Experienced medium tank "Object 907"

On May 20, 1952, a special meeting of the chief designers of tank and diesel plants was held at the Ministry of Transport Engineering with the participation of the commander of BT and MB SA Marshal of Armored Forces S.I. Bogdanov, which discussed the prospects for further development and improvement of domestic armored weapons and equipment, as well as the development of new models tanks with more powerful weapons, enhanced armor protection, high dynamic and operational performance.

And already 18 June 1952, the chairman of the Scientific and Technical Conference of the State Technical University, Lieutenant General V.V. Orlovsky sent to the name of the Deputy Minister of Transport Engineering ON. Makhonin and the head of Glavtanka N.A. Kucherenko brief TTT on the design of a new medium tank. At the same time, copies of the TTT project were sent to the design bureaus of plants No. XXUMX, No. XXUMX, No. XXUMX and at the VNII-75.

These requirements envisaged the creation of a medium tank with sharply increased tactical and technical indicators compared to the T-54 (for armor protection, movement speed, maneuverability, armament, rate of fire, accuracy of fire and reliability). According to TTT, the combat weight of the vehicle was 34 tons. The crew consisted of four people. Overall dimensions: width - no more than 3300 mm, height - no more than the height of existing medium tanks, clearance - not less than 425 mm. Traffic speeds: the maximum on the highway is at least 55 km / h, the average on an unpaved dry road is 35-40 km / h. The average ground pressure is 0,65 kgf / cm². Overcoming obstacles: ascent and descent - at least 40 °, roll - at least 30 °. The power reserve of the car should have been at least 350 km (using fuel in additional tanks, and the fuel reserve located inside the tank should be at least 75% of its total number).

As the main weapons the installation of an X-NUMX-mm D-100 tank gun (D-54TA), equipped with a stabilizer and having an initial velocity of an 46 armor-piercing projectile X / m / s, was proposed. The structure of the additional weapon included a course (in front of the tank hull) and machine guns of the caliber 1015 mm, paired with a gun. To protect against enemy aircraft, an anti-aircraft machine gun KPVT caliber 7,62 mm was provided as an auxiliary weapon. The ammunition consisted of 14,5 unitary shots for the gun, at least 50 ammunition caliber 3000 mm and at least 7,62 ammunition caliber 500 mm.

The armor protection of the frontal and side parts of the hull and turret compared to the armor protection of the T-54 tank had to be enhanced by 20-30%.

To provide a continuous circular view over the workplace of the tank commander, a commander's turret was mounted with a viewing device that had a stable field of view. For aiming guns in the target served as a type of TS-20. In addition, the use of a rangefinder or a rangefinder sight was envisaged (in the case of placing a rangefinder, the tank commander did not install a commander's device in the tank).

As part of the power plant was supposed to have a diesel engine or blade type (GTE. - Approx. Aut.). The value of specific power should be at least 14,7 kW / t (20 hp / t), and the transmission of the machine - to ensure continuous change of gear ratios in a wide range, good agility, the most complete use of engine power and ease of control. In addition, the possibility of using a silencer to reduce the noise (if necessary) generated during the engine exhaust process was not excluded. A requirement was the possibility of overcoming water obstacles to a depth of 5 m along the bottom.

For external communication, the installation of a RTU radio station was foreseen, which was installed in the dimensions of the 10PT radio station.

The efficiency of the tank was to be ensured in various climatic conditions in the range of ambient air temperatures from -40 to + 40 ° С and heavy dustiness within the warranty period of at least 3000 km.

Due to the high complexity of the tasks assigned, the Ministry of Transport Engineering decided to hold a design bureau of the plants and the VNII-100 preliminary constructive study of the layout schemes of the new tank to identify the possibility of meeting the requirements of the GBTU. The main hopes associated with the implementation of the tasks assigned to the design bureau of plant number XXUMX, headed by A.A. Morozov. According to his recollections, already in December 75, the Kharkov project of a new medium tank received the cipher "Object 1952". Despite the involvement in the conceptual elaboration of the layout of the new medium tank design bureau of plant No. 430, this task was subsequently removed from it due to its workload by creating the previously mentioned SAU “174 Object” and “500 Object”, as well as other armored vehicles and weapons their base.

In accordance with the requirements of design bureaus of plants No.75, No.183 and VNII-100 during 1952 - the beginning of 1953. they completed the sketch studies of the new medium tank, the design of the armor protection of which took into account the recommendations of the Central Research Institute-48, obtained during the development of the armor protection schemes for the sketch design of the medium T-22р and the results of the shelling of the hull and turret of the A-22 model.

Consideration of the projects of the new medium tank was held at the Ministry of Transport Engineering 8 — 10 in March 1953.

The report on the project of the medium tank of the VNII-100 design, which later received the name “Object 907” (the project manager is KI Buganov), was made by the director of the institute P.K. Voroshilov. In this project, the hull of the tank was cast and provided a larger reserved volume than the average T-54 tank and the experienced 730 Object (T-10). It was intended to install a longitudinal shortened diesel engine B12-5 with 551 kW power (750 hp) with an ejection cooling system and use the units and units of T-54 and T-10 tanks.

The main weapon used was the X-NUMX-mm tank gun D-100T, but the option of installing the X-NUMX-mm tank gun M-10 was also envisaged. The armor protection of the tower with large angles was equivalent to the armor protection of the T-122 tank. In general, the armor protection of the vehicle was increased by 62% compared with the armor protection of the T-10 tank. In this case, the driver was located in the building under the shoulder strap of the tower.

The transmission of the car was offered in two versions - hydromechanical and mechanical (as the T-54 and T-34 tanks). In the undercarriage (applied to one board), a six-piece scheme was used.

The estimated combat weight of the tank was 35,7 t.

The project of the medium tank, developed by the design bureau of the plant No. XXUMX, was reported by the project manager - deputy chief designer Ya.I. Ram. The layout of the machine was based on a combined version that combined the front part of the T-183 tank and the aft part of the T-54 with a longitudinal diesel engine 34 kW (449 hp) and the extensive use of T-610 units. It should be noted that in the process of working on the project in the design bureau, various layout options were considered: with the driver’s landing in the turret and the machine body; with front and rear turret. However, they all did not provide a significant reduction in the mass of the machine compared with the accepted option.

pilot tank schematic 907 object

The installation of the X-NUMX-mm D-100 tank gun as the main weapon allowed the turret to be reduced to an 54 mm height. Due to the use of a new engine of lower height than that of the diesel B-83, it was possible to reduce the height of the hull by 54 mm and place the ejection cooling system over the engine. Due to the increase in the coolant temperature to 57 ° C, the dimensions of the radiators of the cooling system were reduced by 120 times. These activities allowed on both sides of the engine to perform the laying of ammunition to the gun. A further decrease in the height of the hull limited only the position of the driver in the control compartment.

Increased engine power provided for obtaining given speeds. The undercarriage used support and track rollers of smaller diameter with outer cushioning. Suspension elements were removed from the body through the use of plate torsions, providing its satisfactory performance.

The calculated combat weight of the vehicle compared to the T-54 tank was reduced by 3635 kg (of which: by hull - by 1650 kg, turret - by 630 kg, by engine installation - by 152 kg), and frontal armor was strengthened by 19%, the sides of the tower are at 25%.

In the process of discussing the project, the chief designer of the ChKZ for motor construction I.Ya. Trashutin expressed great doubts about the possibility of creating an engine of the type B-2 with 449 kW (610 hp) without the use of supercharging. In his opinion, it was really possible to rely only on the power of 427 kW (580 hp) without supercharging and 625 kW (850 hp) - with boost. However, at present, ChKZ could not engage in new engines due to the heavy load of mass production. As an alternative, it was proposed to abandon water cooling and switch to air. Use engine exhaust for ejection.

According to E.A. Kulchitsky, on weapons, armor protection and dynamics, the situation seemed to be as good as possible from the point of view of the assigned TTT. However, they were obtained on the basis of an unreal engine with a short stroke and elevated temperatures. In addition, the engine air cooling in the summer overheated, and in the winter it was difficult to start. The proposed undercarriage design could not provide the tank with an 35 km / h speed over the country road: the external rubber damping of the rollers would not have survived, since the expected increase in speed was achieved only by increasing the speed of the roller. Therefore, there was no reason to reduce the diameter and width of the rollers. We needed a fundamentally new chassis.

Due to the fact that in the presented projects of new tanks (in addition to VNII-100, plants No. 183 and 75 put forward their projects) the tactical and technical requirements of the State Technical University were not fully developed, the Ministry of Transport Engineering decided to continue the work. In addition, in March 1953, the Ministry of Heavy and Transport Engineering (since 28 March 1953, according to the decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 928-398, the Ministry of Transport Engineering became part of the Ministry of Heavy and Transport Engineering (headed by VA Malyshev ) in accordance with the requirements of the GBTU on a new medium tank issued a task to diesel plants to develop an engine for it.

Based on the consideration of the draft preliminary arrangements of the new medium tank TTT to it in May 1953 were refined and finalized at the Scientific and Technical Complex of the GBTU, agreed with the Ministry of Heavy and Transport Engineering and in September of the same year sent to the plants No. XXUMX (plant director - I.V. Okunev, Chief Designer - LN Kartsev), No.183 (Plant Director - KD Petukhov, Chief Designer - AA Morozov) and VNII-75 (Director - PK Voroshilov) for the presentation of pre-sketch projects to 100 January 1

In the revised “Approximate brief tactical and technical requirements for the design of a new medium tank,” in particular, it was noted:

“1. Combat weight - 36 t (estimated weight for the technical project is not more than 35,5 t).

2. Crew - 4 person.

3. Overall dimensions: track width - 3300 mm (preferably body width not more than 3150 mm), height - no more than the height of the T-54 tank, height of the fighting compartment on the loading light - no less than 1500 mm (to ensure the convenience of the charging), height the hull at the driver’s seat (clear) is 900 mm (with the landing height at the driver’s seat not less than T-54), clearance is at least 425 mm.

4. Armament:

a) a gun of the D-54 type, stabilized, with ejection blowing of the barrel bore, caliber 100mm, initial velocity of an armor-piercing projectile - 1015 m / s.
b) machine guns - paired with a gun - SGM caliber 7,62 mm;
- course - SGM caliber 7,62 mm;
- anti-aircraft - CPVT caliber 14,5 mm.

5. Ammunition: cannon shots - at least 40 pcs., 14,5-mm cartridges - 500 pcs., 7,62-mm cartridges - 3000 cartridges.

6. Armor protection:

a) the hull forehead - 120 mm with the angle of inclination 60 °, the bead - 90 mm (exceeding the speed protection by 10%);
b) the turret's forehead is 230 mm, normalized.

7. Driving performance and throughput:

a) power density - not less than 16 hp / t;
b) specific pressure without immersion - 0,75 kg / cm²;
c) speed: the maximum on the highway - 50 km / h, the average on a dry dirt road - 35 km / h;
d) ascent and descent - 35 °;
e) roll (without turning) - 30 °;
e) the range on the highway - 350 km;
g) fuel: total - 900l, booked - 650 l;
h) overcoming water obstacles of depth 4 m.

8. Engine:

a) the main option - shortened on the basis of the B-2 or horizontal power 580 hp;
b) a promising option - a new engine with a capacity of 600-650 hp with reduced dimensions and warranty period 400 h.

9. Transmission - the simplest in production, easy to manage, reliable in operation.

10. Chassis:

a) suspension - any individual, providing maximum average speed;
b) rollers - preferably without external rubber, but with minimal noise during movement;
c) caterpillar - cast finely milled;
d) shock absorbers - providing the ability to move at a given speed and firing a descent.

11. Instruments aiming and surveillance:

install a turret with a circular view of the tank commander; install a commander's observation device with a stabilized field of view in the manhole cover;
install a TS-2 sight or a TP-47 type periscope sight at the gun commander;
the tank must be equipped with a range finder or a range finder (in the case of installing a range finder, the commander's device is not installed in the tank).
12. Radio station - tank type RTU - in the dimensions of the radio station 10РТ.

13. The tank must be reliable and trouble-free in operation in different climatic conditions at ambient temperatures from -45 ° С to + 40 ° С, as well as in dusty conditions.

14. The warranty period of the tank is 3000 km. Note. The service life before repair should be 5000 km. "

On the basis of these brief TTTs at the Scientific and Technical Complex of the GBTU, thematic cards for the design and development of a new medium tank were developed and agreed with the Ministry of Heavy and Transport Engineering. In November, 1953 sent the design bureaus of the plants No. XXUMX, No. XXUMX and VNII-183, unlike indicative brief TTTs, in these thematic cards the ammunition to the main weapon was increased to 75 shots, the speed of non-penetration and course angles of attack on the hull and turret armor plates were specified, the maximum speed of movement along the highway was increased to 100 km / h and op Yedelev motor type B-45 55 with generator power kW.

It was allowed to clarify the tactical and technical characteristics of the tank after considering the draft designs.

The estimated cost of the work was determined in 1 million rubles, of which 1954 thousand rubles were allocated for 600, for 1955, 400 thousand rubles. The activities of plants No. XXUMX and No. XXUMX were financed by the USSR Ministry of Defense. The customer from this ministry was NTK GBTU. VNII-75 led its development at the expense of funds allocated by the Ministry of Heavy and Transport Engineering on the topic of determining the possibility of creating a cast hull of an average tank.

The chief designer and, accordingly, the design bureau and the subsequent manufacturer were determined on a competitive basis after reviewing the draft designs.

Further work on the creation of a new medium tank was carried out on the basis of a decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 598-265 of 2 in April 1954. In terms of OCD for 1954, the weapons and military equipment opened up a new theme - the development of an average tank with comparison with T-54 (for armor protection, speed, maneuverability, armament, shooting accuracy and reliability). The head performers of this OCD theme were the plants No.75, No.183 and VNII-100.

The developed pre-sketch projects of the new medium tank designed by the design bureau of plant No. 75 (“430 Object”), No. 183 and VNII-100 (“907 Object”) were considered twice during 1954 (February 22 and 10 March) Ministry and NTK GBTU. As a result, the NTC GBTU put forward to the draft of a new medium tank a number of additional requirements and comments sent out by 17 in September to 21 in the design bureaus of plants and VNII-6.

As for the further participation of VNII-100 in the creation of a new medium tank, during the 1954-1956. He, together with the Central Research Institute-48 and its Moscow branch, conducted a series of experimental studies on the development of armor protection for the 907 Object tank. Along with this, prototypes of the hull (in the mass of the hull of the T-54 tank) and turret were made. The 1955 conducted in April at the NIIBT test site by firing at the experimental 907 object tank hulls, made both in solid-cast and welded versions, from large cast hubs (upper part - rolled, lower front and stern parts - cast, with This cast armor had curvilinear forms of variable cross section with large structural angles of inclination of parts), showed a significant increase in anti-shear resistance compared to the hull of the T-54 tank, especially for protection against 76,2 and XNUM cumulative shells. X mm, as well as PG-85 and PG-2 grenades, an RPG-82 hand-held grenade launcher and a SG-2 hand-held grenade launcher.

Collaboration of the Central Laboratory of 1 and the Central Research Institute of 48 to study the feasibility of producing cast armor hulls for a new medium tank began in 1953. During 1954, the optimal forms of armor protection were applied to the layout of the 907 Medium Tank, working drawings were issued towers and buildings in three versions: solid and two welded. Moreover, the first version of the welded hull was assembled mainly from cast armor parts (with the exception of the top frontal sheet, roof and bottom), and the second one had beads from profile rolled products of variable thickness. At the same time, technological processes of welding and assembly of cases were developed, laboratory studies were carried out on the technology of armor-rolled steel of sheets of variable thickness, and a model equipment was made for a solid-cast body. However, at the end of 1954, only the tower and the hull, manufactured according to the third variant, were manufactured and filed at the NIIBT test site for shelling.

With an equal mass of armored hulls of the T-54 tank and the “907 Object” tank, the latter showed an advantage in tests and in protection against armor-piercing projectiles when firing at the frontal part and at the sides. The heading angle of no penetration by an armor-piercing projectile for the sides of the “Object 907” tank was ± 40 °, and for the T-54 tank - ± 20 °. The joint decisions of the Scientific Council of the TSNII-48 and the VNII-100 from 28 in July 1955, as well as in the decision of the Ministry of Transport Engineering from 16 in July, 1956 pointed out the significant advantages of the new booking and the need for its implementation in tank construction. However, due to the possibility of executing TTT at that time to protect tanks from damage by conventional armor-piercing shells with the old constructive types of booking and the lack of TTT to protect tanks from cumulative ammunition, tank design bureaus refrained from extensive use of fundamentally new constructive forms of armor protection of the hull and tank tower. associated with the need for coarse casting complex profile.

The 907 object in the series did not go: it was let down by excessive “advanced”. During the consideration at the plenary session of the scientific and technical committee of the GBTU, it was stated that the 907 object project with hydromechanical transmission, new hull and turret of improved form meets the tactical and technical requirements and exceeds the T-54 tank in basic parameters, but due to the complexity and lack of design of the nodes and mechanisms can not be accepted. The plenum recommended directing the draft design of the 907 object.

"... to the plants No. 75 and 183 for use in the development of technical projects of the new medium tank."

The only thing that was proposed to continue - the test shelling of armor-piercing and cumulative shells of the armored corps, because it was of great importance for objects 140 and 430. By the summer of 1954, the VNII-100, using the design of the 907 object, had already developed a design for the armored hull for the Tagil tank layout.

The 907 object was planned to be made primarily from armor casting. The direct developers of the design and technology were the Moscow branch of the VNII-100 (in the recent past, the Central Armory Laboratory) and the TSNII-48, which is part of the Ministry of Shipbuilding Industry, but continues to cooperate with tank builders.

The advantages of casting technologies in the manufacture of armored structures have long been known and widely used. Their main advantage in the joint report of the VNII-100 and TsNII-48 for 1955 was presented as follows:

"The cast armor expands the design capabilities in creating armor protection structures of any shape and provides the necessary anti-slam resistance of individual design areas, depending on the tactical and technical requirements."

The main disadvantage of the cast armor, namely: lower resistance compared to katana, with large angles of encounter with projectiles, from 45 degrees and more, almost did not affect.

In the USSR, the joint work of two institutions to study the feasibility and feasibility of manufacturing cast armored corpses or their units for a new medium tank began in 1953. In 1954, research was continued as a broader topic “Development of armor protection of a promising medium tank”. During the year, joint investigations were carried out on the optimal forms of armor in relation to the layout of the medium tank, working drawings of the tower and hull of the medium tank 907 object in three versions: solid and two welded, and if the first was assembled mainly from cast parts (except for the upper front sheet , roof and bottom), the second one also had a board of profile rolled products of variable thickness. At the same time, technological processes of welding and assembly of hulls were developed, laboratory studies were carried out on the technology of armored steel with variable thickness, and model equipment was manufactured for a one-piece body. However, it was only the corps of the latter of the third type that was able to make and deliver to the Cuban proving ground for shelling in 1954.

At the beginning of 1955, tests of the casing welded from cast parts were carried out. In general, he met the requirements for new medium tanks and significantly surpassed the T-54 tank in counter-durability. After that, a shortened solid-molded hull, which is a closed loop of full-scale elements of the bow, side and aft parts, was manufactured and shelled. It turned out that the developed technological process ensures the production of high-quality castings with planned anti-shear resistance. By the end of the year, the casting of a full-sized hull with changes following the results of the first tests was planned; shelling was scheduled for the beginning of 1956.

At the same time, it became obvious that modern cumulative ammunition, for example, 85-mm non-rotating projectiles, quite confidently penetrate the frontal protection of the 907 object, regardless of the manufacturing technology. The tower, for example, was amazed at any course corners. Only the frontal parts of the hull more or less kept the impact, but only in those parts that had the maximum angle of inclination to the vertical.

TTX tank object 907 (data design)

Experienced medium tank "Object 907"
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  1. dred
    dred 30 November 2011 13: 59 New
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    What a monster.
  2. Helldiver_72
    Helldiver_72 21 February 2012 19: 07 New
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    • 0
    It looks like an attempt to make a medium tank out of the IS series tanks.
  3. D-Master 5 February 2015 17: 35 New
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    An excellent medium tank - it’s a pity that I did not go into the series. Very low profile squat silhouette. Excellent booking and armament. And most importantly, it would take our technology forward in the field of foundry technology very far. Very sorry....