History Marine Corps
The Marine Corps dates back to 1775. During the War of Independence, the Second Continental Congress approved the creation of two marine battalions to serve on the Continental ships fleet. In 1798, the Fifth United States Congress formally established the United States Marine Corps. Over their 235-year history, the Marines distinguished themselves in many battles - from the Battle of Bello Wood to Iwo Jima, from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir to the siege of Khesani and the assault of Faluji. Due to the fact that parts of the marine corps are traditionally trained, organized and equipped specifically for operations outside their territory, the MP has long been considered an American rapid reaction force.
Marine Corps Command
General James Conway - 34 on account of the Commander of the Marine Corps. Conway - an experienced infantry officer, he previously headed the 1 and 2 divisions of the Marine Corps, participated in the operations "Desert Storm" and "Iraqi Freedom", and visited Iraq twice.
Commander - the highest official of the Marine Corps. Along with the commander of the Navy, he is a member of the Joint Staff Committee. The Commander of the MP is responsible for the planning, use and supply of parts and divisions of the Corps and garrison teams.
Organization and Management of the Marine Corps
ATLANTIC FORCES OF THE MARITIME CONSTRUCTION AND COMMAND OF THE MARINE OF THE MARINE CONSTRUCTION (MARFORCOM)
The headquarters of the Atlantic Forces of the United States Marine Corps (MARFORCOM) is located at the Norfolk Naval Base. Led by the Atlantic forces, which, along with the Pacific forces and the Corps Reserve, are the largest marines, Lt. Gen. Richard F. Natonski. He also commands the Atlantic Marine Corps and all of the Corps bases on the Atlantic, which provide for the participation in the NATO operations of the Marine Corps and other American commands. MARFORCOM has approximately 45000 members of the personnel of the II Marine Expeditionary Force, led by Lieutenant-General Denis Hedzhlik (Lt. Gen. Dennis J. Hejlik) with headquarters in Camp Legeune, NC. A part of the 2 Division of the Marine Corps, led by Major General Richard Tryon (Maj. Gen. Richard T. Tryon), performs missions in Afghanistan.
PACIFIC FORCES OF THE SEA DRINK (MARFORPAC)
The headquarters of the Pacific Forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Keith J. Stalder (Lt. Gen. Keith J. Stalder) is located in Camp Smith in Hawaii (Camp Smith, Hawaii); The unit is part of US Central Command and has approximately 84000 marines and sailors. MARFORPAC includes the I Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF), led by Lt. Gen. Joseph Dundorf (Lt. Gen. Joseph F. Dunford Jr.). Headquarters I MEF is located in Camp Pendleton, California (Camp Pendleton, Calif.). Parts of the 1 Marine Corps Division, commanded by Major General Richard Mills (Maj. Gen. Richard P. Mills), operate in Al-Anbar province in Iraq and in Afghanistan. III MEF, commanded by Lt. Gen. Terry Roebling (Lt. Gen. Terry G. Robling), has its headquarters in Okinawa, Japan. Parts of the 3 Marine Corps Division, led by Brig. Gen. James B. Laster, are active in Afghanistan.
MARINE TOWN HOUSING RESERVE (MARFORRES); POWER "NORTH"
The Corps Reserve under the leadership of Lieutenant General John Kelly (Lt. Gen. John F. Kelly) with headquarters in New Orleans counts about 39600 marines and sailors, including in the 4 division of the marines, led by Major General James Williams (Maj. Gen. James L. Williams), 4-e wing of the Marine Corps and 4-th service group. The reserve is designed to increase and restore the capabilities of operating marines, including those carrying out numerous overseas raids for combat and other purposes. The reserve is also the main force at the disposal of the US North American Command.
MANAGEMENT OF COMBAT DEVELOPMENT (MCCDC)
The Marine Corps Directorate at Quantico (Quantico, Va.) Is headed by Lt. Gen. George Flynn (Lt. Gen. George J. Flynn). Management is the center of operational analysis and development of combat capabilities and theories of the use of the Marine Corps. The administration includes the Combat Laboratory, headed by Brigadier General Robert Hidland (Brig. Gen. Robert F. Hedelund), who is also the Deputy Head of the Directorate for Naval Research. The role of the laboratory is to develop new ideas and technologies, as well as to “play” the concepts of future warfare. Another division of the Directorate is the Irregular Forces Center (CIW), which develops the doctrine and tactics of the Marine Corps to act in extreme conditions to carry out humanitarian, peacekeeping tasks, security, and others. The center also examines the conditions of the sea-based, the concept of other fleets and the experience of operations that can be claimed in the theory and practice of the Corps.
MANAGEMENT OF ARMAMENT OF THE CASE (MARCORSYSCOM)
Headquarters located in Quantico. Brigadier General Michel Brogan (Brig. Gen. Michael M. Brogan), the head of the department, is responsible for the execution and management of weapons programs. In connection with the increasing capabilities of the Navy, these programs provide for the acquisition and development of specific weapons systems intended for the operations of the Marine Corps, including weapon and equipment for infantry units, armored personnel carriers and artillery. Management activity allows marines to better counter various threats; for example, together with the army and the navy, the management is involved in the development of a minesteam-protected all-terrain vehicle, the delivery of which to the troops will avoid losses from explosions.
COMMAND SPECIAL OPERATIONS (MARSOC)
The headquarters of the special operations command, under the command of Major General Paul Lefebvre (Maj. Gen. Paul E. Lefebvre), is located at the Camp Lejeune Marine Corps Base. The command has 2600 marines and sailors prepared for special operations. The command consists of two battalions stationed at Camp Lejun and Camp Pendlenton, California. Each battalion consists of four companies intended for reconnaissance and fire support. In addition, the management includes a group of instructors involved in the combat training of foreign units. MARSOC fulfills allied obligations traditionally present in the US special forces. The special operations command also includes a support team and a school that recruits and prepares candidates for special operations.
The United States Marine Corps (US United States Marine Corps, USMC, US Marines), which is an important component of the country's armed forces, is kept on constant alert and is used by the US military-political leadership as a strike force. She is subordinate to the US Navy. According to the laws in the US, of all the armed forces, only the marines can be used by the president to carry out any task without the approval of Congress.
A typical example of such use can be considered the 1992 events of the year in Los Angeles, when marines were promptly introduced to suppress riots in the city.
Marines are highly mobile troops intended for amphibious operations and combat operations in the coastal zone in cooperation with the fleet, ground forces and air forces both in a general war and in local wars with the use of conventional and nuclear weapons.
Marines perform police and guard duties on ships and naval bases. In addition, modern concepts of combat operations envisage the participation of marines in the “small war”, their independent raids in the desert and the jungle, the destruction of illegal armed groups, the evacuation of civilians from war-torn regions, etc.
The US Marine Corps is headed by the commandant, who reports directly to the Navy Minister. The corps consists of headquarters, operating forces, support and reserve. The total number of Corps personnel is 203 thousand people in operating units and another 44 thousand in reserve.
The organizational structure of the marines is based on the principle of the parallel existence of two organizations: administrative, operating in peacetime, and operational, used for the period of hostilities and exercises, as well as performing daily service as part of the advanced naval forces.
According to the administrative organization, the US Marine Corps includes the forces of the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets (regular ground forces and Aviation Marine Corps), reserve, naval units, coastal guard units, support units, training and combat units and units.
The naval forces of the fleets comprise three divisions, three rear service groups and reinforcement units, as well as three wings.
The division is the largest tactical compound of the ground forces of the marines. It includes the 19000 man. The division is armed:
70 tanks Abrams M1A1,
12 203,2-mm self-propelled howitzers M110,
16 155 mm M109 self-propelled howitzers,
80 towed howitzers M198,
72 81-mm mortar M29A1,
81 60-mm Mortar M-224,
144 ATGM "TOU",
216 Dragon ATCM,
208 floating BTR and about 3000 cars.
The division includes:
headquarters with headquarters battalion
three regiments of marines
separate battalions: tank, light infantry, reconnaissance, floating armored personnel carriers and engineering.
The headquarters battalion consists of five companies: a headquarters battalion, service, motor transport, communications and military police. It is designed to support the activities of the division headquarters, the organization of communication between the headquarters and the divisions, the protection of command posts and the maintenance of the division headquarters.
Modern marines, organized as aeronautical forces (MAGTF), represent a variety of scale formations, including ground and air elements, command and combat support units. The largest of these are the three Maritime Expeditionary Forces (MEF) - each consisting of 20000 to 90000 Marines with full 60-day support. The firepower of each of these is constituted by the ground and air elements of the three operating and one reserve divisions of the marines.
In combat service, combat units are consolidated into expeditionary brigades of marines (MEBs), numbering from 3000 to 20000 of marines provided for on 30 days of combat. The smallest formation, designed for long-term raids and urgent operations, is the expeditionary detachment (MEU). The standard composition consists of marines 1500-3000, provided with everything necessary for 15 days and placed on board the landing craft of the expeditionary strike group. Under the command of his colonel, MEU performs a wide range of tasks in amphibious operations, including local hostilities, peacekeeping, security and stability. Thus, the 2800 marines of the 13 Expeditionary Force are currently engaged in operations in Afghanistan and Iraq.
The regiment of the marine corps includes a headquarters, a staff company, three MP battalions and an anti-tank platoon with a TNUX 24.
The artillery regiment includes a headquarters, a staff battery, an instrumentation reconnaissance battery, and five artillery battalions. It is intended for fire support of the forces of the marines.
A battalion of marines in LAV combat vehicles consists of a headquarters, a company headquarters and service company, three assault companies and a company of weapons. In the battalion about 1 thousand people. The battalion is armed with 145 combat vehicles in the variants of infantry fighting vehicles, self-propelled guns, mortars, ATU "Toy", anti-aircraft self-propelled guns, command and staff vehicles, etc.
The tank battalion consists of a headquarters and a staff company, four tank companies and an anti-tank company. He is the strike force of the MP division. In total, the battalion is about 1 thousand people. The battalion is armed with 70 tanks М60А1 and 72 PTU ATGM "Toy".
The reconnaissance battalion includes a headquarters, a staff company and three reconnaissance companies. The total number of personnel about 450 people. The battalion is intended for conducting tactical reconnaissance in the areas of the landing of the landing force and providing intelligence information to the command of the division. The battalion is capable of allocating up to 48 reconnaissance groups of four each.
The battalion of floating armored personnel carriers consists of a headquarters, a staff company and four mouths of floating armored personnel carriers. In total, the 208 battalion has floating LVT-7 armored personnel carriers of various purposes.
The engineering battalion includes a staff and service company, an engineering company and four sapper companies. He provides engineering and engineer support for combat operations of the Marine Division. In total in the battalion more than 900 people.
The light infantry battalion includes 110 LAV combat vehicles in various variants (56 BMP, 8 self-propelled mortars, 16 ATGM, 8 control machines, 16 engineering, 6 repair). With the entry into service of the marine LAV vehicles in the version of self-propelled guns, the number of vehicles in the battalion will be brought to 150.
The units strengthening the regular forces of the marines of the Atlantic and Pacific fleets include:
3 communications battalion,
battalion of military police,
service battalion of the headquarters of the naval forces of the Marine Corps,
intelligence companies, etc.
These units are used to strengthen expeditionary formations created in accordance with the operational organization.
Aviation of the marines is a component of the marines and is designed to support its ground forces during the landing and during combat operations on the coast.
The aviation of the Marine Corps is equipped with aircraft and helicopters that can be used both from coastal airfields and from aircraft carriers, universal landing ships, helicopter assault carriers, etc. The regular naval aviation forces include 1100 combat aircraft and helicopters organized in three aviation wing, including groups and squadrons. The 2 aircraft wing is assigned to the Atlantic fleet and is based on marine airborne bases in the states of North Carolina and South Carolina. 1-e and 3-e-wings belong to the Pacific Fleet and are stationed: 1-e - at the airborne bases of the marines in Japan, 3-e - at the air bases in the state of California.
The main tactical unit of the Marine Corps is the wing designed for joint operations with the Marine Corps Division.
The aviation wing includes: headquarters, two or three aviation groups, one or two groups of transport assault helicopters, an aviation control group, a service group, squadrons - headquarters, reconnaissance, electronic warfare, and refueling aircraft. The number of personnel of the wing can reach 17 thousand people, and the number of combat aircraft and helicopters - up to 400 units.
The aviation group includes a squadron of staff and service, basic service and four or five assault and fighter-assault squadrons.
The Marine Corps pilots fly F / A-18C / D Hornet attack aircraft, AV-8B Harrier II shortened / vertical take-off and landing attack aircraft, MV-22s, CH-53E transport helicopters, universal UH-1 helicopters and combat helicopter helicopters and helicopters. . The MAGTF Air Force also receives support from the EW EA-1B and EA-6G aircraft used in conjunction with the Navy.
The assault squadrons are armed with X-NUMX A-20E Intruder, A-6M Skyhawk or AV-4A / AV-8B Harrier, and in Fighter-Assault - 8 F-15J, F-XNXXX F-4J, F-4B fighter-assault fighters - with 2 F-18J, F-XNMXB F-130B. »XNUMX, F / A-XNUMX Hornet and KC-XNUMX transporters.
Together with the Navy, Air Force and the forces of friendly states, the marines participate in the creation of the F-35, which is expected to be transferred to some squadrons of the marines to replace the outdated Hornet, and the modification with vertical takeoff and landing will replace Harrier.
The group of transport and assault helicopters is intended for the transfer of personnel, weapons and weapons and military equipment from ships to shore, as well as for providing direct fire support to land forces of the landing force. The group, as a rule, includes squadrons of headquarters and services, basic services, three or four squadrons of transport-assault helicopters (CH-53 Super Starner, CH-53D C Steelner, CH-46F C Nite, UH -1N "Iroquois" - up to 100 units), squadron of fire support helicopters (24AH-1J, T "Sea Cobra") and reconnaissance-correction squadron (18 of OV-10 "Bronco" and 12 UH-IE helicopters and IH-IE "and IH-IE helicopters and IH-IE" XIUMX-J, XNUMX, T-C X Cobra) ).
The aviation wing has two squadrons of the RF-4B Phantom-2 reconnaissance aircraft and the Prowler EW-6B Prowler aircraft, which conduct visual and photo reconnaissance, detect and suppress the operation of the enemy's electronic defense equipment.
A squadron of tanker aircraft (12 KC-130F “Hercules”) carries out refueling of airplanes in the air, as well as transporting personnel and military equipment.
The Marine Corps Reserve includes the 4 Division, the reinforcement units, the 4 Aviation Wing, and the 4 Division logistics services. The reserve units and units are located in the US 45 states. The headquarters of the division, aviation wing and rear service groups are based in New Orleans.
The combat use of marines is envisaged as part of the operational formations: expeditionary divisions, expeditionary brigades, expeditionary battalions.
The Expeditionary Division, totaling over 50 thousand, is the operational unit of the marines and includes:
rear service unit and gain unit.
An expedition brigade with a total strength of over 16 thousand people is a tactical formation and consists of a regimental assault group (from two to five battalions of marines with reinforcement subunits), a mixed aviation group and a rear support brigade group. The Ebrmp five-battalion armament can be equipped with up to 53 tanks М60А1, up to 60 guns of field artillery, over 200 launchers of an ATGM "Toy" and "Dragon", over 200 airplanes and helicopters, up to 100 floating armored personnel carriers, etc.
An expeditionary battalion of up to 2500 people is a tactical unit and includes a battalion paratroop unit (a marine battalion with reinforcement units), a mixed air squadron and a rear service battalion unit. Main ebrmp arms may include: 5 M60A1 tanks, 6 field artillery guns, 40 launchers PTUR «Toy» and "Dragon", to 10 helicopters (or until 6 "Harrier" aircraft) to 14 floating APCs et al.
The command of the marines pays great attention to the combat training of combat and reserve units and units. In particular, annually up to the 10 battalions of the marines participate in divisional exercises in the Marine Corps Training Center in the state of California, where the issues of conducting combat operations in the theater of operations are practically worked out. Each year, around 10, thousands of marines are trained in arctic, highland conditions and up to two battalions in jungle conditions.
To study the theater of operations, a six-month maritime infantry unit on Okinawa is being used as part of the 3 Expeditionary Division.
Under peacetime conditions, the marines' expeditionary battalion is an integral component of the advanced US Navy groupings of the 6 and 7 fleets in the Mediterranean Sea and in the western part of the Pacific Ocean. Periodically, the expeditionary battalion of marines is on amphibious ships in the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean.
Expeditionary formations of the marine corps are being transferred to various regions of the globe by amphibious ships, which are consolidated into independent formations that are part of operational fleets. As part of the regular US Navy there are about 70 amphibious ships (universal amphibious ships, helicopter carriers, ships-docks, tank landing, etc.) capable of carrying out simultaneous delivery and disembarkation on the unequipped coast about one and a half marine expedition divisions.
To support the combat operations of the three marines ’expeditionary brigades, military equipment and weapons and military equipment are stored in advance in three squadrons of warehouses deployed in the East Atlantic, Indian Ocean and Western Pacific. It is assumed that in the event of a conflict, the personnel of these brigades will be transferred by BTA aircraft of the US Air Force to the territory of the allied US countries, where they will make the transition and the ships-warehouses.
In order to create units and units of marines with high fire and strike power, tactical mobility, capable of conducting successful military operations in the context of the use of conventional, nuclear and chemical weapons, the United States is upgrading all components of the marines.
Small arms used by US marines
Rifles and rifles
- XM22 / E1
- Mk 16 / 17 Mod 0 (FN SCAR)
- M4 / A1 / E2
- M27 IAR Infantry Automatic Rifle
- Colt M1911
- M9 / A1 Beretta 92
- Mk 24
- M24 (XM2010)
- M82 and M107
To turn to the soldier’s private marines is to insult him. Only “Marine” is accepted. Juniors in their rank turn to elders, except for officers, calling the rank and surname completely.
The officers of the lower ranks look like this: men - sir (sir), women - ma'am (ma'am). But during the initial training period, recruits turn to all the other “sir” (or “ma'am”) servicemen.
Initial maritime training takes place in training centers, where, during 11 weeks, a young warrior’s course is worked out, including the study of personal weapons, communications, history, traditions of the marines and legal issues of military service, as well as physical, combat and rifle training and exercises field conditions. Recruits from the Eastern Region (east of the Mississippi River) come to the training center in Parris Island, and from the Western Region to San Diego. The Eastern Region includes the 1, 4, and 6 areas of the marines, and the Western region includes the 8, 9, and 12 areas. From six to ten recruits are recruited in each district.
The standard marine contract provides that it will serve four years in regular units and another four years in reserve. Marines can choose between a service in a conventional reserve, during which they regularly undergo military training and receive a salary, and a service in reserve self-preparedness. Recently, however, the “active” reserve has been chosen less frequently. The corps has a shortage of communications and intelligence specialists, as well as engineers and military police.
The uniform is used to distinguish marines from employees of other branches of the US Armed Forces. The body is true to tradition, and therefore has the most recognizable uniform: the blue (Dress Blues) is associated with the beginning of the 19th century, and the service uniform (Service Uniform) - with the beginning of the 20th. Their uniforms are simple, they do not wear stripes of US units and flags or personalized ribbons (with some exceptions). There are three main types of uniforms:
The only uniform in the US Armed Forces, which has all three colors of the American flag, is designed to be worn in a formal setting and during ceremonies (this uniform is worn by recruit recruiters and is often found on campaign posters). Three types of this uniform are used: Blue (blue, the most common), Blue-White (blue with white, summer) and Evening (for formal occasions). Officers (or non-commissioned officers) may wear a dagger (Mameluke Sword, a for non-commissioned officers of the NCO Sword) with this uniform.
Green is designed to be worn during service at the location (currently, is widely replaced in this role with Utility Uniform) and in formal, but not ceremonial, occasions. With this uniform, marines can wear both their caps and caps.
Designed to be worn in the field and while on duty at the location. MCCUU (Marine Corps Combat Utility Uniform) MARPAT (Marine Pattern) consists of camouflage trousers (trousers) and a jacket (blouse) of one of the approved colors (for wooded (woodland - green / brown / black) or desert (desert - tan / brown / gray), MCCB (Marine Corps Combat Boots) suede brown boots, belt, and olive jersey. In the summertime arrangement, the sleeves of the uniform roll up tightly to the biceps with the bright side out (serving other United States military branches of arms. camouflage was on top), forming a neat cuff. Used as a headdress The octagonal cap (“confederate”), which is different from that used in the Army, is cut and a way of wearing, and wearing a Panama (boonie hat) with the emblem of the front embroidered in front (a metal emblem was used) is also allowed. Previously, wearing this uniform, unlike Dress and Service , outside the base, with the exception of some cases, is prohibited.
The US Marine Corps is actively involved in all US military operations.