Military Review

Agriculture and food security. Problems and Prospects

The recent decision to destroy sanctions food has caused a real stir in Russian society. Two polar points of view immediately stood out. Supporters of the destruction of sanctions products argue that Russia may well provide itself with food and without the supply of foreign products. In addition, the destruction of products is justified by considerations of concern for the health of Russians - the quality of contraband products brought from abroad is doubtful. On the other hand, hot opponents of food destruction believe that burning and crushing food with a bulldozer is a real crime, especially in Russia, where millions of people live below the poverty line. According to opinion polls conducted by the Levada Center, approximately half of the Russians surveyed are against the destruction of products. Representatives of some public and religious organizations also criticized measures taken by the state to destroy sanctions products. At the same time, 17% of Russians estimate the government’s decision as definitely positive and 22% are also inclined to perceive it in a positive way - “rather positively”. That is, the opinions of the Russian population regarding the destruction of products produced are divided almost in half.

In any case, both “truths” are not without reason. And they force you to think again about whether Russia can fully ensure its food security? After all, as a result of the economic reforms of 1990. agriculture and the agro-industrial complex of Russia turned out to be in an unenviable state, and a significant portion of foodstuffs began to be imported from Europe, Asia, Latin America, and even Africa and Australia. But after all, a country cannot make its food supply dependent on food imports. This poses a direct threat to its food security and in the event of political or military conflicts can lead to a sharp deterioration in the food supply of the population, accompanied by rising food prices, food shortages and other negative consequences.

Agriculture and food security. Problems and Prospects

There are nearly a billion hungry people in the world.

Despite the fact that, in general, overproduction of food is more typical for the modern world and every day hundreds of thousands of stores in developed countries “write off” a huge amount of products that are past due for one or two days, there is a shortage of food in the “third world” countries, which turns into hunger. The problem of hunger and in the XXI century is relevant for humanity. Nearly one billion people on the planet get enough food to ensure a healthy lifestyle. First of all, these are residents of the countries of South and Southeast Asia (half of the hungry people of the world) and Tropical Africa (a quarter of the hungry people of the world). According to reports from the World Health Organization, at least one third of children dying in third world countries under the age of five are victims of hunger. The fact of starvation of millions of people testifies to the inability of many states of the world to solve the issues of food supply of their population, at least without humanitarian assistance from international organizations. José Graziano da Silva, Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), emphasizes that in 2015, the number of hungry people on the planet fell to 795 million, but this is a very high number - because it indicates that every ninth inhabitant of the planet experiencing chronic hunger. Despite the efforts being made, the UN and other international organizations are not yet able to solve the problem of hunger of large masses of the population of Asian and African countries. Although the world produces a significant amount of food, in a number of countries around the world access to food for many categories of the population is not sufficient. There are many reasons for this and they are of economic, socio-demographic, climate-geographical, political nature.

The cause of hunger in the developing countries of South and Southeast Asia is, above all, overcrowding, combined with mass unemployment and the lack of opportunities for states to establish basic social security for the population. In the countries of Tropical Africa, the worst situation is in Somalia, Eritrea, Kenya, Sudan and is associated not only with overpopulation, but also with bloody wars, political instability, climatic conditions that impede the development of agriculture and the production of such amount of food that could meet the needs population. But the risk of hunger today stands not only before the backward countries of the “third world”, but also before the former Soviet republics. It is clear that the republics of Central Asia, Moldova, and from 2014 and Ukraine, are in a very difficult situation, which is associated with economic problems and political instability. But Russia may well face the problem of hunger, which in the 1990s. experienced a real economic catastrophe, accompanied, among other things, by a sharp decline in the level of food supply of the population.

Over the past decade, Russia has become better

The statistics clearly demonstrate the frightening changes that occurred in the period from 1990 to 2001. Thus, meat consumption decreased during this time from 75 to 48 kg. per year, fish - from 20 to 10 kg. per year, milk and dairy products - from 370 to 221 kg. per year per capita. And this is despite the fact that the population of Russia has declined, the number of people with large and very large incomes has increased. The situation began to change only after 2000, when the country's economic situation improved, and at the same time the level of consumption of food by the population began to increase. So, for the period from 2003 to 2012. meat consumption increased to 73 kg. per year - that is, almost reached the late Soviet level, fish - up to 22 kg. per year, milk and dairy products - up to 247 kg. per year per capita.

However, it should be borne in mind that general indicators may not reflect the actual level of consumption of certain foods by specific social groups. In addition, the reduction in the number of population in the period between 1990 and 2015 plays a role. But, in any case, in the last decade, the population began to eat better than in the first ten years after the reforms. However, this does not give grounds to assert about the solution of the food problem in modern Russia. Of course, the overall level of food security in the country has grown significantly - so, according to Natalia Shagaida, director of the Center for Agro-Industrial Policy of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Service, the level of food security in the Russian Federation was less than 1999%, and now it is 80 % It turns out that 89% is not able to cover Russia for food needs - and this is not so small a figure. However, the Russian Federation as a whole will be able to cover its food needs, therefore, the predictions of the inevitable famine in the event of any political or economic contradictions are, to put it mildly, exaggerated. Yes, of course, there may be a shortage of certain foods and some inflation, but this will not lead to catastrophic consequences - which, in fact, all modern Russians can see in the European Union countries, the United States and their satellites against the Russian Federation as an example of economic sanctions . The study of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Service, devoted to monitoring development trends and identifying threats to the food security of the Russian Federation, reported that the level of food independence of our country is quite high. So, for milk it is 11%, for meat - 80%. Russia can provide itself with pork and chicken itself, but the level of beef supply is very low - Russia produces only 75,9%. At the same time, in such types of products as grain, sugar and vegetable oil, the Russian Federation significantly exceeds the threshold values. This means that it can meet its needs for these types of food in abundance. Russia produces a significant amount of agricultural products that can be exported to other countries. At present, Russia is the third largest grain exporter in the world, that is, it still remains the “global breadbasket”. Russia plays a major role in the export of vegetable oil, since its production, as noted above, exceeds the needs of the Russian population for this product. In addition, Russia exports many unique types of caviar and fish that are not produced or practically are not produced outside of the Russian Federation.

Food safety issues

At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the colossal differences that exist between the regions of the Russian Federation and are due to the climatic, geographical, economic, social, political specifics of particular regions of the country. In particular, a number of regions of the country are characterized by serious problems in the field of food security. First of all, these are such regions as Ingushetia, Kalmykia and Tyva. The economically backward national republics of the Russian Federation are characterized by a low level of food consumption by the population, and local residents are forced to spend considerable money to buy food, but these costs do not contribute to improving the quality of food. This situation is caused by the general socio-economic problems faced by regions with an underdeveloped agro-industrial sector, or that lie outside the main transit routes. The overall level of material well-being of the population, which in the listed republics is lower than the average for Russia, also affects, since they have a high level of unemployment, and wages paid to employees are also low.

In the Doctrine of Food Security, approved in 2010 by the then head of state, D.A. Medvedev, it is emphasized that “food security of the Russian Federation is one of the main directions of ensuring the national security of the country in the medium term, a factor in maintaining its statehood and sovereignty, the most important component of demographic policy, a necessary condition for the implementation of strategic national priority - improving the quality of life of Russian citizens by guaranteeing high life support standards. " The strategic goal of food security is the provision of safe agricultural products. The word "safe" is not used in vain here - in addition to providing the population with sufficient food for a healthy lifestyle with food, the state also addresses the regulation of the quality of manufactured and imported agricultural and agricultural products. It is claims to the quality of products that became one of the reasons for the restrictions imposed on the import of Western products into the country.

The Russian Federation in the field of food security faces a number of certain risks. First, it is the monopolization of agricultural production to large companies and the squeezing of small businessmen from the agro-industrial complex. This threat was particularly actively recalled in the media after the initiative to impose restrictions on personal subsidiary farms of citizens. The proposed restrictions should concern farms that contain more than 5 heads of cattle and 20 heads of small ruminants. According to the project, all owners of farms that have a large number of livestock will have to be registered as individual entrepreneurs. Critics immediately accused the authors of the project in an attempt to destroy small business, to reduce the already low level of material security of the rural population. However, there is nothing strange in the project outlined - on the contrary, the situation when the owners have herds in 1000 livestock heads is not abnormal, but is not registered as entrepreneurs, does not pay taxes, does not pass the required quality control of meat and dairy products and gives out their farms for personal subsidiary farms. Of course, the numbers in 5 and 20 of cattle heads and cattle are controversial, but these figures can be changed, and the fact that the agribusiness sector needs to be streamlined is so obvious. At the same time, the streamlining of control over agricultural production should not lead to real monopolization of agriculture by large companies and oust small and medium-sized entrepreneurs from the agricultural sector. On the contrary, the development and promotion of small business in the field of agriculture is one of the key guarantees of the development of the latter. Grants and subsidies from the state and tax breaks should not be avoided for the farms that are formed - if only the agrarian sector is developing.

Economist OA Glotov in the article “Food security of the Russian Federation: risks and threats, the main directions of state economic policy” lists the main, in his view, risks to Russian food security. First of all, he considers the decline in the investment attractiveness of the domestic economy and the competitiveness of domestic products, as well as the technological lag behind developed countries, unfavorable climatic conditions (which is especially important for Russia, given that a significant part of the country’s territory is characterized by low natural conditions for agricultural development. conditions). In addition, according to Glotov, the low solvency of the population, which causes low demand for food, affects the level of food security in the Russian Federation; insufficient development of the domestic market infrastructure; social polarization of the urban and rural population of the Russian Federation; competitive advantages of foreign products, a number of types of which in a favorable direction differs from the Russian one; reduction of the national animal and plant genetic resources; poor development of innovative technologies in the field of agriculture; weak investment flows in agriculture. Of course, these factors have a negative impact on the food supply of the Russian Federation, however, attention should be paid to such a moment as the ownership of a significant part of food production facilities located on the territory of the Russian Federation to foreign companies. It is impossible not to draw attention to the concentration of part of agricultural production and agro-trade in the hands of representatives of certain ethnic diasporas, which is also a disturbing factor - it’s difficult to say how the representatives of diasporas behave in the event of a political or economic conflict with their country of origin. At least, one should not allow monopolization of domestic agricultural resources by anyone. Equally, this applies to agro-trade.

How to ensure food self-sufficiency?

The report of the Izborsk Club on food security issues of the Russian Federation emphasizes that there are several models of food security. First, it is an autarkic model, implying the self-sufficiency of society in terms of meeting food needs. As a rule, this model was characteristic of most feudal societies, and in the modern period of the world stories to autarkic model, in our opinion, can be attributed to the DPRK. Secondly, it is an imperial model, based on the cheapness of food products imported into the country - the metropolis from the colonies and the countries - satellites. This model was characteristic of the period of the existence of colonial empires (XVIII - the first half of the twentieth centuries) and became a thing of the past as the third world countries decolonized. The third model - dynamic - is the introduction of advanced technologies in the agricultural sector, accompanied by the development of the agricultural industry. This model was characteristic of the entire second half of the twentieth century. Finally, the fourth model is innovative, which, according to specialists of the Izborsk club, is the development of biotechnologies and their use in ensuring the production of environmentally friendly agricultural products. If we apply this classification to the current state of Russian food security, then it is obvious that Russia is still struggling to restore the dynamic model and is trying to switch to an innovative model, however, it faces the consequences of the destruction of agriculture and the agro-industrial sector in the country in the 1990-s and becoming a raw materials appendage West. Meanwhile, without a transition to an innovative model of food security, the Russian Federation will never be able to fully meet the food needs of the population, which means it will be vulnerable to external political and economic pressure.

It should be understood that agriculture is a strategically important sector of the economy, perhaps even more so than industry. Without the development of domestic agriculture, the country's food security will always be low. Accordingly, several fundamental principles must be followed in the management of the agricultural industry. First, the state must assume the main regulatory and even governing role in the field of agriculture. This does not mean that agricultural production should be fully nationalized, but the state should significantly increase its presence in the agro-industrial complex. Secondly, the state should create conditions for the development of domestic agriculture and the agro-industrial complex through subsidies, investments, incentives for agricultural producers. State support is one of the main conditions for the prosperity of the agricultural sector, and in many developed countries of the world the state ensures an acceptable level of agricultural development precisely through grants and subsidies. Third, the state should strive to limit the presence of foreign companies in the food market - especially in the segment of “basic” products, i.e. meat and dairy, grain, vegetable products. At the same time, this does not mean the need to abandon the import of those types of food that are not produced in the country, are scarce or delicious. Finally, the state should develop a set of measures to control agricultural trade, in particular to prevent monopolization of warehousing and trade in certain types of agricultural products, because in a political or economic crisis, the presence of monopolist traders can lead to very dangerous consequences for the country's food security.

Sanctions and food security of the country

However, the implementation of these measures is possible only if the national political elite is really concerned about the future of their state and the issue of ensuring the country's national security is on the priority list. In the case of the domination of the compradors and the puppet elite under their control, it is not possible to ensure the food security of the country - the fates of many Third World countries, whose favorable climatic conditions, nevertheless, did not ensure genuine food prosperity, are examples. Thus, Central American or African states that produced significant amounts of agricultural products on plantations, in fact, cannot provide for their own food needs. This is explained by the fact that each of these countries "specializes" in a certain type of agricultural products, which is exported, and the rest of food products, for the most part, are imported from abroad. Accordingly, transnational corporations and developed Western countries that control world markets gain the ability to fully control the economic situation in these countries and control the policies of these countries through the imposition of sanctions. “Industry specialization” is a sign of the country's belonging to the number of “raw materials appendages” of the rich West. It is not by chance that the phrase “banana republics” has spread in its time as a name for such states - an allusion to the states of Central America in the first half of the 20th century. under the actual control of the United United States Company. Sanctions are not terrible only to those states that were able to create their own autonomous food base, at least in the sphere of producing the most necessary for the life of the population of food products.

At the same time, imposing bans on the importation of imported food in conditions where the country cannot fully provide itself with food, seems to be a manifestation of the disregard of power to the needs of ordinary citizens. Representatives of the elite strata of society, who have the financial ability to travel abroad, can afford to import food and other types of products produced abroad - at least when traveling to other countries. All this turns out to be deprived of ordinary citizens who do not have the means to leave the country. It turns out that the state in the case of an ill-conceived ban on the import of imported food artificially stimulates further aggravation of the social polarization of society, and at the most obvious level - at the level of food consumption. Such measures rather harm the national security of the state, since they contribute to the growth of public discontent with the policies of the authorities, which can lead to the spread of opposition, including radical sentiments. Therefore, on the issue of introducing bans on the import of foreign food, it is necessary to analyze and compare the possible positive and negative consequences of such a decision. It is advisable to introduce bans after new sources have been identified for the types of foodstuffs that have been imposed sanctions. So, for example, a significant part of agricultural products previously supplied by EU countries can be supplied to Russia by countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, with which our state maintains acceptable economic and political relations. The Minister of Agriculture of Russia, Alexander Tkachev, claims that Russia itself can cope with the production of those foodstuffs that were previously imported from other states. In particular, the famous Icelandic herring can be replaced by Far Eastern herring produced in Russian waters, and Atlantic salmon supplied from Iceland introduced sanctions can be replaced by deliveries of the same salmon from Chile, with which Russia successfully develops trade and economic relations.

German entrepreneur Stefan Duerr argues that sanctions play into the hands of Russian agriculture, citing as an example the changes in the work of some well-known companies in the agro-industrial market: “The ban on the import of Western food helps the Russian agricultural sector. Recently, the main buyer of Metro in Russia came to me. Previously, domestic products were incredibly difficult to break through to the counters of the Metro store. There was a so-called admission, and the goods themselves were often paid only in two or three months. Meanwhile, Metro is actively seeking Russian suppliers. The company is even ready to finance the development of new products ”(quoted in: Sanctions spurred Russian agriculture //

Without a strong village, food security will be under threat

Another problem is closely connected with the problem of ensuring food security of Russia - the socio-demographic crisis of the Russian village. With the beginning of industrialization, the rural population in the country began to decline rapidly. The younger generation of villagers, with the most active, intelligent and talented representatives of it, moved to the cities and chose professions not related to agricultural production. The demographic situation in rural areas has deteriorated since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The agro-industrial complex, as is known, became one of the most hard-hit "victims" of the economic reforms of the 1990-s. Therefore, in 1990-e - 2000-e. outflow of population from rural areas increased. The main reason for migration to the cities was the desire to improve social and living conditions and the unwillingness to engage in heavy and poorly paid agricultural work. The tendency to reduce the rural population is very disappointing, because it confronts Russia with an insurmountable problem - who will work on the land, raise the country's agriculture if rural youth migrates to the cities. Some domestic politicians even thought about replacing Russian peasants with migrants from the countries of near and far abroad. It should be noted that this trend is already taking place in post-Soviet Russia. At least, in climatically favorable areas of the country, enclaves of compact residence of national minorities, which have not previously lived in these territories, have long existed. Thus, diasporas of Meskhetian Turks live in the Rostov Oblast, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, in the Krasnodar Territory, Adygea and a number of other regions — Kurds, Yezidis, Hemshilians, and in the Saratov Region — Dungans (Chinese Muslims who came from the Central Asian republics of the former USSR). However, the emergence of ethnic enclaves, especially in those regions where migrants have never lived, are fraught with certain risks. First, it is a potential aggravation of interethnic relations in these regions, caused by possible economic competition between more successful migrants and the indigenous population. Secondly, it is the risk of spreading the political influence of other states, as well as political and religious organizations on the territory of the enclaves. Accordingly, there is a need for more active work of law enforcement agencies and special services in these regions of the country. But, on the other hand, one cannot ignore the fact that many “ethno-anklavy” are quite successfully engaged in agriculture and produce a significant amount of agricultural products that are in demand in the domestic market.

Among the main problems of the modern village that affect the demographic behavior of the rural population are: 1) the low level of wages in agriculture (industry workers remain among the least paid in Russia - of course, we are talking about employees, not farmers); 2) poor social and living conditions in rural areas (lack of communications, poor quality of education and health care, or even the possible lack of medical and educational institutions in a particular rural settlement, lack of leisure infrastructure); 3) low prestige of agricultural labor in post-Soviet Russian society; 4) a high level of moral and moral degradation of the rural population (a village that was once a stronghold of tradition and morality, due to socio-economic processes, degenerates - the crime rate increases, it is senseless and ruthless, and alcoholism and anesthesia increases in rural young people). The neglect of the state to the problems of the village entails further deepening of the socio-demographic crisis in the countryside and, of course, creates serious obstacles to the effective development of the domestic agro-industrial complex. Therefore, the “revitalization” of the Russian village should become one of the most important tasks for the country, the successful solution of which will depend on the solution of other problems, both socio-demographic and food security problems.

What to do?

The Report of the Izborsk Club makes the following proposals to eliminate the threat to the food security of the Russian Federation. Firstly, it is proposed to re-nationalize the land of the Russian Federation and put at the head of land policy the historical traditions of the Russian civilization, combined with modern international practice. In particular, unused agricultural land after a certain period of time must be alienated to the state. At the same time, the tasks of inflowing up to 15 million of working-age population to rural areas of Russia should be solved. Secondly, it is proposed to change the tax and credit policy in the field of agriculture and agriculture-related industries - agricultural engineering, production of mineral fertilizers, agrochemicals. Thirdly, the task of stimulating domestic agricultural production should also be solved by tightening the requirements for imported food. First of all, we are talking about monitoring the presence of components harmful to human health in imported food. Genetically modified products must be quotated, while the requirements for domestic producers of agricultural products must be brought in line with international requirements (they were previously too high, which caused greater benefits from food imports than from their production in the Russian Federation). Fourth, measures should be taken to develop the infrastructure that ensures the growth of agricultural production. We are talking about gasification, electrification, water supply and sewerage, processing plants, road infrastructure in rural areas, because without bringing the village to the state of the infrastructure that is adequate to the modern level of infrastructure development, one can hardly expect a real improvement in the agro-industrial complex. Finally, the regulatory, financial, information, scientific, technological and personnel support of the agricultural sector should be improved.

One can agree with all the proposals of the Izborsk club in the field of agricultural development, but the real possibility of doing some of them leaves many questions. First of all, we are talking about increasing the number of the rural population, especially on such a global scale as 15 million of working-age population who, from nowhere, must come to the countryside. While we do not see the influx into the village, even at a much lower level. Despite the fact that housing prices in rural areas are dozens of times different from urban ones, people are in no hurry to sell urban real estate and acquire housing in rural areas. Even though they may have an impressive amount of the difference in the sale and purchase of housing, for which it is possible to develop their own economy. An increase in the influx of the population into the village is supposed to be solved by means of privileges and increased salaries of rural medical workers and educators. However, doctors, paramedics, teachers, educators - this is one, the more they do not participate directly in agricultural production. Yes, and a special number of young professionals, rushing into the village, is not yet observed - and this despite the housing provided, the normal salary and numerous benefits.

Directly in the field of agricultural production, the situation is even worse - where are you planning to recruit millions of agricultural workers, the same combiners and milkmaids? Even urban laborers are unlikely to go to the village, given the low level of wages in the agricultural sector and the low social prestige of not even agricultural labor, but life itself in rural areas. The word "village" is still used as an insult, they can insult the interlocutor. Accordingly, before setting targets for attracting millions of people to the agricultural sector and to the countryside, it is necessary to make the living conditions of people in the village so comfortable that they do not differ much from the city even in everyday life. First of all, a developed and modern infrastructure should be created at the state expense in the countryside. This is transport accessibility, since many villages in Russia are practically devoid of developed transport links. These are gasification, sewage and water supply of rural settlements, since the level of everyday comfort in rural areas remains extremely low. We should not forget about leisure infrastructure. If in Soviet times, clubs, cinemas were built in almost every village, then in the post-reform period, the vast majority of leisure establishments in the villages became neglected, and it was actually destroyed. Leisure infrastructure in villages should also be brought to a normal state that meets the needs of the modern person. And the most important thing is that in agriculture, normal working conditions should be ensured - from the financial aspect to the development of industrial automation. Agriculture feeds Russia and people working in this industry and living in the countryside should feel their need and relevance, and enjoy the well-deserved respect from the state and society.
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  1. oldav
    oldav 18 August 2015 06: 44
    Sometimes it seems that it would not hurt us to starve. You look at people and you see that the number of obese people on the streets is clearly going off scale. In schools, every third child is obese. In my time when I was studying (90s) everyone was slim and fit, and now you look at these schoolgirls with cellulites and sagging bellies and think, and this is our future ?!
    In general, we snickered something.
    1. Enot-poloskun
      Enot-poloskun 18 August 2015 07: 14
      Who got drunk then? In Moscow and St. Petersburg? Traders and "effective" managers? Consumer society? Office plankton? Bureaucrats?

      I travel to the regions. It’s hard in the village, not just ... There are many families who live in hopeless poverty. And you can swell with hunger!

      It's not about who eats how much! The point is the social stratification of the people! Some have small lobsters, others have empty cabbage soup ...
      1. VseDoFeNi
        VseDoFeNi 18 August 2015 07: 25
        Quote: Enot-poloskun
        Who is snickering something? In Moscow and St. Petersburg?

        Countrywide. Do you work with someone yourself?

        Quote: Enot-poloskun
        I travel to the regions.

        Not otherwise - I worked hard, uncle.

        Quote: Enot-poloskun
        It’s hard in the village, not just ... There are many families who live in hopeless poverty. And you can swell with hunger!

        “Well, find me an example in history when they respected a peasant, that is, a breadwinner? But some consultant, referent, musicologist, theater expert, literary critic, art critic and Vedas, and Vedas, and Vedas, and Vedas ... any number of these ... cereals, colossal concentrations of these, so to speak systems, receive money that does not dreamed of a peasant who feeds him. What is it? Parasitism, parasitism in its purest form. " D.V. Arseniev

        Quote: Enot-poloskun
        The point is the social stratification of the people!

        “More than one generation graduated from schools without learning anything, and universities without mastering a profession. Never once did rudeness and cruelty reach the goal, but the habit is stronger. Fearing to be responsible for ourselves, we see the reasons for failure in someone else, somewhere outside But this is a pure illusion, only that which you represent as yourself, within yourself, happens to you.
        If there are solutions and aspirations, they come true. If there are doubts, they DO NOT come true. If you believe others - their dreams come true, but not yours, but their aspirations: after all, they came up with it, and you simply agreed with them.
        Therefore, never look for excuses from the outside - there are none. If something does not work out for you, then you need to do something completely different, regardless of your feelings and beliefs. It is your current beliefs that lead to failure. "N.I. Kurdyumov

        "According to my observations, the dacha situation as a whole is as follows: specifically, 10% of actions are directed to the result, another 30% - against the result, and 60% - to combat these thirty. I think we are just as effective in other matters. "N.I. Kurdyumov

        Citizens, stop whining and scolding Russia !!! We live in the best country in the world - this is an axiom! Although it can be proved as a theorem.
        1. Enot-poloskun
          Enot-poloskun 18 August 2015 07: 47
          I think Russia has not scolded anywhere. Congratulations to you, citizen of a lie!

          Yes, I will answer a couple of questions. I work in the field of agriculture, R&D and implementation of developments.

          And about "I worked", yes, I'll go on vacation, "nephew"))
          1. VseDoFeNi
            VseDoFeNi 18 August 2015 09: 03
            Quote: Enot-poloskun
            I think Russia has not scolded anywhere. Congratulations to you, citizen of a lie!

            It is Russia that you scold, not America, speaking of the severity of the heavy in a RUSSIAN village.

            Quote: Enot-poloskun
            Yes, I will answer a couple of questions. I work in the field of agriculture, R&D and implementation of developments.

            That is, should they be familiar with the works of Ovsinsky, Ekleben, Maltsev, Faulkner, Fukuoka, Taratorkin, finally?
            You should know that the abandonment of the dump plow in the USA and Canada helped to increase productivity by 2 times in the 30s of the last century, while reducing energy costs.

            Take the trouble to study, you are our innovator, at least Kurdyumov's "The Economy of Agriculture without Illusions".
            With great pleasure, I present to you, dear reader, an amazing book - “Theoretical Economy - a Dead End of the Class Approach” O.V. Tarkhanova. Let the author’s name not bother you - this is just a prioritization. I would call the book simply: "The true economy of agriculture." Recently, another book by Tarkhanov was published: "Technological reform of agriculture as a means against war." I also included the main thoughts from it in this essay.
            Oleg Vladimirovich - Director of the Bashkir Research Institute of Organic Processing, a constructive scientist at the planetary level and a corrosive economist. His book literally opens his eyes to the main cause of all agricultural problems. The language of the book is Dokuchaev's classic - extremely correct, detailed and scientifically beautiful. And for this reason, it is absolutely unreadable for ordinary people. J The classic case of brilliant scientific work! I think that even among Tarkhanov’s colleagues, not many will bother to study all his calculations in detail.
            Therefore, without a doubt, I sit down "to translate the book into our human language." I find nothing better than to have fun with the author and give my own, well, very free retelling of its main provisions, reducing the volume of the text every fifteen. I vouch for the exact transfer of the meaning of copyright ideas. Emotions and comments reserve. I give my own supplements in the first person.
            1. Marxist
              Marxist 18 August 2015 12: 37
              Here the other day the government has limited the number of animals in the LPH.
              Say - now those who have 20-30 cows will be forced to register as individual entrepreneurs and pay taxes to the budget.
              But what will be more profitable for the peasants - pay draconian extortions or simply slaughter all the "extra" cattle, or even simply abandon the farm.
              Undoubtedly the second.
              I hope that this will lead to a clear reduction in the total number of agricultural animals in the country by at least 20-25%, and in the future, to FOOD DEFICIENCY.
              So much for "import substitution". So much for "food security".
              Under the silliness of chatter about "overcoming the crisis", the government CONSCIOUSLY drags the Russian economy into the abyss and raises the degree of POPULAR DISSOLUTION.
              Now, I hope everyone understands WHERE this power drags the COUNTRY ???
              1. g1v2
                g1v2 18 August 2015 15: 35
                I always laughed when I heard speeches in the 80s and 90s that a peasant or farmer would feed Russia. Only large agricultural enterprises can feed the 150 millionth country. That is why they collectivized. In tsarist times, we sold grain for export and in the countryside people regularly died of starvation. How many children survived in the village? Especially when they say that small or medium-sized farms of someone there will feed this nonsense. My aunt was the chairman of the collective farm, when the collective farm was dissolved, it privatized how much it turned out — a tractor, cattle, property, etc. Throughout the 90s, she could barely make ends meet without thinking about how to feed someone. Small households cannot compete with large ones either in price or in quality. A small household cannot reject tons of substandard tonnes - it will simply go broke then, while a large substandard can easily be rejected. An example - he worked in a small enterprise in the food industry. Only frankly defective products went into marriage. I work on a large scale - with a deviation of 2 units by the colorimeter of coffee, we pour out tons. 2 units are unlikely to even taste the specials, but the quality standards of the enterprise do not allow packaging.
                Now ours have taken the right path - the development and support of large agricultural holdings such as peace trading. And the percentage of domestic meat products has risen sharply since 2010. Even in the chic culinary establishments of Moscow, where the rich go, the meat is now mostly domestic. Whereas before, they had not even seen him in the eye. INFA first-hand. However, we will not have 100 percent of domestic products, as part of the market was given products from friendly countries such as Belarus or Kazakhstan. We close the market for their products - they will not be friends with us.
              2. VseDoFeNi
                VseDoFeNi 18 August 2015 17: 14
                Quote: Marxist
                Say - now those who have 20-30 cows will be forced to register as individual entrepreneurs and pay taxes to the budget.

                In this regard, I can say one thing, due to our resources, Russian citizens should be completely exempted from all taxes. am
      2. oldav
        oldav 18 August 2015 07: 49
        [quote = Enot-poloskun] Who got drunk? In Moscow and St. Petersburg? Traders and "effective" managers? Consumer society? Office plankton? Bureaucrats?

        I travel to the regions. It’s hard in the village, not just ... There are many families who live in hopeless poverty. And you can swell with hunger!

        Snickering, I mean physical obesity. Just the same poor and obese due to lack of food culture. And about the village is not necessary. I, too, was in the villages and those who do not want to work (alcoholics, drug addicts, etc.) are poor there; those who work do not live badly
        1. Shick
          Shick 18 August 2015 09: 03
          with this attitude then do not be surprised when the Chinese population of Russia votes in a referendum for joining China
  2. moskowit
    moskowit 18 August 2015 06: 48
    The article is interesting, overview, written by a person who knows and is a fan of agriculture. The article is a definite plus.
    But I would like to draw your attention to the fact that the theme and name of the site has a different focus. Recently, the site "Voennoye Obozreniye", I emphasize, VOYENNOE, began to display more and more articles and reviews of the political, economic and production-economic plan, which blurs the main theme of the site. I would like to see more topics about the evolution and history of weapons, the development of military affairs, military history, biography of people and designers who have left a noticeable mark on the development of military art and various types of weapons and military equipment ...
    1. voronbel53
      voronbel53 18 August 2015 07: 41
      And I think you don’t need to narrow the scope of the site. The army is also part of the people and therefore also takes an interest in everything that is happening in the country, and the topic of food and everything connected with it is all the more indifferent to anyone. I agree that we need more articles on military history, biographies of people, specialists who promoted military science, industry, about military exploits in wars, and so on. It is not necessary to go to the other extreme when a highly specialized article can be discussed by a very small part of site visitors who almost discuss their dissertations, right down to the cogs and gadgets, while the rest only have to silently go to another article. Nevertheless, VO is intended mainly for a wide audience, and not for narrow specialists. Of course, there may be many opinions, I expressed one of them. And most importantly, so that there are no empty articles, more interesting and different ...
    2. Foul skeptic
      Foul skeptic 18 August 2015 10: 21
      Quote: moskowit
      I would like to see more about the evolution and history of weapons, the development of military affairs, military history, the biography of people and designers who left a noticeable mark in the development of military art and various types of weapons and military equipment ...

      I fully support. I am not a supporter of conspiracy theory, but sometimes it seems that
      articles and reviews of the political, economic and industrial-economic plan, which erodes the main subject of the site
      not accidental - it is they that cause the most heated discussions on the site, thereby increasing its popularity, so to speak. This is the first. And secondly, people are constantly excited, a kind of latent controlled chaos.
  3. strelets
    strelets 18 August 2015 06: 51
    There is a resettlement program for compatriots. Is our village worse than the destroyed Donbass or impoverished Tajikistan?
    1. oldav
      oldav 18 August 2015 06: 56
      The worse is that; A resident of Tajikistan or Donbass is ready to work on the land and get a small but stable profit. Our people rushed to the cities and it would be better to work in the office playing a scarf than with hard rural labor.
      1. washi
        washi 18 August 2015 12: 03
        Quote: oldav
        The worse is that; A resident of Tajikistan or Donbass is ready to work on the land and get a small but stable profit. Our people rushed to the cities and it would be better to work in the office playing a scarf than with hard rural labor.

        So few people seek plants.
  4. Semyonych
    Semyonych 18 August 2015 07: 03
    At the same time, the tasks of the influx into the rural areas of Russia of up to 15 million people of working age should be solved.

    The article is large and serious and requires the same serious comments, but there is no time as always. In short, about something, the thesis of attracting 15 million people to the village is somewhat populist and from the realm of fantasy. In my opinion, it is necessary to strive not for the mass importation of Chinese into the hinterland, but to preserve the existing population in the countryside, it is necessary to stop the outflow of people to start. Stopping is not easy, but possible. After all, people are leaving not from the lack of sewage or gas, but for other reasons ......... and one of the reasons is the children. As soon as small-class schools in the villages began to be massively closed, people began to leave, because it is obvious that if there is nowhere to teach children, then who will stay on the farms. And the widespread closure of FAPs (feldsher-midwife point), post offices, savings banks. Oh! You can list and list, but the most important IMHO is the restoration of kindergartens, small schools, medical institutions.
  5. Nitarius
    Nitarius 18 August 2015 07: 14
    Who is writing the article? a man from the city, as I understand it!
    what is currently strangling in the village?
    1) This is what to buy livestock, or rather to donate what the peasant raised - NO and not where! only hucksters from the bazaar. and they buy only at a low price. and in the end, putting meat to the villager is nowhere!
    2) Some kind of M ... ki or Eccentrics in officials Pushed through a law, according to which now a local resident cannot himself "stab" the grown beast! This is a mockery of the people! And before that there was a veterinary certificate! but now in general MORASM!

    So ... DO NOT write any nonsense! Give freedom to the villager so that he can grow his goods and sell them at a more or less adequate price!
    and then just don’t interfere, the people will go to the village!
    but at the moment, the interests of LARGE FIRMS are taken into account and not the people!
    1. VseDoFeNi
      VseDoFeNi 18 August 2015 07: 30
      Quote: Nitarius
      and then just don’t interfere, the people will go to the village!

      My son has already gone.
    2. Kuzyakin15
      Kuzyakin15 18 August 2015 22: 30
      And to press resellers from the markets.
  6. pravednik
    pravednik 18 August 2015 07: 23
    From time immemorial, the peasantry fed itself and the townspeople. And the state did not interfere, but on the contrary helped. And now? There are no benefits at all. Only requisitions.
    1. VseDoFeNi
      VseDoFeNi 18 August 2015 07: 28
      Quote: pravednik
      From time immemorial, the peasantry fed itself and the townspeople. And the state did not interfere, but on the contrary helped.

      And detail?

      Quote: pravednik
      There are no benefits at all. Only requisitions.

      With such reasoning, they will soon begin to threaten the state with suicide - do not give the dough, I will be strangled.
      Uncle, do you need benefits for your life or can you handle it yourself?
    2. razzhivin
      razzhivin 18 August 2015 09: 51
      And now? There are no benefits at all. Only requisitions.

      I have a great-great-grandfather, before the revolution there was a village headman of the village ... there were records (a book in fact) of one of his grandchildren ... people, then in the village, worked from morning to night ... came from the field and did needlework .. .
      rural work has always been hard ...
      under late "socialism" I had to visit a collective farm as a student - to harvest ... in the morning we went out into the field at 7 o'clock, when at 9-10 o'clock we took a break - we watched sleepy "peasants" go out to feed the "screaming" cattle in the village ...
      Now it’s not often in the village, but I’m visiting ... there are the first examples (they live well - foreign cars in the yards), but more than the second ...

      Draw your own conclusions ...
  7. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 18 August 2015 07: 47
    I have already written here more than once that the "problems" of the peasantry are constant from year to year for post-Soviet Russia, namely:
    1) The state, recognizing in words "food" security as the most important for the development of the country, in fact does absolutely nothing to help the peasants and the agricultural sector. No, the state allocates money for "aid" to the agricultural industry, but it allocates this money not directly, but through affiliated banks, which already have to lend to peasants, and they lend .... ohhh ... interest. And why the state does not create the state "Agroprombank" and does not provide peasants with interest-free loans - this is the question, most likely it stems from the general policy of our government officials - do nothing and just shake the air with your mouth and wait when one of the "entrepreneurs" is done will do for them.
    2) On the agricultural market there is no place for peasants to sell their products - everything is seized by "resellers" who have conspired and "keep" the price at an extremely low level, raising it already when resale to the population. The state tvt, again, does not want to do anything - hoping for the "invisible hand" of the market - not that there, above, they do not understand that resellers are choking our agriculture with low prices, they just do not want to do anything at the top - they are lazy. But everything is very simple - you need, as in Soviet times, to create state offices for the purchase of agricultural products at state-justified prices - and prices, to be coordinated with the peasants themselves. But no, you won't wait for that, no one is even going to remove the "robbers" -dealers from the agricultural market.
    3) In addition to the common market, where peasants are trying to sell their products, there are also urban markets close to the population. In these markets, everything is also captured by the mafia, mainly Azerbaijani, Armenian, Greek and other national structures, and peasants are not allowed there directly. It is necessary with a firm hand to remove the repurchasing mafia from these markets. But again, no one is doing this because the local authorities are "fed" by these market mafias, and the state is too lazy to do this at all.
    4) The state simply needs to take on the responsibility of developing territories: to conduct good roads, electricity, Internet, gas, water to the zones of agro-industrial production, build refrigeration and other logistics zones and parks for storing and processing agricultural products, etc. BUT ... the state put there is a big "bolt" to this, arguing that everything must follow the "market" path, like one of the "entrepreneurs" must do all this for them. Yeah. It is easier and better for the state to forgive the next freeloaders or "friends" or "partners" for billions of Soviet and other debt than to "knock out" this debt from debtor countries and invest these billions in the country's development.
    In short, all the "problems" of the peasantry have long been known and they can be solved - some right now (to put things in order in city markets, create a bank of interest-free lending, etc.), others (infrastructure, etc.) later, but ... no one will do. It was not for this that officials started "perestroika" in order to work, not sleep at night, to wander around the country like "Stalin's Commissars" solving the problems of a huge country on the ground, they started "perestroika" to sit on the country's money bags, eat sweetly and sleep enough and so that no one of them did not bother in this "divine" pastime ... what kind of "problems" of agriculture are you talking about ... and to whom ...
    1. olimpiada15
      olimpiada15 18 August 2015 20: 25
      Good comment.
      A country needs a bank not a predatory commercial one, which collects money from everyone, pays it at predatory interest, acting in the name of inflation, after which it goes bankrupt having managed to get a double charge from its creditors and withdraw the funds of its debtors abroad.
      We need a state bank that directly lends to important programs for the country.
    2. Kuzyakin15
      Kuzyakin15 18 August 2015 22: 39
      ,, that would sit on money bags, sweetness and plenty of sleep ... "- this is not only about the officials of agriculture, but also education, culture and medicine.
  8. Crown
    Crown 18 August 2015 08: 31
    It’s stupid to live in the village to starve, although I myself observe how some individuals sit for days on end propping up fences. smile
    1. VseDoFeNi
      VseDoFeNi 18 August 2015 09: 04
      Quote: Krona
      some individuals sit all day propping up fences.

      Parasites ...
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. 31rus
      31rus 18 August 2015 09: 13
      You dear, try to mow grass for the winter for a cow, there is the land of an agricultural holding, here the meadow was bought by a certain entrepreneur, then a private territory, even further forestry, so this is a weak example of how "they beat hands"
      1. VseDoFeNi
        VseDoFeNi 18 August 2015 19: 04
        Quote: 31rus
        You dear, try to mow grass for the winter for a cow, there is the land of an agricultural holding, here the meadow was bought by a certain entrepreneur, then a private territory, even further forestry, so this is a weak example of how "they beat hands"

        Everything is LAZED at us !!! Nobody wants to work. In general, keeping a goat is more profitable.
  9. YaMZ-238
    YaMZ-238 18 August 2015 08: 59
    The last picture in the article impressed: the landscape seemed to be in the courtyard of the 19th century and until the abolition of serfdom ... the only power lines are superfluous, they give out modernity))))))
    1. Kilo-11
      Kilo-11 18 August 2015 09: 57
      Rostov region, Volchensky farm is one of the oldest settlements of the Don Cossacks. The picture shows the Holy Trinity Church built by the Don Cossacks in the late 19th century, is being restored. S. Gerasimov filmed several episodes of his "Quiet Don" on the farm. It is about 1957 km to Ukraine. As the locals said, in Soviet times there was a strong collective farm on the farm, a mine worked. Of course, it’s clear that now the farm / village / will not develop rapidly right, but there is a farm, as far as I understand it is not very bad, and the farmstead / village / itself has little resemblance to the "murdered" Russian outback - well-groomed private households, a school, several streets are paved. So, in my opinion, the author is not Many unsuccessfully published this picture here in the context of the complete devastation of the Russian village.
  10. 31rus
    31rus 18 August 2015 09: 07
    Agriculture is a sore point for me, because I live in the village myself, I’ll say to myself (and these are millions of them), before the 2000s, my family cultivated almost everything I needed, agricultural products were processed right there, surpluses were sold or exchanged (there was a whole network of landowning enterprises with various forms of ownership, including state ones), at that time my family (and all the villagers) did not have enough land to increase the volumes, all the food came from the garden (1,2-1,5 hectares of land , not the biggest one), now it’s all from the store, here’s the answer to your questions, the peasants don’t need anyone and the authorities only advertise all kinds of programs, and there are many problems for more than one article and not one decade. you need to live in a village, not smear problems by clubs and programs
  11. Vladimir1960
    Vladimir1960 18 August 2015 09: 37
    State-monopoly capitalism rules in Russia. Agriculture is at the mercy of large agricultural producers. With state support, they will continue to crush the private trader. Already, the state is in every way obstructing the development of a small subsidiary farm. In the future, this will be fixed by law. The goal is to get a hired worker working for food with a ban on growing anything on their plots. According to their plan, we should only buy what is sold in their stores at their prices.
    1. sherp2015
      sherp2015 18 August 2015 11: 32
      Quote: Vladimir1960
      State-monopoly capitalism rules in Russia. Agriculture is at the mercy of large agricultural producers. With state support, they will continue to crush the private trader. Already, the state is in every way obstructing the development of a small subsidiary farm. In the future, this will be fixed by law. The goal is to get a hired worker working for food with a ban on growing anything on their plots. According to their plan, we should only buy what is sold in their stores at their prices.

      The name for this is Injustice generated and encouraged by the Yeltsin state since 91
  12. razzhivin
    razzhivin 18 August 2015 09: 41
    The very fact of starvation of millions of people testifies to the inability of many states of the world to solve the food supply of their population, at least without humanitarian assistance from international organizations.

    The author, like many politicians, substitutes the cause for the investigation ... and he himself reveals this reason:

    in general, the modern world is more likely to have overproduction of food, and every day hundreds of thousands of stores in developed countries “write off” a huge number of products that are overdue for one or two days, in the countries of the “Third World” there is a shortage of food that develops into hunger.

    The cause of hunger in many countries, in the imbalances of the world economy ... when a part of the "developed" countries (we do not go deep why and how) monopolized some opportunities for economic development, depriving most of the poorest countries of any chances to independently deal with problems, incl. food security ... Examples of this are some African countries that export food despite domestic famine (and sometimes land has already been sold) ...
  13. Vikxnumx
    Vikxnumx 18 August 2015 09: 45
    You should know that the abandonment of the dump plow in the USA and Canada helped to increase productivity by 2 times in the 30s of the last century, while reducing energy costs.
    Oh li!
    Do you have practical recommendations for each zone from serious scientific institutions confirmed by practice?
    For Stavropol and not! And here they grow about 8 percent of Russian grain.
    How much should you spend on applying herbicides?
    How much fertilizer should be increased?
    Can you name the number of fertilizer under-supply at the moment?
    Where can jobs come from when 10000 people are enough to grow grain on 50 hectares (and 30 of them are office workers). And the main jobs are created by animal husbandry, which has been safely laid. And for its revival it is necessary to build everything from scratch.
  14. Gray 43
    Gray 43 18 August 2015 09: 56
    Help is somehow one-sided, in prosperous agro-complexes, as in the crisis unmeasured money fell into banks. There is no mass support for small farms, so they have to survive on their own and they survive, they update equipment, they take loans at draconian interest. I don’t understand the bewilderment of some colleagues in the forum on the topic of the article, for a soldier should not starve - our village was always fed by our village
  15. Vikxnumx
    Vikxnumx 18 August 2015 11: 07
    What kind of revival of any production can we talk about when banks receive money! And they beat their percentage.
    Until the credits become lifting, the "root of the plant" you will see in production!
    But the technique must be changed ... yes, all.
  16. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 18 August 2015 11: 48
    What about the full ones. This is not abundance, but a lack of knowledge, or money for the right products. The article is serious, correct, I agree with the comments, but will we have improvements? After all, these problems are always
  17. loaln
    loaln 18 August 2015 11: 55
    An article with an American "smell" - fifty-fifty. Lies are intertwined with truth, and good intentions also smell.

    Here is an example
    "At the same time, introducing bans on the import of foodstuffs in conditions when the country cannot fully provide itself with foodstuffs seems to be a manifestation of the government's disregard for the needs of ordinary citizens."

    Can't or doesn't want to. After all, now the country is not synonymous with the state. Our economic activity is freely organized. And, the more the state (power) tries to "get in" there, the louder the cries of those cited about the inadmissibility of this.
    Right now there is the case when you are pseudo-entrepreneurs (or just pseudo-distributors about them) and should do business, and not nod at the country, implying the state apparatus by it.
    Stop being hypocrites, do not tell the wretched. You yourself will become so. If you haven’t.
  18. ism_ek
    ism_ek 18 August 2015 12: 27
    The article was rewritten from "Soviet textbooks", but time passed and everything changed. Agriculture has become a branch of industry, moreover, it is quite capital-intensive. The days of lone farmers are over. Our agriculture has two problems. Investment and technology. We have invested money in agriculture, we provide ourselves. But we buy technologies, without which agriculture is unthinkable. We do not produce any tractor or planting material :(
    [media = http: // http: //
    -hozyaystvo-moloko-dokumentalnyy-film-23-10-2014 /]
  19. Vladimir1960
    Vladimir1960 18 August 2015 12: 58
    Well, a sad joke on the topic of village life.
    The village shop was on fire, but no one was in a hurry to extinguish it. Everyone was waiting for the same notebook to burn ...
  20. Olezhek
    Olezhek 18 August 2015 13: 15
    Everything is mixed up in the house of Bolkonsky

    Hunger is when the population has neither food nor money to buy it.

    EU did not deliver, EU sold food to Russia.
    Ie changed for money.
    And then the hunger ??
    if the good European Union were driving this very grub for free or for a penny
    It was a business ...
    Shaw for propaganda about hunger ??
    It was a bu we have to eat and would not be currency - we would suck a paw (like the current Ukraine)
    and no one was interested.
    Is not it ??
    Do not confuse business and the solution to the problem of hunger ..
    Let them bring their grudge to Africa .. and feed hungry blacks ..

    The destruction of food - is necessary in order to make smuggling meaningless.
    You paid, brought wanted to sell - and on you ..
    And deneh not to return ...

    In addition to the EU, there are other food producers ..
    The world is big.

    Propaganda article.
  21. Free wind
    Free wind 18 August 2015 17: 10
    This is how Makar Mongolia threatens hunger? See the first map. for meat production, per capita, Mongolia is one of the first places in the world, and they can safely manage without bread, it would be meat. and the words in the article are half true.
  22. olimpiada15
    olimpiada15 18 August 2015 20: 02
    "the level of food security in the Russian Federation is affected by the low paying capacity of the population," and investors are attracted to the country under the argument of "cheap labor", that is. in the west, for the same work, a decent wage is needed - a person must eat, dress, rest, get medical treatment, buy housing in the Russian Federation for a piece of bread, and he can no longer pay.
    "The implementation of the listed measures is possible only if the national political elite is really concerned about the future of their states" Chubais's slogan about the extinction of 30 million as those who did not fit into the market has not been canceled, or the same Polonsky, who sent everyone who does not have million. The Russian elite is definitely not worried about the future of the state.
    "Genetically modified products must be quota" - where the quota is, there is also above the quota, the amount of unhealthy food consumed goes off scale.
    I was outraged by the first comment on the article on overweight and overeating. In the USSR, I had a size of 90-60-90, my appetite was good and the diet was funny for me, the size was not affected by the birth of children and not young age. But from modern food and nervous overload of the 90s, the weight began to grow and no diet can help.
    A person should not live in eternal stress, food should not be unused waste and a mixture of chemicals that replace the natural taste, smell and color - then there will be no obesity.
    And yet, in the USSR, allergic diseases, respiratory infections, diabetes were not as common as they are now: to be healthy people need a stable normal life, and we have eternal stresses. In the United States, unemployment increased, which means that food prices in Russia will rise; we have long been dependent on the well-being of other countries.