, could have been preserved as a priceless relic. Technically, it is not difficult to raise it, it is difficult to do something else: since “Som” lies in the territorial waters of Sweden, coordination with the relevant departments of this state will be required. Especially since 100 will be fulfilled in a year from the moment of the death of this ship, which means that it will receive a special status of a historical object.

Will Sweden meet Russia in the face of a total European confrontation on this issue? It is not known - for that matter, however, whether Russian officials will want to take on the extra trouble.
So many historic ships were cut into needles! What do they "Som" with all his exploits? It's easier to brush it off - let it lie where it lies ...

Whatever it was - we will be grateful to the search engines who gave us the opportunity to know the exact coordinates of another of our common underwater graves, gave reason to remember the crew of the dead ship, to remember all by name among the everyday vanity of the XXI century.
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  1. Homo sapiens
    Homo sapiens 31 August 2015 16: 14 New
    The glorious page of the glorious history of the glorious country !!!
  2. RomanN
    RomanN 31 August 2015 17: 33 New
    About the rise most likely garbage, after a hundred years the case should be rotted to nothing.
    1. Temples
      Temples 31 August 2015 17: 53 New
      the case must be rotted to nothing

      To rot - to decay, to be exposed organic destruction.

      Metal is still not organic. Do not make hasty conclusions.
  3. armata37
    armata37 31 August 2015 17: 43 New

    Judging by the video, the case looks surprisingly cheerful. That's just not necessary to raise. This is a mass grave. Do not worry.
  4. Moore
    Moore 1 September 2015 05: 50 New
    I recommend reading an interview with one of the leaders of the Icelandic company, Russian, by the way ...
    They decided to put their paw on “Soma” quite seriously and sell artifacts to museums that have already made applications. Allegedly, with complete initial disregard by the Russian Geographical Society.
  5. shans2
    shans2 2 September 2015 01: 57 New
    The periscope has not been extended, there are no obvious external damages, but would have been with the ship rammed, so most likely it would have simply taken a sip of water for some reason at the ascent, the equipment refused .... as an option, but until it is clearly unavailable.